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COPYRIGHT  1915,  1919,  1920,  1921,  1923 



HOUSEKEEPING  is  not  only  the  oldest,  most  fundamental 
and  complex  of  all  professions,  but  modern  success  in  it  is 
more  difficult  to  attain  than  success  in  factory,  warehouse, 
transportation  or  shop,  because  it  must  be  attained  by  women  work- 
ing alone,  and  with  many  purposes.     Men  in  work  and  play  have 
specialized  in  groups  along  a  single  path,  for  a  single  end.    Women 
have  specialized  not  as  a  group,  but  as  individuals  along  all  paths, 
for  many  ends. 

There  are  six  distinct  classes  of  activities:  production,  trans- 
portation, manufacture,  storage,  exchange  and  personal  service. 
The  boy  is  prepared  for  1  5  years  or  more  to  co-operate  witn  otners 
in  mastering  one  particular  part  of  one  of  these  activities.  A  man 
will  give  his  life  to  the  specialization  and  standardization  of  the 
methods  and  tools  for  a  single  oft  repeated  operation.  Housekeep- 
ing, if  a  kitchen  garden  or  milking  is  included,  covers  all  six  activ- 
ities. Often  without  preparation  a  young  woman  working  alone, 
without  the  discipline  of  the  group,  expects  to  be  an  adept  in  all  six 
fields  and  in  all  parts  of  each  field  at  once! 

Mrs.  Frederick  has  succeeded  in  specializing  and  standardizing 
the  tools  and  methods  for  the  many  ever  changing  occupations  of 
the  home.  This  was  an  exceedingly  difficult  undertaking  which 
she  has  admirably  completed. 

Man  is  irresponsible,  woman  is  deeply  responsible  and,  there- 
fore, she  evolved  and  built  all  the  foundations  of  civilization  and 
still  holds  onto  them  in  her  life.  These  foundations  are  home,  cook- 
ing, textiles,  pottery,  storage,  manufacturing,  music,  language,  medi- 
cine and  teaching.  But  man,  like  a  boy  growing  beyond  his  mother's 
size,  strength,  experience,  energy,  authority,  has  usurped  all  that 
woman  has  developed,  even  to  the  feeding  of  babies  with  his  modified 
food,  and  by  his  methods  applied  to  her  inventions  has  enormously 

increased  and  cheapened  the  product  through  group  endeavor  and 
through  labor-saving  equipment.  Thus,  man  and  woman  have 
parted  company  industrially.  Man  may  be  at  fault  because  he 
rushed  impetuously  ahead,  woman  may  be  at  fault  because  she  has 
held  too  long  to  the  old. 

For  women  to  gain  a  grip  on  the  new  the  point  of  view  must  be 
changed.  Therefore,  earnest,  high-minded,  self-sacrificing,  progres- 
sive women  who  have  the  privilege  of  this  course,  so  thoroughly 
covering  so  great  a  problem,  should  come  to  it  with  the  new  point 
of  view.  They  must  learn  to  waive  a  hundred  instincts  and  prej- 
udices they  do  not  even  know  they  possess,  constantly  and  con- 
tinuously asking  themselves  "Why?" — weighing  the  real  value  of 
what  is  relinquished  against  the  gain  in  efficiency,  time  and  self- 

There  are  many  ideals  in  homekeeping.  Mrs.  Frederick's 
methods  are  good  for  all  ideals,  but  because  she  has  made  work 
easier,  do  not  add  another  half  dozen  ideals!  I  remember  when 
sewing  machines  were  first  introduced ;  they  made  the  running  of  long 
tucks  one  hundred  times  easier.  But  this  was  made  a  reason  for 
making  seventy  times  as  many  tucks !  Because  Household  Engineer- 
ing makes  tasks  as  formerly  done  much  easier,  do  not  take  on  a 
great  deal  more  "unessential"  work. 

The  World  War  was  fought  with  woman's  direct  help,  women 
doing  the  work  of  men  successfully  because  they  followed  the  labor- 
saving  principles  of  work  established  by  men.  Let  women  introduce 
these  same  principles  into  the  work  of  the  home  and,  thus,  similarly 
make  a  success  of  their  work  as  they  have  so  signally  done  with 
men's  work.  This  text  is  the  manual  which  will  point  the  way  to 
a  modern,  successful  solution. 


Author  of  "The  Twelve  Principles  of  Efficiency,"  Etc. 

NOTHING  is  more  worth  while  than  bringing  efficiency  into 
the  home.    When  housekeeping  becomes  a  science,  as  well  as 
an  art,  when  it  is  based  on  measurement — then  it  becomes 
worthy  of  the  best  brains  and  highest  endeavor.     Mrs.  Frederick 
has  rendered  a  real  service  to  this  country,  in  that  she  has  eliminated 
from  housework  that  monotony  that  comes  from  doing  uninteresting 
and  repetitive  work  without  an  incentive,  and  in  that  she  has  seen 
the  necessity  for  making  the  home  a  laboratory, —  a  training  school 
for  the  women  and  children  in  it,  and  perhaps  an  example  to  the  men. 

Every  reader  of  her  book  will  find  not  only  concrete  directions 
as  to  how  to  make  housework  stimulating,  productive  and  con- 
structive, but  also  a  method  of  attack  that  applies  to  all  problems  of 
any  life — whatever  they  may  be. 


Consulting  Engineer. 
Author  of  "Fatigue  Studies,"  "Motion  Study,"  Etc.,  Etc. 

Dedicated  to 

to  whose  encouragement  and 

progressive  leadership  in  reaching  the 

mass  of  American  homemakers  with 

the  gospel  of  home  efficiency 

1  owe  much  inspiration 



A  PERSONAL  INTRODUCTION  .         .         .         .         .  .7 

I.    THE  LABOR-SAVING  KITCHEN     .     ,    .         .         .         .  19 

II.    PLANS  AND  METHODS  FOR  DAILY  HOUSEWORK        .  .      65 


IV.  METHODS  OF  CLEANING  .         .         .         .                 .  .     147 

V.    FOOD  PLANNING  FOR  THE  FAMILY      .  179 


VII.     FAMILY  FINANCING  AND  RECORD-KEEPING        .         .  265 



X.    MANAGEMENT  OF  HOUSEWORKERS    .  .      .         .         .  .     4*9 

XI.     PLANNING  THE  EFFICIENT  HOME      ...  449 

XII.    HEALTH  AND  PERSONAL  EFFICIENCY      .         .         .  .481 

BIBLIOGRAPHY    ...        .  *.     .         .         .         .  517 

INDEX    .        .        .,.".'.        .        .        .        .  .    521 



SEVERAL  years  ago  I  faced  the  problem  which  con- 
fronts many  young  mothers — how  to  do  my  housework 
and  care  for  two  small  children,  and  yet  have  any  time 
for  myself  or  outside  interests. 

I  had  managed  my  mother's  home  at  different  periods 
and  really  liked  housework,  especially  cooking.  But  now  it 
was  a  daily  struggle  to  "get  ahead"  of  household  drudgery. 
Try  as  I  would,  there  seemed  so  many  tasks  to  do,  so  many 
steps  to  take,  and  so  many  matters  needing  my  attention 
and  supervision.  Just  as  I  felt  I  had  reduced  the  cleaning 
to  its  lowest  terms,  I  found  the  cooking  or  the  laundry 
work  or  the  mending  claiming  the  remainder  of  my  time. 
It  was  a  continuous  conflict  to  do  justice  to  all  the  house- 
work tasks,  and  yet  find  enough  time  for  the  children. 
And  between  it  all,  I  knew  I  was  not  doing  justice  to 
myself,  and  that  I  was  becoming  more  and  more  tired  out. 
Indeed,  I  was  often  without  much  energy  to  "dress  up"  in 
the  evening,  and  when  my  husband  came  home,  I  was 
generally  too  spiritless  to  enjoy  listening  to  his  story  of  the 
day's  work. 

Things  were  dragging  on  in  this  unsatisfactory  way  and 
I  was  becoming  more  and  more  discouraged  with  what 
seemed  my  lack  of  ability  to  manage  my  household  prob- 
lem. Occasionally  I  was  so  depressed  as  to  wish  that  I 
were  not  married  and  that  I  was  back  in  my  teaching 
"harness"  where  I  did  have  a  grip  on  things ! 

Just  about  this  time  my  husband's  work  brought  him  in 



touch  with  the  new  movement  called  "scientific  manage- 
ment," and  he  came  home  with  glowing  accounts  of  what 
it  was  accomplishing  in  the  various  shops,  offices  and  fac- 
tories where  it  was  being  followed.  In  fact,  he  and  his 
friends  (some  of  whom  were  pioneers  in  the  movement) 
talked  nothing  but  this  new  "efficiency  idea."  Because  I 
had  an  intuition  that  perhaps  in  this  new  idea  was  the  life- 
preserver  for  which  I  had  been  so  earnestly  searching  in 
my  own  problem,  I  listened  eagerly  to  their  discussion. 


I  found  that  the  purpose  of  scientific  management  was 
to  save  time  and  effort  and  to  make  things  run  more 
smoothly.  Its  object  was  to  short-cut  and  reduce  work  to 
such  a  system  that  the  shop  or  office  or  any  business  would 
be  managed  with  less  effort,  less  waste,  and  even  at  a 
lower  cost.  It  seemed  to  me  that  this  was  exactly  what 
my  aim  was  in  my  own  home,  only  I  had  all  this  time 
been  helpless  to  carry  it  out!  That  was  just  what  I  too 
wanted — some  plan  or  general  guiding  principles  that  would 
make  my  housework  easier,  more  successful  and  less 
expensive.  If  this  wonderful  new  "scientific  management" 
brings  about  such  result  in  other  businesses,  why  couldn't 
it  do  the  same  in  my  business  of  home-making? 

So  I  decided  to  learn  all  about  it  and  understand  it,  and 
I  went  for  help  to  my  husband  and  his  friends  who  were 
applying  the  new  idea  every  day. 

"If  this  new  efficiency  idea  is  all  you  claim,"  I  said  to 
them,  "and  can  be  followed  in  work  as  widely  different  as 
iron  foundries  and  shoe  factories,  I  don't  see  why  it  can't 
be  applied  to  housework  as  well.  You  men  have  made  me 
so  interested  in  it  that  I  want  to  try  it  in  my  own  home. 
But  first  I  want  you  'efficiency  engineers,'  as  you  call 
yourselves,  to  explain  the  idea  to  me  in  detail — the  why  and 


the  how  and  every  point  so  that  I  will  be  sure  that  I 
thoroughly  understand  it  before  I  attempt  to  put  it  into 
practice.  Will  you?" 


So  my  husband  and  other  efficiency  engineers  made  it 
clear  to  me,  and  I  found  that  scientific  management  was 
nothing  difficult  or  expensive  or  mysterious,  but  that  it 
was  a  plan,  or  guiding  set  of  twelve  principles,  as  follows : 

1.  Ideals.  7.  Despatching. 

2.  Common  Sense.  8.  Scheduling. 

3.  Competent    Counsel.  9.  Reliable  Records. 

4.  Standardized  Operations.  10.  Discipline. 

5.  Standardized   Conditions.  n.  Fair  Deal. 

6.  Standard  Practice.  12.  Efficiency  Reward. 

"There  is  this  first  principle  of  Ideals,"  they  explained. 
"When  we  go  into  a  factory  and  try  to  improve  the  work, 
the  first  thing  we  ask  the  owner  about  his  business  is, 
What  are  you  running  it  for?  The  reason  so  many  people 
are  not  making  a  success  of  their  business  is  because  they 
do  not  know  why  they  are  running  it.  Yet  ideals  are  the 
most  important  thing  to  have  in  any  work.  They  are  that 
'something'  that  controls  and  guides  the  whble  plan,  a  kind 
of  chart  they  are  trying  to  follow.  You  must  know  where 
you  want  to  go  before  trying  to  get  there. 

"Many  women  do  have  a  strong  ideal  in  their  home- 
making.  It  frequently  is  health  or  the  education  of  their 
children,  or  sometimes  only  a  spotless  house.  Think  of  the 
Strong  ideals  that  the  mother  of  Charles  Wesley  and  his 
brother  must  have  had  for  their  education  to  buoy  her  up 
in  all  those  years  of  poverty!  The  ideal  can  be  so  strong 
as  to  look  beyond  present  difficulties  and  discouragements 
and  make  work  a  success  in  spite  of  apparently  handicap- 


ping  conditions.  The  clearer  a  homemakers'  ideals,  the 
more .  bound  her  work  is  to  succeed.  Homemakers,  like 
other  managers,  must  know  what  they  are  striving  for. 


"Then  there  is  this  next  principle — Common  Sense,  which 
is  sometimes  only  a  homely  term  to  cover  some  of  the 
other  principles.  It  is  common  sense  to  be  sure  your  tools 
are  sharp  and  in  good  condition  before  you  start  work — 
and  it's  efficiency  as  well.  Competent  Counsel  means  expert 
advice.  We  efficiency  engineers  are  one  kind  of  competent 
counsel  because  our  past  experience  and  practice  makes  us 
'competent'  to  come  into  a  new  factory  and  suggest  better 
methods  and  plans.  Other  'counsel'  is  found  in  books,  and 
the  written  experiences  of  what  has  been  found  out  in  this 
or  that  field.  Even  the  most  successful  business  men  profit 
by  the  'counsel'  of  specialists  and  their  recorded  experi- 
ences in  solving  problems  in  other  lines.  Many  firms  employ 
such  paid  counsel  to  visit  their  branch  offices,  instruct  their 
salesmen,  help  their  dealers,  or  in  some  way  keep  the 
workmen  on  the  right  track.'* 

The  efficiency  engineers  continued  their  explanation  while 
I  listened  attentively. 


"Standardized  operations,  etc.,  sounds  formidable,  but 
you  will  see  clearly  what  the  next  three  points  mean.  For 
instance,  when  we  go  into  a  factory,  we  watch  the  men  at 
work,  we  see  what  motions  and  tools  they  use ;  then,  after 
repeated  experiments-  and  time  studies,  we  try  to  give  them 
standardized  or  definite  conditions  of  work,  and  show  them 
methods  or  standardized  operations.  This  means  working 
at  the  right  height,  with  the  right  tools,  under  the  best  con- 
ditions of  light,  ventilation  and  comfort,  with  the  least 


possible  waste  of  energy  and  time.  When  we  have  found 
out  this  best  and  shortest, — or  'standardized' — way,  we 
write  it  down,  and  these  instructions  of  just  how  to  do  a 
given  task  are  called  'standard  practice/  Then  all  the 
workmen  need  to  do  is  to  follow  these  instructions  and  they 
get  the  best  results/' 


"The  next  two  points  of  Despatching  and  Scheduling  are 
very  important,"  they  continued.  "You  see,  when  we  have 
determined  the  one  best  or  standard  way  to  do  any  task, 
we  are  not  quite  finished.  We  have  to  go  still  further  and 
find  the  best  order  of  work,  or  when  to  do  it,  as  well  as 
how  to  do  it. 

"Despatching  means  planning,  and  Scheduling  means  the 
carrying  out  of  that  plan.  You  know  how  they  despatch 
trains  on  schedule  time.  Suppose  a  train  leaves  Chicago  at 
8  P.  M.  and  arrives  at  St.  Louis  at  7  A.  M.  The  despatching 
consists  in  running  the  train  so  that  it  reaches  all  the  inter- 
vening stations — Peoria,  Springfield,  etc. — at  a  specified 
time.  The  schedule  is  the  1 1  hours  it  takes  to  make  the  trip. 
Work  in  a  factory  is  despatched  in  much  the  same  way. 
The  raw  material  enters  one  room  and  then  another  and  so 
on ;  or  the  workmen  take  up  first  one  task  and  then  another 
after  it  has  been  laid  out  in  definite  order  by  the  foreman. 
This  means  saved  time,  and  orderly,  unconfused  work. 

"There  is  a  great  deal  to  be  explained  about  Immediate, 
Accurate  and  Reliable  Records.  It  includes  ways  of  keep- 
ing information,  bills,  receipts,  addresses,  etc.,  so  that  no 
time  is  wasted  looking  for  a  piece  of  information  when 

"The  last  three  points — Discipline,  Fair  Deal  and  Effi- 
ciency Reward — taken  together,  refer  to  the  benefits  that 
scientific  management  brings  to  the  worker  himself.  It 


isn't  enough  to  make  work  shorter  and  easier  and  less 
wasteful — it  must  mean  more  happiness  and  even  more 
money  to  those  who  work.  In  shops  where  scientific  man- 
agement is  in  force,  there  have  been  few  strikes  and 
troubles.  Applied  to  the  home,  it  would  refer  of  course  to 
the  hired  worker  or  servant.  If  a  mistress  applied  the 
principles  of  Fair  Play,  for  instance,  to  her  help,  they 
wouldn't  leave  her  in  a  crisis,  perhaps,  as  they  do  now. 
And  if  she  used  the  principle  of  Efficiency  Reward,  she 
might  secure  from  them  that  something  over  and  above 
mere  work — that  "service  plus" — which  makes  any  employee 
really  valuable." 


After  I  had  grasped  this  brief  explanation  of  scientific 
management,  I  visited  factories  and  places  where  I  could 
see  the  principles  in  actual  operation,  so  as  to  make  it  even 
more  clear  in  my  mind. 

I  saw  the  marvelous  improvement  this  efficiency  idea  had 
brought  in  the  commonplace  task  of  laying  bricks,  which 
had  been  done  up  till  then  in  the  same  way  since  the  time 
of  the  Pharaohs.  In  all  history,  bricks  had  been  dumped 
in  a  mixed  pile  at  the  workmen's  feet.  Then  he  had  to 
stoop  his  entire  weight,  150  pounds  say,  each  time  to  pick 
up  a  4-pound  brick  before  he  set  it  in  place.  Think 
of  the  thousands  of  times  a  day  he  did  this  useless  stooping! 
Now,  when  the  efficiency  engineers  watched  bricklayers  at 
work,  they  saw  how  many  waste  motions  and  time  were 
lost  in  this  senseless  stooping;  so  they  devised  a  little  adjust- 
able table,  which  brought  the  bricks  in  an  orderly  pile  to 
the  worker's  side,  and  because  he  didn't  need  to  stoop  at 
all,  or  even  take  time  to  sort  the  bricks,  he  now  laid  350 
bricks  an  hour  where  before  he  could  lay  only  120,  besides 
working  with  far  less  fatigue  and  effort. 


Then  I  was  surprised  to  see  how  "common  sense"  and 
"standardized  conditions"  had  been  applied  in  a  cash  regis- 
ter factory.  It  had  been  the  habit  of  the  workmen  to  go 
every  morning  for  their  special  tools  to  lockers  at  the  end 
of  a  very  long  floor,  and  to  return  the  tools  there  in  the 
evening.  When  "competent  counsel"  efficiency  men  studied 
this  factory,  they  immediately  noticed  this  twice-a-day 
double  walk  across  the  floor,  with  resulting  confusion,  loss 
of  time,  and  talking.  This  waste  of  time  and  steps  was 
avoided  later  by  having  the  benches  of  each  worker  fitted 
with  small  drawers  and  cross-strips  to  accommodate  each 
man's  tools.  Then  the  moment  a  man  came  to  his  bench,  he 
could  start  work,  and  at  night  work  until  the  whistle  blew, 
which  meant  more  work  and  less  unnecessary  wasted  time. 

I  visited  another  instance  of  scientific  management  in  the 
shop  of  a  chemist  who  had  a  force  of  girls  packing  pills 
into  boxes.  Formerly  they  counted  out  a  hundred  pills  by 
hand,  at  the  rate  of  one  box  a  minute.  But  by  installing  a 
simple  little  device  which  automatically  counted  a  hundred 
pills  and  pushed  them  off  in  a  little  shovel  into  boxes  fed 
to  them  on  a  belt  underneath,  each  girl  was  now  able  to 
fill  twenty  boxes  a  minute  with  no  more  labor. 

Again,  I  saw  a  workman  in  an  envelope  factory  who 
had  been  considered  the  best  in  the  shop  because  he  could 
turn  out  the  largest  number*  of  envelopes  per  hour.  But 
when  the  efficiency  engineers  observed  him,  they  found 
that  he  took  four  cuts  to  each  paper,  thus  making  a  great 
deal  of  waste  and  expense.  By  finding  a  new  way  to  cut 
envelopes  with  only  three  cuts,  the  efficiency  engineers  saved 
tons  of  paper  and  thousands  of  dollars  for  the  firm  each 
year.  And  I  will  never  forget  the  increased  efficiency  which 
resulted  in  one  foundry  by  the  most  simple  little  change. 
Formerly  the  workers  used  small  shovels  which  meant  very 
frequent  stooping  to  dispose  of  a  given  pile  of  coal.  But 


by  studying  to  see  just  what  weight  and  shape  of  larger 
shovel  a  man  could  handle  most  easily,  and  yet  carry  the 
largest  load,  the  same  number  of  workers  were  able  with 
the  new  large  shovel  to  move  the  same  load  of  coal  in  one- 
third  the  time !  And  all  because  scientific  management  had 
studied  a  shovel! 


In  every  instance  I  saw  how  these  efficiency  principles 
were  saving  time,  and  effort,  and  money,  wherever  applied. 
The  more  I  saw  and  read,  the  more  certain  I  felt  that  they 
could  save  time  and  effort  and  money  in  my  business — the 
home.  There  was  the  point  of  height — didn't  I  with  hun- 
dreds of  women  stoop  unnecessarily  over  kitchen  tables  and 
sinks  and  ironing  boards  as  well  as  bricklayers  stoop  over 
bricks?  Couldn't  we  perhaps  standardize  dishwashing  by 
raising  the  height  of  the  sink  and  changing  other  conditions  ? 
Did  we  not  waste  time  and  needless  walking  in  poorly 
arranged  kitchens — taking  twenty  steps  to.  get  the  egg-beater 
when  it  could  have  been  hung  over  my  table,  just  as  effi- 
ciency insisted  the  workman's  tools  must  be  grouped? 
Couldn't  my  housework  train  be  despatched  from  station 
to  station,  from  task  to  task,  and  I  too  work  on  a  "schedule," 
or  definite  plan,  so  that  I  wouldn't  lose  time  in  thinking  what 
to  do  next  or  in  useless  interruptions? 

I  came  to  earnestly  believe  that  scientific  management 
could,  and  must,  solve  housework  problems  as  it  had  already 
solved  other  work  problems.  I  began  to  see  where  I  had 
been  losing  time — where  I  had  been  taking  waste  motions 
and  useless  steps — where  I  could  use  different  tools  and 
methods.  Formerly  I  had  been  doing  my  work  in  a  dead, 
mechanical  way,  but  now  every  little  task  was  a  new  and 
interesting  problem.  I  found  that  housework  was  just  as 
interesting  and  more  so  than  many  other  tasks  of  business. 


Every  day  I  tried  to  find  new  ways,  new  methods  and  new 
short  cuts  in  my  home  problems.  If  I  made  out  a  good 
schedule  of  work  for  one  week  I  tried  to  improve  on  it  for 
the  week  following.  No  housework  detail  was  too  small  or 
too  unimportant.  I  constantly  kept  in  mind  that  "shovel" 
which  had  cut  down  the  drudgery  of  coal  heaving  by  one- 
third  !  I  found  that  I,  too,  was  actually  doing  my  work 
in  almost  one- third  less  time,  without  any  extra  physical, 
and  with  far  less  nervous  effort.  I  found  that  I  could 
"despatch"  my  work,  that  I  could  "standardize"  it  to  a 
great  extent,  and  so  have  that  longed-for  "time  to  myself" 
some  part  of  the  day. 


But  by  far  the  best  result  of  all  that  came  was  the  con- 
fident "efficiency  attitude"  of  mind  which  I  developed.  No 
matter  how  hard  things  were — and  they  did  not  grow  per- 
fect all  at  once — I  had  that  inward'  feeling  that  they  would, 
and  should,  come  right  in  the  end.  I  felt  that  in  spite  of 
any  difficulty  or  trying  conditions,  that  I  could  master  my 
house  problems — that  there  were  solutions,  and  that  there 
was  no  such  word  as  "fail"  in  the  whole  language  of  scien- 
tific management.  I  cannot  express  how  much  poise  and 
determination  came  from  this  efficiency  attitude, — the  atti- 
tude of  being  superior  to  conditions,  of  having  faith  .in 
myself  and  in  my  work,  to  feel  that  it  was  drudgery  or 
degrading  only  if  I  allowed  myself  to  think  so.  I  felt  I  was 
working  hand  in  hand  with  the  efficiency  engineers  in  busi- 
ness, and  that  what  they  were  accomplishing  in  industry,  I 
too  was  accomplishing  in  the  home. 

I  kept  on  studying,  visiting  plants  and  factories,  and  get- 
ting in  touch  more  widely  with  the  movement.  Besides 
studying  myself,  I  got  friends  to  watch  themselves  at  work 
and  tell  me  the  results.  I  began  to  test  equipment  and 


household  apparatus  in  my  own  home  so  that  I  could  tell 
other  women  what  I  found  out.  I  remodeled  my  own 
kitchen  and  then  the  kitchens  of  friends.  Before  I  knew 
it,  I  became  a  "household  engineer,"  and  was  called  in  as 
"competent  counsel"  by  other  homemakers! 

I  was  so  enthusiastic  over  the  results  of  my  experiments 
that  I  wrote  four  articles  called  "The  New  Housekeeping" 
which  appeared  in  The  Ladies'  Home  Journal  of  1912.  The 
interest  from  them  was  so  great  that  I  later  brought  out 
the  same  material  in  book  form.  Since  then  the  application 
of  efficiency  principles  and  scientific  -  management  to  the 
home  has  been  more  widespread  than  I  ever  dared  hope  or 

I  have  had  literally  thousands  of  correspondents  among 
all  kinds  of  homemakers.  In  one  month  only  over  1,600 
women  wrote  me  for  information.  Sometimes  I  am  able 
to  help  them  with  suggestions  for  a  better  kitchen  arrange- 
ment. In  many  cases  I  lay  out  "schedules"  of  work.  Again, 
I  tell  them  about  the  new  tools  which  are  tested  every 
month  in  my  own  home,  Applecroft  Experiment  Station. 

Not  only  have  I  been  able  to  help  these  thousands  of 
correspondents,  but  they  have  helped  me  with  many  sug- 
gestions and  especially  to  understand  more  fully  the  prob- 
lems that  come  to  homemakers  in  all  sections.  Perhaps  it 
is  the  cost  of  living,  or  the  struggle  with  young  children,  or 
the  lack  of  conveniences,  or  again,  the  feeling  that  house- 
work is  drudgery.  I  have  tried  to  be  a  "competent  coun- 
sel," a  "household  engineer"  to  all  of  them,  and  do  for 
them  what  I  so  greatly  wished  someone  could  have  done  for 
me  in  my  former  housework  struggles. 


This  course  in  "Household  Engineering"  includes  in 
greater  detail  everything  given  in  my  book,  "The  New 


Housekeeping,"  and  all  the  help  and  suggestions  gathered 
from  constant  study  during  the  five  years  which  have 
elapsed  since  its  publication. 

My  correspondence  has  given  me  an  exceptionally  wide 
viewpoint;  and  in  this  course  I  have  tried  to  present  the 
whole  subject  of  the  application  of  scientific  management 
to  the  home  in  such  a  way  that  any  homemaker,  no  matter 
where  she  lives  or  what  her  home  conditions,  can  under- 
stand and  apply  it  to  the  solution  of  her  own  problems. 

I  want  you  who  take  this  course  to  feel  that  you  are  not 
working  alone  in  your  own  home  kitchen.  I  want  you  to 
feel  that  when  you  discover  new  methods  of  housework  and 
better  ways  of  management  that  you  can  receive  the  same 
recognition  that  a  scientist  or  business  investigator  receives. 
Do  not  think  you  are  working  out  the  problem  for  your  own 
home  only.  You  are  helping  solve  the  problems  of  count- 
less other  women  and  homes,  and  what  you  do  will  be  passed 
on,  and  help  build  up  a  great  mass  of  proved  knowledge  on 
housekeeping.  Is  not  housework  as  worth  while  studying 
as  the  shoveling  of  coal  ?  Is  not  housekeeping  the  biggest, 
the  most  essential  industry  of  all? 

I  am  confident  that  some  -of  you  who  take  this  course 
have  already  been  successfully  meeting  difficult  conditions. 
You  need  only  a  little  more  assistance  and  the  presentation 
of  this  new  viewpoint  to  become  a  household  engineer  your- 
self. All  my  efforts  would  be  useless  if  you  did  not  co- 
operate with  me  to  carry  out  scientific  management  in  your 
own  home.  I  want  your  help  and  interest  in  making  this 
course  a  mighty  success.  You  are  going  to  be  one  of  a 
great  band  of  women  investigators,  working  toward  the 
splendid  aim  of  putting  housework  on  a  standardized, 
professional  basis. 





WHEN  we  estimate  the  time  consumed  in  all  the  vari- 
ous tasks  of  the  home,  cleaning,  cooking,  serving 
meals,  laundry,  etc.,  we  find  that  about  70  per  cent 
of  the  housekeeper's  day  is  spent  in  and  about  the  kitchen. 
It  is  therefore  clear  that  any  plan  for  a  reorganization  of 
the  work  of  the  home  on  a  more  efficient  basis  must  begin 
with  a  careful  study  of  present  kitchen  conditions  and 
methods  of  work. 

What  is  a  kitchen?  It  is  a  place  for  the  preparation  of 
food.  All  unrelated  work,  such  as  laundry  work,  with  its 
particular  equipment,  should  be  kept  out  of  the  kitchen  as 
much  as  possible.  We  see  then  that  a  kitchen,  or  a  place 
merely  for  food  preparation,  can  be  much  smaller  than  was 
formerly  the  case  when  it  was  used  as  a  combined  sitting- 
room,  laundry  and  general  workshop. 

The  first  step  towards  reducing  time  spent  in  the  kitchen 
is  to  have  a  kitchen  small  and  compact,  without  loosely  con- 
nected pantries  and  cupboards.  The  small  kitchen  costs 
less  to  build,  but  even  more  important  to  the  worker,  the 
small  kitchen  saves  steps  by  concentrating  the  working 
processes.  It  should  be  slightly  oblong,  or  almost  square 
as  this  shape  permits  the  most  step-saving  arrangement  of 



the  main  equipment.  Good  sizes  are  9  by  n  feet;  n  by  13 
feet;  14  by  16  feet;  and  in  large  homes  with  service  and 
large  equipment,  18  by  18  feet. 

Formerly  much  more  storage  or  pantry  space  was  neces- 
sary than  today  when  more  frequent  marketing  is  possible. 
Also,  a  pantry  which  contains  the  pots,  pans  and  utensils 
needed  in  the  kitchen  causes  waste  motion  and  useless  steps. 
As  will  be  described  in  detail  later,  the  efficient  plan  is  to 
have  utensils  and  materials  grouped  close  to  the  surface 
where  they  are  actually  used. 

For  this  reason  particularly,  the  detached  kitchen  pantry 
is  giving  place  to  the  built-in  pantry  which  forms  an  integral 
part  of  the  kitchen,  and  to  the  portable  kitchen  cabinet 
which  sometimes  takes  its  place.  The  average  pantry  or 
cupboard  with  broad,  widely-separated,  and  high,  useless 
shelves  is  responsible  for  much  of  the  fatigue  and  trotting 
back  and  forth  of  the  worker.  An  improved  construction 
plan  would  be  to  take  some  of  the  pantry  space  and  use  it 
for  cupboards  and  shelves  built  into  the  kitchen  itself. 

If  the  family  is  small  and  has  simple  service,  only  a  very 
tiny  butler's  pantry  is  needed,  and  even  this  can  be  dis- 
pensed with.  The  more  direct  the  route  between  kitchen 
and  dining  room,  the  more  step-saving  and  easy  is  the 
serving  of  meals.  The  butler's  pantry  in  its  most  common 
location  between  dining-room  and  kitchen  has  the  two  good 
points  of  preventing  kitchen  odors  and  noises  from  disturb- 
ing the  dining  room,  and  of  storing  table  china.  But  with 
adequate  ventilation,  which  the  kitchen  should  have  in  any 
case,  simple  service  and  built-in  conveniences  for  china  in 
the  dining-room,  the  sole  reasons  for  the  .existence  of  the 
butler's  pantry  are  removed.  In  brief,  the  closer  the  con- 
nection between  kitchen  and  dining-room,  and  the  fewer  the 
detached  pantries  and  cupboards,  the  simpler  will  be  the 
processes  both  of  preparing  and  serving  food.' 



When  we  study  the  steps  entailed  in  food  preparation, 
we  find  that  work  in  the  kitchen  does  not  consist  of  inde- 
pendent, separate  acts,  but  of  a  series  of  inter- related  proc- 
esses. No  matter  whether  we  are  serving  a  six-course 
formal  luncheon,  or  a  simple  family  breakfast,  each  act  in 
food  preparation  is  part  of  a  distinct  process.  There  are 
just  two  of  these  processes:  (i)  PREPARING  FOOD,  and 
(2)  CLEARING  AWAY.  Each  of  them  has  (or  should  have) 
definite,  distinct  steps,  as  we  see  if  we  analyze  our  work 
from  the  time  preparation  of  food  is  started  to  the  moment 
when  the  last  dish  is  washed  and  laid  away. 

The  steps  in  the  preparing  process  are : 

(1)  Raw  materials  taken   from   storage,   refrigerator 
or  pantry  to 

(2)  Preparing  surface  where  they  are  beaten,  mixed, 
or  put  in  condition  to  place  on 

(3)  Cooking  surface  or  in  cooking  device.    When  fin- 
nished,  placed  on 

(4)  Serving  surface  (table  or  tray)  on  which  hot  food 
is  laid  and  given  final  touches  before  being  sent 
to  the  table. 

In  other  words,  we  (i)  COLLECT,  (2)  PREPARE,  (3)  COOK, 
and  (4)  SERVE  food  materials  according  to  these  definite 
steps,  even  with  so  simple  a  task  as  boiling  an  egg. 

The  steps  in  the  clearing  away  process  are : 

(1)  Remove  soiled  dishes  and  utensils   from  dining- 

(2)  Stack  and  scrape  them  to  right  of  sink. 

(3)  Wash,  drain  and  wipe. 

(4)  Lay  away  in  respective  closets  and  shelves. 



In  other  words,  we  (i)  REMOVE,  (2)  SCRAPE,  (3)  WASH, 
and  (4)  LAY  AWAY  dishes  and  utensils  according  to  these 
definite  steps,  in  this  definite  order  at  every  meal. 

It  therefore  follows  that  the  equipment  connected  with 
these  two  processes  and  their  respective  chain  of  steps 
should  be  arranged  in  a  corresponding  order.  This  prin- 



A.   Preparing   route.     B.   Clearing   away   route. 

ciple  of  arranging  and  grouping  equipment  to  meet  the 
actual  order  of  work  is  the  basis  of  kitchen  efficiency.  In 
other  words,  we  cannot  leave  the  placing  of  the  sink,  stove, 
doors  and  cupboards  entirely  to  the  architect.  The  reason 


why  so  many  kitchens  are  work-making  is  solely  because 
both  the  fixed  and  portable  equipment  are  riot  placed  in 
right  relation  to  all  kitchen  processes.  Instead,  equipment 
is  commonly  placed  wherever  there  happens  to  be  space  left 
after  cutting  in  all  the  doors  and  windows. 


~  TABLE/ 


Again  considering  the  two  kitchen  processes,  (a)  PRE- 
PARING and  (b)  CLEARING  AWAY,  we  note  that  a  definite 
piece  of  equipment  corresponds  to  each  definite  step,  as 
follows : 


(a)  Preparing  Process 

(1)  Storage, — pantry,  refrigerator,  ice-box,  etc. 

(2)  Table  or  kitchen  cabinet  surface. 

(3)  Stove  or  other  cooking  equipment. 

(4)  Table,  tray  on  wheels,  or  other  serving  surface. 

(b)  Clearing  Away  Process 

(1)  Stack  surface  to  right  of  sink. 

(2)  Sink. 

(3)  Drain  surface  to  left  of  sink. 

(4)  Adjacent  closets  and  shelves  to  left  of  drain. 

If  the  storage,  stove,  tables,  sinks,  etc.,  are  arranged  after 
this  fundamental  order,  the  work  will  proceed  in  a  pro- 
gressive, step-saving  track,  or  "routing,"  as  the  efficiency 
engineer  calls  work  which  proceeds  in  a  consecutive,  orderly 

A.  Preparing  route.     B.  Clearing  away  route. 




manner.  If  the  equipment  is  not  arranged  on  this  principle, 
the  result  will  be  cross-tracking,  useless  steps  and  waste 
energy  in  all  kitchen  work.  On  pages  22  and  23  are  given 
two  diagrams  which  clearly  illustrate  the  efficient  versus  the 
drudgifying  kitchen  arrangement. 

The  "routing"  or  step-saving  method  of  kitchen  arrange- 
ment requires  separate  surfaces  for  each  process.  The  old 
and  commonly  followed  plan  is  to  have  one  "kitchen  table" 
at  which  preparing  is  done,  hot  dishes  set  down,  soiled 
dishes  from  the  dining-room  dumped,  etc.  This  results  in 
a  double  or  triple  handling  of  utensils  and  dishes  besides 
unnecessary  steps  back  and  forth. 

For  instance,  if  one  kitchen  table  in  the  center  of  the 
room  be  used  as  the  surface  on  which  to  make  a  pie  and 
also  as  the  surface  on  which  to  lay  the  hot  pie  when  baked, 
and  also  as  the  surface  on  which  to  lay  the  soiled  dining- 
room  dishes,  let  us  see  what  happens.  The  egg-beater, 
bowls,  pie-tin,  etc.,  as  well  as  lard,  flour,  etc.,  must  be 
brought  from  their  respective  permanent  places  to  the  table. 



After  they  are  used,  each  article  has  to  be  taken  back ;  the 
pie  when  finished,  is  carried  several  steps  from  stove  to 
table.  The  soiled  dishes  brought  from  dining  room  are  laid 
first  on  this  table  and  then  require  a  second  handling  to 
take  them  to  the  sink  where  they  are  ultimately  washed. 
Contrast  the  different  handlings  and  walking  required  by 
this  arrangement  with  the  same  work  if  done  under  the 
efficient  arrangement  given  in  the  first  diagram.  At  the 
preparing  table  is  everything  necessary  for  making  the  pie 
with  the  exception  of  raw  materials  which  are  kept  in 
adjacent  refrigerator,  hence  there  is  no  walking  to  gather 
materials  and  utensils  together.  When  the  pie  is  finished,  it 
is  laid  with  a  single  motion  on  the  serving  surface  to  the 
right  of  stove.  Soiled  dishes,  instead  of  being  dumped  on 


OF    A    LARGE    HOUSE 




center  table,  are  directely  "routed"  to  the  right  of  sink  with 
but  a  single  trip  and  a  single  handling. 

No  one  surface  can  serve  for  several  processes  without 
resulting  in  extra  handling,  extra  walking  and  confused 

In  addition,  the  kind  of  material  needed  to  cover  the  pre- 
paring surface  or  table,  is  generally  quite  different  from 
that  on  which  hot  pots  can  be  placed  safely.  The  preparing 
surface  can  be  made  of  any  impervious  material,  but  the 
serving  surface  demands  a  metal,  heat-resisting  covering. 

It  is  much  better  to  have  several  small  surfaces  for  each 
different  process  or  special  work,  than  to  have  one  large 
surface  on  which  miscellaneous  work  is  performed.  For 


instance,  it  is  more  efficient  to  have  a  small  special  surface 
on  which  to  clean  vegetables  near  the  sink  (where  they  must 
be  washed)  than  it  is  to  prepare  them  on  a  general  "catch- 
all"  table  which  will  necessitate  a  trip  with  them  back 
to  the  sink.  If  preparing  is  always  done  at  one  place,  serv- 
ing at  another,  soiled  dishes  laid  on  a  definite  unalterable 
surface  to  the  right  of  the  sink — there  will  be  less  con- 
fusion, less  handling  and  consequently  less  waste  time. 


Many  housekeepers,  even  when  won  over  to  the  worth 
of  scientific  grouping  of  equipment,  seem  to  think  it  impos- 
sible to  alter  wrong  arrangements  in  their  present  already- 
built  or  rented  homes.  But  a  little  study  will  show  that 
even  the  most  inconvenient  kitchen  can  be  made  step-saving. 

If  the  stove  and  flue  must  be  permanent  in  their  present 
position,  the  stove  can  be  used  as  the  pivot  to  which  the 
entire  plan  can  be  adapted,  still  keeping  the  right  order  of 

The  sink  and  plumbing  connections  can  even  be  radically 
changed  without  too  great  expense  or  interference  with 
other  systems  in  the  house  construction. 

Tables  can  most  easily  be  moved  into  the  right  position ; 
or  a  tray  table  on  wheels  can  act  as  a  stacking  surface  for 
the  sink  if  the  sink  is  tightly  jammed  into  a  corner, 
or  as  a  serving  surface  to  the  right  of  the  stove  in  cases 
where  space  is  at  a  premium. 

Sometimes  a  few  shelves  over  the  kitchen  table,  near 
the  sink  or  the  stove,  will  replace  the  inconvenient  shelves 
of  detached  pantries ;  or  two-inch  strips  on  which  to  hang 
pots  and  small  utensils  will  enable  the  idea  of  grouping  to 
be  followed  out  so  that  the  kitchen  approximates  the  ideal, 
step-saving  plan.  Often  a  portable  kitchen  cabinet,  rightly 
placed,  will  effect  a  great  improvement 



The  same  principle  of  grouping  already  applied  to  the 
fixed  equipment  (stove,  sink,  tables,  etc.)  must  also  be 
applied  to  the  placing  of  the  small,  portable  equipment 
The  old  idea  of  keeping  pots  and  pans  out  of  sight,  or  of 
putting  bowls  and  kitchen  china  in  a  separate  closet  from 
that  containing  groceries  or  utensils,  is  opposed  to  the  effi- 
ciency idea  which  insists  that  bowls,  pots,  and  all  utensils 
shall  be  permanently  grouped  at  the  place  where  they  are 
used.  Any  other  plan  or  arrangement  is  step-taking  and 

Concretely,  if  the  egg-beater,  mixing-bowl  and  nutmeg 
grater  are  used  invariably  at  the  preparing  table,  then  near 
this  surface  they  should  be  placed  or  hung.  If  frying-pans, 
soup-skimmers  and  ladles  are  always  needed  near  the  stove, 
near  the  stove  they  must  be  grouped.  If  can-opener,  vegeta- 
ble knife  and  apple  corer  are  always  needed  near  the  sink, 
then  near  the  sink  they  must  be  hung.  Not  until  a  close 
time  study  is  made  of  the  actual  number  of  steps  taken  in 
each  small  kitchen  task  is  it  possible  to  realize  the  great 
amount  of  "waste  motion"  caused  by  failure  to  group  the 
small  equipment  Why  walk  ten  feet  across  the  kitchen  to  a 
distant  pantry  for  the  tea  caddy  when  both  the  tea-pot  and 
tea-caddy  can  be  grouped  near  the  stove  where  tea  is  always 
made?  Why  walk  eight  feet  to  a  kitchen  table  and  eight 
feet  back  again  for  the  breadknife  which  is  always  needed 
near  the  breadbox  kept  on  the  cabinet  across  the  room? 

Articles  should  be  grouped  and  placed  nearest  the  sur- 
faces on  which  they  are  used.  Saucepans  which  must 
always  be  filled  with  water  before  being  carried  to  the 
stove,  belong  near  the  sink  to  save  steps  in  filling.  Supply 
of  clean  dish-towels  belong  as  near  the  sink  as  possible. 
All  the  distinctive  dishwashing  accessories  and  cleansing 
preparations  also  have  their  place  near  the  sink. 



On  the  other  hand,  there  is  a  very  large  number  of  small 
pieces — muffin  and  cake  tins,  moulds,  meat  chopper,  meas- 
uring cup,  funnels,  etc.,  etc.,  which  peculiarly  belong  to  the 
preparing  table  or  surface. 

Others  belong  more  especially  to  the   serving  surface 
where  the  final  touches  of  mashing,  straining,  etc.,  are  given 
foods  as  they  are  removed  from  the  stove. 

The  old  idea  of  keeping  dry  cereals,  sugar,  spices,  flavor- 
ings and  currently  used  canned  goods,  in  a  far-away  cup- 
board is  also  giving  way  before  the  efficiency  grouping  idea. 
If  these  materials  are  needed  in  the  daily  work  of  seasoning, 
baking,  and  other  cooking,  they  too  must  be  grouped  near 
the  preparing  table,  or  the  stove  where  they  are  used.  The 
exact  place  for  every  piece  of  equipment  can  easily  be 
determined  by  asking,  "Where  do  I  actually  use  and  need 
this  article  most?" 

A  "time-study"  made  of  any  particular  task  under  two 
sets  of  conditions  will  show  surprising  differences  in  time 
and  number  of  steps  required.  The  arrangement  of  the 
main  equipment  and  the  grouping  of  the  small  tools  will  be 
found  very  greatly  to  lengthen  or  shorten  each  task.  Below 
is  given  the  result  of  such  a  time-study  of  the  simple  task 
of  preparing  boiled  potatoes  under  two  varying  arrange- 
ments of  equipment. 

In  Study  I,  the  pot  was  kept  in  the  pot-closet;  the  knife 
was  kept  in  a  drawer  in  the  pantry ;  there  was  no  special 
garbage  arrangement. 

In  Study  2,  the  pot  was  kept  on  the  shelf  adjacent  to  the 
sink ;  the  knife  was  kept  on  a  nail  at  the  vegetable  prepar- 
ing surface  near  the  sink;  garbage  pail  was  lifted  on  a 
shelf  with  the  circular  opening  above  as  illustrated  on 
page  32.  Position  of  storage  and  stove  was  the  same  in 
both  cases. 


Paring    directly    or    scraping    dishes    into    pail    underneath    saves    soiling    any 

surface.      Note    knives,    parers,    graters,    etc.,    directly    above    working 

surface.     (The  opening  as  shown  is  too  large;  should  be  about 

eight  inches-.) 





STUDY  i.      i.  Walk  to  storage. 

2.  Return  from  storage  with  small  basket  of  potatoes, 

and  lay  on  kitchen  table. 

3.  Walk  from  table  to  pot-closet  for  pot. 

4.  Return  from  pot-closet  to  table,  on  which  lay  pot. 

5.  Walk  from  table  to  pantry  drawer  for  knife. 

6.  Return  from  pantry  with  knife. 

7.  Peel  potatoes  on  table  surface. 

8.  Take  pot  of  potatoes  in  hand  and  walk  to  sink. 

9.  Wash  potatoes  and  fill  pot  with  water. 
10.  Walk  from  sink  to  stove  and  lay  pot  on. 

n.  Walk  from  stove  to  table,  place  refuse  in  basket. 

12.  Walk    from   table   to   sink   with   refuse   and   empty 

same  into  garbage  pail  on  floor. 

13.  Take  scrub  cloth  from  sink  to  table,  wipe  up  same. 

14.  Return  with  soiled  cloth  and  knife  to  sink. 

15.  Wash  cloth,  hang  up.     Wash  knife. 

16.  Walk  from  sink  to  pantry  drawer  to  replace  knife. 

17.  Walk  from  pantry  drawer  to  sink  to  get  basket. 

18.  Take  small  basket  back  to  storage. 

19.  Return  from  storage. 
Time  consumed  :    5  minutes. 

STUDY  2.      i.  Walk  to  shelf  adjacent  to  sink  and  get  pot. 

2.  Walk    to    storage,    carrying    pot,    and    fill    it    with 


3.  Return   from   storage,   laying  pot  directly  on  vege- 

table preparing  surface  near  sink. 

4.  Pick  up  knife  (from  nail  above  this  surface). 

5.  Pare  potatoes  directly  into  pail  (soiling  no  surface). 

6.  Wash  potatoes  and  fill  pot  with  water. 

7.  Wash  and  hang  up  knife  (on  nail  above  sink). 

8.  Walk  with  pot  and  lay  on  stove. 

Time  consumed:    less  than  2  minutes,  not  counting  actual  peeling, 
which  would  require  the  same  time  in  each  case. 


Study  i  5  minutes  19  steps 

2  2  minutes  8  steps 



Other  time  studies  will  show  equally  great  differences. 
In  no  way  but  by  a  careful  time  study  can  the  experienced 
housekeeper  convince  herself  that  many  of  her  habits  and 
methods  are  wasteful  of  time  and  effort. 

One  of  the  reasons  why  women  have  been  unwilling  to 
follow  the  grouping  idea  is  their  belief  that  kitchen  neatness 
requires  the  keeping  of  all  utensils  and  equipment  behind 
closed  doors  or  in  drawers.  This  idea  perhaps  was  justi- 
fied when  the  kitchen  served  also  as  the  family  sitting-room, 
or  when  the  fuel  used  was  so  dirty  as  to  make  it  necessary 
to  protect  utensils  against  dust  and  ashes.  But  with  modern 
fuels  of  gas,  electricity  or  oil  and  the  complete  separation  of 
cooking-room  from  living-room,  the  kitchen  can  follow  the 
efficient  ideals  of  other  workshops. 

The  "bench"  of  the  mechanic  can  serve  as  a  model  for 
the  kitchen.  Here  above  the  working  surface,  or  adjacent 
to  it,  are  strips,  pockets  and  hooks  for  the  holding  of  every 
tool  and  supply  needed  in  his  particular  work.  There  are 
no  doors  to  open  and  take  up  valuable  floor  space,  no  waste 
motion  pulling  out  drawers,  no  confusing  or  blunting  of  one 
tool  with  another. 

The  kitchen  must  follow  this  workshop  ideal.  Every 
utensil  and  tool  should  have  a  definite  place  either  on  a  hook 
of  its  own  or  on  an  open  shelf  so  that  it  can  instantly  be 
grasped  and  used  without  waste  handling.  Again,  the  hang- 
ing of  utensils  prevents  contact  and  wear.  This  is  espe- 
cially true  of  a  large  class  of  indispensable  kitchen  tools, 
namely,  knives.  They  are  universally  "banged"  into  table 
drawers  with  the  can-opener  and  the  apple  corer  so  that 
their  delicate  edges  become  blunted,  and  consequently  give 
poor  service.  Yet  it  is  just  as  easy  to  place  them  in  the 
separate  pockets  of  a  chamois  or  wooden  strip  over  the 
surface  on  which  they  are  used,  thus  keeping  them  in  good 


On  left,  cooking  rack  of  steel  with  excellent  grouping  of  broilers,  sauce- 
pans and  small  cooking  utensils.  Notice  cook's  pots  on  range  and  efficient 
grouping  of  salt,  pepper  and  spices  over  table  section  of  stove. 


condition,   and  making   it   easy  to   instantly  pick   out  the 
required  blade. 

Racks  of  various  kinds  permit  attractive,  exposed  group- 
ing. There  is  the  "cook's  rack"  extending  over  the  range, 
from  which  skillets  and  saucepans  hang  neatly.  A  similar 
kind  of  rack  is  constructed  specially  for  use  at  the  side  of 

Courtesy  of  Mrs.  Mary  Patterson. 

the  stove  and  is  commodious  enough  to  hold  many  of  the 
small  pots  and  tools  needed  only  at  this  point.  A  wooden 
rack  about  5  by  2 %  to  3  feet  built  of  narrow  strips  and 
mounted  on  castors  will  partly  replace  inconvenient  drawers 
and  shelves.  On  such  a  rack  can  be  hung  small  saucepans, 
spoons,  beaters,  knives,  etc.,  which  can  be  moved  up  to  the 
working  surfaces,  as  needed.  If  painted  to  match  the  trim 
of  the  kitchen  it  is  as  attractive  as  it  is  useful  in  applying 
the  grouping  idea.  Or  a  much  smaller  rack  or  set  of  strips 
can  be  fastened  directly  to  and  over  a  kitchen  table  either 


when  it  is  in  the  center  of  the  kitchen  or  when  placed 
against  the  wall.  If  the  straight  cup  hooks  are  placed  at 
regular  intervals  in  these  strips,  they  will  accommodate 
many  groups  of  small  tools  needed  at  the  table. 

The  right  grouping  of  small  equipment  and  food  supplies 
can  easily  be  made  in  any  kitchen  with  little  or  no  expense. 


Next  in  importance  to  correct  grouping  is  the  correct  and 
comfortable  height  for  all  working  surfaces  and  equipment. 
For  years  women  have  stooped  their  backs  over  sinks  and 
tables  that  were  too  low,  strained  their  muscles  over  ironing 
boards  that  were  too  high,  bent  themselves  double  peering 
into  the  oven,  or  stretched  for  utensils  away  out  of  reach. 
No  shelves  should  be  lower  than  one  foot  from  the  floor 
nor  higher  than  six  feet;  and  for  small  women  a  com- 
fortable reaching  height  is  between  4j^  and  5^2  feet. 

The  sink,  as  universally  installed,  is  several  inches  too 
low  for  the  woman  to  work  without  bending  over,  thus 
increasing  the  strain  and  fatigue  of  the  already  fatiguing 
task  of  dishwashing. 

The  same  is  true  of  kitchen  tables  in  the  heights  com- 

'able  Leg        TableLeg. 

Iron  Dowel        Brass 

•Extent/on  Extent 



monly  manufactured,  which  are  from  one  to  three  inches 
too  low  to  permit  standing  and  working  at  them  in  a 
hygienic  upright  position. 

While  most  stoves  are  high  enough  for  convenient  work, 
many  of  the  portable  types  are  also  beneath  a  comfortable 
•working  level.  Although  the  coal  range  is  the  only  stove 
necessitating  a  low  oven,  manufacturers  of  ^toves  using 
other  fuels,  such  as  gas  and  electricity,  have  been  slow  to 
place  all  ovens,  broilers  and  warming-closets  above  the 
waist  level.  Happily,  however,  the  latest  models  have  ovens 
either  at  the  side  or  above  the  regular  cooking  surface, 
which  results  in  more  comfort  and  less  fatigue  for  the 

Even  the  fireless  cooker  box  should  be  mounted  on  a 
frame  or  stand  so  that  its  top  surface  is  practically  the 
same  height  as  the  usual  cooking  surface  of  other  stoves, 
which  will  prevent  repeated  stooping  every  time  the  cooker 
is  used. 

No  absolute  rule  can  be  given  for  invariable  heights  be- 
cause not  only  the  height  of  the  worker  must  be  taken 
into  consideration,  but  also  the  length  of  her  arm,  and 
whether  she  is  short  or  long-waisted,  etc.  From  tests  made 
on  women  of  varying  heights,  the  following  guide  was  com- 
piled. This  may  be  used  by  each  worker  as  a  basis  for 
determining  the  exact  height  suitable  to  her  individual 
needs.  But  she  should  also  make  actual  tests  herself  by 
placing  a  dishpan  or  tray  on  a  high  stool,  raising  and  low- 
ering with  the  aid  of  books  of  various  thicknesses,  or  some 
other  object,  until  she  finds  the  exact  height  at  which  she 
can  work  without  strain  either  on  the  arms  or  back.  If  the 
working  surfaces  are  to  be  used  by  workers  of  different 
heights  (servants  or  maids)  it  is  best  to  put  them  at  the 
height  convenient  for  the  taller  workers  and  use  a  small 
platform  to  make  them  the  right  height  for  shorter  women. 


The  height  of  the  sinks  is  given  separately  from  other 
working  surfaces  because  here  actual  work,  such  as  dish- 
washing, is  performed  at  a  level  about  2  inches  or  more 
above  the  bottom  of  the  sink.  On  other  surfaces  the  actual 
work,  such  as  peeling  potatoes,  is  done  at  the  exact  level 
of  the  surface  itself. 


Sink,  Height  for  Other  Height 

Height  of  Height  from  Floor  Working  Surfaces,  of  Stool, 

Worker  to  Base  of  Sink  for  Standing  for  Sitting 

5   feet  2gl/2  inches  31^2  inches  22  inches 

5      "      i  in.  30  32  23 

5           2   "  30^  32^  24 

5     "     3   "  3i  33  25 

5     "     4   "  3i/2       "  33/2       "  26 

5     "     5    "  32  34  27 

5            6  "  32^       "  34^4  28 

It  will  be  found  generally  that  there  is  an  inch  of  dif- 
ference in  the  height  of  the  stool  to  each  inch  of  height  in 
the  worker. 


Another  great  preventive  of  strain  and  fatigue  is  the 
practice  of  sitting  down  to  many  household  tasks.  It  is 
only  custom,  or  a  false  fear  that  they  will  be  considered 
lazy,  which  makes  many  women  object  to  sitting  down  at 
work.  A  high  stool  (preferably  with  an  adjustable  seat) 
can  be  used  when  washing  dishes,  peeling  vegetables,  pre- 
paring pastry,  and  many  other  tasks.  When  sitting,  a  great 
deal  of  strain  is  removed  from  the  feet  and  abdomen  of 
the  worker.  This  lessens  the  possible  fatigue  of  the  task, 
and  permits  the  worker  to  give  her  entire  energy  to  it,  thus 
resulting  in  quicker  and  better  work,  after  the  sitting  habit 
is  acquired. 



Adequate  lighting  and  ventilation  are  two  further  essen- 
tials to  kitchen  efficiency.  In  building,  windows  and  doors 
should  be  placed  in  harmony  with  the  working  surfaces. 
Too  frequently  the  good  light  from  a  window  is  wasted 
because  it  does  not  reach  the  equipment  where  it  is  most 
needed.  Very  intense  light  is  needed  at  table,  stove  and 
sink,  yet  because  windows  are  not  placed  so  that  the  light 
falls  from  a  proper  angle  on  these  surfaces,  the  worker  is 
all  too  frequently  standing  in  her  own  light  or  the  equip- 
ment is  in  shadow. 

Windows  should  be  placed  so  as  to  give  a  direct  light 
over  the  important  working  surfaces  of  table,  stove  and 
sink.  They  should  preferably  be  placed  high  in  the  walls 
with  the  sills  42  to  46  inches  from  the  floor.  This  will 
allow  the  wall  space  under  them  to  be  utilized  to  the  most 
advantage.  It  will  give  better  ventilation  to  the  upper  part 
of  the  room  and  the  high  sill  cannot  be  used  as  a  "catch-all" 
for  bottles,  small  dishes,  etc.  The  high  sill  also  keeps  any 
window  curtains  out  of  reach  of  working  surfaces  likely 
to  soil  them. 

The  placing  of  artificial  illumination  must  also  be  care- 
fully studied.  The  very  common  single  "drop"  in  the  cen- 
ter of  the  room  is  one  of  the  poorest  forms.  It  casts 
shadows  and  inadequately  lights  the  corners  of  the  room, 
and  is  almost  universally  placed  so  high  that  it  is  a  strain 
to  light  it.  If  either  electricity  or  gas  is  used,  the  bulb  or 
burner  can  be  enclosed  in  a  bowl  of  opaque  glass  and  the 
light  reflected  up  to  the  ceiling  in  the  manner  called  "indi- 
rect" lighting.  This  method  diffuses  the  light  more  over 
the  entire  room  and  is  less  glaring  on  the  eyes.  However, 
if  the  kitchen  is  large,  it  is  better  to  use  separate  wall 
brackets  giving  direct  light  at  stove,  table  and  sink.  "Goose- 


neck"  fixtures  are  manufactured  especially  for  this  purpose 
of  focusing  artificial  light  directly  where  needed.  If  a 
kerosene  lamp  must  be  used,  the  most  efficient  type  is  that 
having  a  "mantle"  which  permits  a  strong  white  light  of 
about  40  candle  power  similar  to  that  given  by  the  Welsbach. 
An  identical  kind  of  light  is  given  from  lamps  using  dena- 
tured alcohol  with  special  kinds  of  wick  and  similar 



Cross  ventilation  is  essential  to  keep  the  kitchen  well 
aired  and  free  from  odors.  Windows  in  opposite  walls,  or 
a  window  opposite  a  door  frequently  left  open,  may  be 
sufficient  in  the  small  kitchen.  Transoms  above  the  door, 
and  windows  placed  high  in  the  walls  will  give  additional 

But  the  most  complete  system  is  to  have  a  special  ven- 
tilation flue  in  the  chimney  running  to  the  kitchen.  If  the 
natural  current  through  this  flue  is  not  sufficiently  strong 
to  carry  away  odors,  a  small  electric  fan  can  be  placed  in 
this  flue  at  its  face  and  used  as  needed.  If  there  is  no 
special  vent  flue  in  the  brick  chimney,  the  best  plan  is  to 
place  a  hood  over  the  stove  which  will  concentrate  the 
drafts  around  the  surface  of  the  stove.  From  this  hood  a 
pipe  can  be  carried  through  the  wall  of  the  kitchen  and 
from  there  to  the  top  of  the  roof.  This  flue  should  be 
double  on  the  outside  and  about  ten  inches  in  diameter  for 
use  with  a  4-foot  stove.  Even  a  gas  stove  should  be  in- 
stalled with  a  flue  connection  which  will  lessen  the  amount 
of  heated  air,  gases  and  odors  in  the  kitchen. 


The  labor-saving  kitchen  must  meet  the  highest  ideals  of 
sanitation.  Therefore  all  its  surfaces— floor,  walls,  tables, 
etc. — should  be  as  non-absorbent,  non-porous  and  as  easy 


to  clean  as  possible.  What  material,  then,  is  best  for  the 
kitchen  floor  which  receives  a  heavy  daily  quota  of  dirt, 
grease  and  water?  All  wood  no  matter  how  treated,  is 
absorbent  of  grease,  and  cracks  collect  dirt  particles.  Fre- 
quent scrubbing  merely  widens  the  cracks  and  coarsens  the 
wood.  For  these  reasons  a  wooden  floor,  even  when 
painted,  varnished  or  shellaced,  is  out  of  place  and  unserv- 
iceable in  the  kitchen.  There  are  three  groups  of  sanitary 
floor  coverings  with  definite  points  of  merit  and  fault,  i.  e., 
linoleum,  "composition  flooring"  and  tile. 

Inlaid  linoleum  with  the  pattern  extending  through  the 
entire  thickness  is  more  durable  than  printed  linoleum  and 
makes  a  most  satisfactory  and  inexpensive  floor  covering. 
So-called  "battleship  linoleum"  comes  in  a  single  color  with 
a  dull,  attractive  surface,  and  from  tests  made  by  hospitals 
and  other  institutions,  has  been  proved  the  most  durable  and 
satisfactory  of  any  linoleum. 

The  laying  of  linoleum  is  most  important.  Unless  laid 
by  a  professional,  it  is  apt  to  "belly"  or  the  seams  will  not 
be  perfectly  joined.  Care  should  be  taken  to  have  the 
baseboard  joining  perfect;  the  baseboard  should  be  put  in 
place  after  the  linoleum  is  laid,  or  preferably,  a  rounded 
metal  strip  should  be  used  to  cover  the  joining  and  facilitate 
mopping,  or  the  seams  can  be  cemented. 

Within  the  last  few  years  great  improvement  has  been 
made  in  various  "composition  materials"  of  asbestos, 
cement,  rubber,  etc.,  sold  under  various  names.  Generally 
the  material  comes  in  a  powder  form,  and  is  mixed  and 
spread  after  the  manner  of  cement.  Two  or  more  coats  are 
applied,  the  first  one  frequently  being  applied  to  metal  lath 
and  forming  a  continuous  surface  with  the  baseboard,  which 
may  be  made  of  the  same  material.  These  materials  come 
in  a  variety  of  colors,  are  resilient  and  easy  to  walk  on,  yet 
non-porous,  without  cracks  and  require  a  minimum  of  effort 



in  cleaning.  To  be  entirely  satisfactory  they  should  be 
laid  by  the  manufacturer's  own  workmen.  These  floors 
are  suitable  for  pantries,  halls,  porches  and  service  quarters 
as  well. 

Although  tile  may  seem  the  most  sanitary  and  impervious 
surface  for  the  kitchen  floor,  experience  has  shown  that  its 
chief  defects  are  that  it  is  too  hard  a  surface  on  which  to 
stand  continually ;  it  is  also  slightly  slippery,  which  makes 
quick  walking  dangerous  and  its  hard  surface  is  fatal  to 
dishes  accidentally  dropped.  It  is  frequently  desirable, 
however,  to  have  a  tiled  area  il/2  to  2  feet  around  the 
stove,  with  the  stove  inset,  and  flush  with  the  tile.  This  is 
a  protection  against  fire;  and  it  is  more  sanitary  than  the 
dust-catching  space  between  stove  and  floor  when  the  stove 
is  mounted  on  legs. 


As  a  wall  covering,  however,  tile  is  ideal  because  of  the 
ease  of  cleaning,  its  impervious  qualities  and  constantly 
fresh  appearance.  Many  institutional  and  commercial 
kitchens  have  tiled  ceilings,  walls  and  floors  on  which  a 
hose  can  be  turned  daily  if  necessary.  But  for  the  family 
home  a  wainscoting  of  tile  is  sufficient  protection  for  those 
parts  of  the  wall  which  receive  the  hardest  use. 

Another  good  material  for  wall  coverings  is  the  oil-cloth 
wall  fabric  which  can  easily  be  wiped  with  a  cloth. 

Above  this  wainscoting,  plaster  in  either  of  its  two  main 
finishes — smooth  "hard  trowel"  or  "rough  sand" — can  be 
employed.  The  entire  wall  may  be  finished  in  hard  trowel 
plaster  if  desired,  but  the  entire  surface  is  not  to  be  recom- 
mended in  the  rough  sand  finish  which  offers  too  many 
projections  for  the  accumulation  of  dust  and  grease.  The 
smooth  plaster  finish  can  be  painted  preferably  in  a  "flat" 
paint  easily  cleaned  with  a  damp  cloth.  The  sand  finish 


should  be  treated  with  kalsomine  and  given  a  fresh  annual 
coat.  Paper  of  any  kind  should  never  be  used  on  a  kitchen 
wall  or  ceiling,  because  it  puffs  loose  with  heat  and  steam 
and  is  unsanitary  to  a  degree. 


The  color  of  these  floor  and  wall  surfaces  has  a  more 
important  influence  on  the  worker  than  is  sometimes  real- 
ized. If  some  so-called  "unattractive"  kitchens  were  care- 
fully analyzed,  it  would  be  found  that  they  were  unattractive 
largely  because  of  ugly  green  or  hideous  blue  colorings. 
The  woodwork  or  trim  should  not  be  dark;  cherry,  ma- 
hogany or  even  golden  oak  stain  is  too  heavy  and  somber. 
Pine  or  birch  or  maple  in  natural  finish,  or  painted  wood  in 
pure  ivory  white  or  such  tones  as  "putty,"  warm  gray,  light 
apple  green,  make  the  kitchen  lighter  as  well  as  more  cheery. 
Similarly,  light  tones  only  should  be  used  on  walls  or  ceil- 
ing, and  large  patterns  should  be  avoided  in  both  floor  and 
wall  coverings.  The  ceiling  should  preferably  be  dead 
white ;  if  there  is  a  wainscot,  the  section  above  it  should 
be  a  pale  shade  of  the  preferred  tone ;  the  wainscoting  may 
be  still  darker  and  the  floor  the  darkest  of  all.  Good  color 
combinations  are:  (i)  ceiling  white,  above  wainscot  light 
warm  yellow,  wainscot  buff,  floor  white  and  brown,  wood- 
work old  ivory  white;  (2)  ceiling  white,  above  wainscot 
pale  apple  green,  wainscot  medium  apple  green,  floor  white 
and  green,  woodwork  putty.  Baseboards,  and  a  similar 
height  across  the  bottom  of  doors,  and  a  small  circumfer- 
ence around  door  knobs  may  be  painted  the  darkest  shade 
of  the  color  used,  to  conceal  wear. 


Wooden  surfaces  of  all  kinds  must  yield  to  the  pressure 
for  more  perfect  sanitation.  The  exposed  wooden  kitchen 


table  top  or  drainboard  absorbs  water,  stains,  and  grease. 
This  means  wasted  effort  in  continual  scrubbing  and  scour- 
ing; in  addition,  the  wooden  surface  is  marred  by  having 
heated  pots  and  utensils  laid  upon  it.  The  working  surfaces 
of  the  labor-saving  kitchen  must  be  covered  with  non- 
absorbent,  easily  cleaned  materials,  of  which  there  is  a 
wide  choice. 

For  the  preparing  table  there  is  a  selection  of  vitrified 
glass,  porcelain  (baked  enamel),  monel  metal  and  plate 
glass,  all  of  them  sanitary,  impervious  to  grease  or  water. 
For'  the  serving  table — or  surface — on  which  it  is  necessary 
to  lay  heated  objects,  either  galvanized  iron,  zinc,  monel 
metal  or  German  silver  are  desirable  because  they  do  not 
mar  or  stain  badly,  and  can  be  kept  clean  with  a  minimum 
of  effort.  For  drain  surfaces,  zinc,  porcelain,  German  silver 
or  copper  are  practical  and  sanitary. 


As  was  said  previously,  it  is  better  to  eliminate  the  dis- 
connected pantry  and  build  into  the  kitchen  itself  perma- 
nent closets  and  shelving  in  harmony  with  the  processes  of 
work.  In  order  to  follow  the  chain  of  steps  in  the  clearing 
away  process  (No.  2)  it  is  necessary  to  have  permanent 
shelves  and  pot-closet  at  the  left  of  the  sink.  This  permits 
dishes  and  pots  to  be  laid  away  with  no  walking  or  carry- 
ing, since  such  a  closet  is  but  an  arm's  length  from  the 

Most  shelves,  as  commonly  built,  have  two  faults:  they 
are  too  wide,  and  too  far  apart.  The  first  fault  results  in 
a  broad  shelf  on  which  there  are  consequently  placed  a 
double  or  triple  row  of  articles.  Then  when  one  article  is 
needed,  it  is  necessary  to  displace  and  search  behind  others, 
which  means  waste  of  time  and  effort.  The  efficient  shelf, 
no  matter  whether  used  to  hold  supplies,  dishes,  pots  or  still 


larger  utensils,  is  only  wide  enough  to  accommodate  one 
article.  That  is,  shelves  should  be  graded  in  width  accord- 
ing to  the  size  of  the  articles  or  utensils  they  are  to  contain. 
Their  width  may  vary  from  six  inches  for  a  row  of  pitchers 
or  sauce  dishes,  glasses,  etc.,  to  eight  inches  for  jars  con- 
taining cereals  and  small  supplies,  to  ten  inches  for  plates 
and  usual  size  pots  and  pans.  Large  pieces  like  bread- 
mixer,  steamer,  preserving  kettle,  etc.,  may  need  a  shelf 
twelve  or  fourteen  inches. 

Again,  shelves  too  widely  apart  mean  waste  space  and 
useless  effort  in  reaching.  Most  shelving  can  be  lowered  so 
there  is  less  space  between  each  shelf,  which  will  give  more 
shelf  space  in  the  same  wall  area.  If  possible,  the  prepar- 
ing surface  should  be  a  built-in  fixture  with  shelves  and 
closets  above  and  below  of  these  correct  sizes  and  widths 
to  economically  use  the  space.  Small  narrow  shelves  such 
as  one  for  the  tea-pot  and  tea  supply  near  the  stove,  or 
broad  shelves  to  hold  bread-box,  etc.,  can  be  placed  exactly 
where  most  step-saving.  Two-inch  strips  can  be  fastened 
directly  under  small  shelves  over  the  serving  surface  or 
adjacent  to  the  stove  in  which  straight  cup-hooks  can  be 
screwed  at  regular  intervals.  On  these  can  be  hung  and 
grouped  many  of  the  smaller  beaters,  cook-spoons,  mashers, 
etc.,  so  that  the  shelf  and  objects  under  it  can  be  related 
to  the  working  surface  near  it. 


Composition  floorings  (cork,  cement,  asbestos  mix- 
tures, etc.),  set  directly  on  wood  or  expanded  metal 
lath,  per  square  foot $  .17  to  $  .50 

Sanitary  cove  baseboard,  per  lineal  foot 20  up 

Linoleum,  inlaid  and  battleship  (not  laid),  per  square 
yard  1.50  to  3.00 

Tile  (floor),  per  square  foot,  laid,  but  not  including 
cost  of  cement  foundation 30  up 


Tile  (wall,  glazed),  per  square  foot,  laid,  but  not  in- 
cluding cost  of  cement  foundation 60  up 

Oilcloth  fabric  (glaze  and  mercerized).    Comes  in  rolls 

48  inches  x  12  yards,  per  lineal  yard 25  to       .3<J 

Paint,  per  coat,  per  square  yard 04  to       .06 

Kalsomine,  per  coat,  per  square  yard 01  to        .03 

Zinc  (22  gauge  metal),  per  square  foot 30 

Galvanized  iron  (22  gauge  metal),  per  square  foot 15 

Copper  (22  gauge  metal),  per  square  foot 50 

Polished  steel  (22  gauge  metal),  per  square  foot 15 

Monel  metal  (22  gauge  metal),  per  square  foot $1.00  to      1.25 

German  silver  (22  gauge  metal),  per  square  foot 1.85 

Plate  glass,  per  square  foot i.oo 

Vitrified  glass,  per  square  foot $  .90  to      1.25 

Porcelain  enameled  steel,  per  square  foot i.oo  up 

(Note. — The   above  are   pre-war   prices;    present   prices    unstable.) 


In  the  built-in  fixture,  it  is  best  to  allow  for  bins  of 
various  sizes  for  holding  flour,  sugar,  etc.,  in  quantity. 
The  most  improved  type  slide  forward  easily  on  ball  bear- 
ings, and  are  so  made  as  to  tilt  with  little  effort.  Bins 
should  be  lined  with  zinc  or  similar  metal  to  keep  them 
moisture  and  insect  proof.  The  point  to  avoid  in  the  built-in 
drawer  is  not  to  have  it  too  deep,  as  deep  drawers  cannot 
be  kept  in  order,  and  it  is  more  difficult  to  pick  up  any 
required  article.  Shallow  drawers,  three  inches  deep  for 
kitchen  ware,  and  about  five  inches  deep  for  linen,  are  most 
satisfactory.  Large  drawers  in  center  kitchen  tables  are 
now  manufactured  on  ball  bearings  so  that  they  can  easily 
be  pulled  out  and  reached  from  both  sides  of  the  table. 


The  three  important  pieces  of  fixed  equipment  in  the 
kitchen  are  sink,  stove  and  refrigerator.  Sinks  are  made 
of  various  materials,  iron,  slate,  soapstone,  enamel  ware. 


For  the  country  kitchen  where  a  great  deal  of  work  must 
be  done,  the  slate  or  soapstone  is  preferable.  But  the 
needs  of  the  modern  kitchen  are  best  met  by  the  attractive- 
looking,  white  sink  of  enameled  iron.  In  choosing  any  sink, 
these  are  the  points  to  bear  in  mind:  it  should  be  deep 
enough  to  give  ample  room  for  the  dishpan  and  thus  avoid 
water  splashing  over  (8-10  inches)  ;  it  should  have  the  back' 
and  drainboards  an  integral  part  of  the  sink  to  avoid  crev- 
ices in  which  dirt  might  accumulate,  and  to  avoid  splashing 

Convenient  for  dish  washing,  etc.,  as  hot  or  cold  water  may  be  drawn  at  will. 

the  wall,  as  occurs  when  the  drains  are  not  protected  by 
the  splasher  back  of  the  main  sink ;  it  should  have  a  con- 
cealed "hanger"  attachment  rather  than  be  mounted  on 
legs  which  prevent  ease  in  floor  mopping;  it  should  have 
a  movable  faucet  nozzle,  or  have  the  ordinary  faucets 
protected  with  rubber  tips  to  prevent  china  breakage. 

The  double  sink  with  two  compartments  makes  for  ease 
in  dishwashing,  one  being  use  for  washing,  the  other  for 
draining.  If  the  establishment  is  large,  it  may  be  necessary 
to  have  a  separate  "vegetable  sink"  and  a  deeper,  so-called 
"pot  sink"  in  the  kitchen,  when  the  table  dishes  are  washed 
in  a  separate  sink  in  the  butler's  pantry.  For  the  small 


kitchen  a  serviceable  size  is  30x18x8  inches  with  draining 
surfaces  2  feet  long  on  either  side.  If  there  is  only  one 
drainboard,  it  should  always  be  at  the  left. 


In  the  past  few  years  great  changes  have  been  made  in 
the  kinds  of  fuel  used,  and  hence  in  the  character  of  the 
cooking  equipment.  The  familiar  kitchen  range  was  gen- 
erally a  combination  of  heating  and  cooking  equipment,  as 
the  water  back  attachment  heated  water  for  household  use 
in  addition  to  the  stove  doing  the  actual  cooking.  A  No.  8 
stove  which  used  2  tons  a  year  of  nut  coal  for  cooking  only, 
used  4  }/2  tons  of  coal  when  connected  with  the  waterback. 

Owing  to  other  changes  in  our  methods  of  general  house- 
hold heating,  it  is  possible  and  much  more  efficient  to  sep- 
arate the  heating  system  entirely  from  the  cooking  system, 
and  to  have  the  latter  under  more  exact  control  than  is 
possible  with  a  coal  range. 

The  ideal  cooking  device  is  that  in  which  fuel  is  consumed 
only  when  actual  cooking  is  in  progress,  and  where  the 
fuel  can  be  cut  off  instantly.  This  ideal  reaches  a  high 
degree  of  perfection  in  stoves  using  gas,  electricity,  dena- 
tured alcohol  or  kerosene,  because  here  the  heat  can  be 
controlled  definitely  by  the  operator — no  actual  cooking,  no 
actual  fuel.  In  addition,  modern  science  has  proved  that 
much  cooking  can  be  done  equally  well  with  "conserved" 
heat.  Therefore,  the  modern  kitchen  has  a  choice  of  stoves 
or  devices  embodying  this  principle,  such  as  the  insulated 
oven  of  several  gas  and  electric  stoves ;  the  fireless  cooker, 
and  combinations  of  the  fireless  idea  in  other  stoves  operated 
by  various  fuels.  Perhaps  the  most  efficient  type  of  stove 
is  the  small  gas  stove  with  insulated  upper  oven  which 
permits  cooking  by  both  direct  and  radiated  heat,  with  a 
minimum  of  fuel. 



In  every  kitchen  there  should  be  adequate  facilities  for 
keeping  dishes  and  foods  warm.  With  the  coal  range,  this 
is  easily  done  because  of  the  radiated  heat  from  the  stove 
to  the  warming  shelf  above.  With  a  gas  stove  of  the  range 
type,  the  oven  may  be  used  to  heat  dishes  and  keep  foods 
warm.  If  a  gas  hot  plate  is  the  only  stove,  it  should  be 
located  so  that  a  perforated  metal  shelf  can  be  fastened  to 
the  wall  over  the  stove  at  a  convenient  height.  This  will 
allow  the  radiated  heat  and  steam  to  warm  whatever  dishes 
or  towels  are  placed  on  the  shelf,  or  a  small  "portable" 
oven  or  steam  cooker  answers  the  purpose  admirably. 

If  the  kitchen  is  heated  by  steam  or  hot  water,  a  metal 
grill  can  be  fastened  over  the  kitchen  radiator,  thus  serving 
as  a  shelf  on  which  to  dry  utensils  or  keep  dishes  warm. 
Some  radiators  are  made  specially  in  the  "pantry  radiator" 
type  with  two  or  three  decks  of  coils  on  which  plates  may 
be  laid.  Or  the  dining-room  or  pantry  radiator  may  contain 
a  small  compartment.  In  large  establishments  a  separate 
"plate  warmer"  may  be  built  in  any  size  to  be  heated  by 
electricity.  Similarly,  one  of  the  most  improved  metal 
kitchen  tables  has  a  plate  warmer  compartment  underneath 
heated  by  current.  A  larger  table  which  approximates  the 
excellent  "steam  table,"  seldom  seen  except  in  institutions, 
is  heated  by  gas  and  connected  with  the  steam-heating 


When  the  cooking  arrangements  are  thus  separated  from 
the  heating  of  hot  water,  other  provision  has  to  be  made. 
One  of  the  most  satisfactory  and  inexpensive  plans  of  inde- 
pendently treating  the  water  supply  is  by  the  installation  of 
a  small  heater  somewhat  like  a  laundry  stove,  preferably 
in  the  basement  or  cellar,  using  pea  coal.  This  heater  can 


be  attached  to  a  boiler  and  connected  with  the  pipes  to  the 
kitchen  or  bathroom.  The  boiler  should  always  be  installed 
vertically  (water  takes  longer  to  heat  in  the  horizontal  posi- 
tion), jacketed  with  asbestos,  and  the  heater  itself  covered 
with  plastic  asbestos  to  prevent  radiation.  Such  a  heater 
can  be  operated  at  a  cost  of  $2.00  to  $3.00  per  month,  and 
combines  a  laundry  stove  with  its  use  as  a  water  heater. 
If  not  installed  in  the  laundry,  one  of  the  cylindrical  type 
of  heaters  with  a  magazine  fuel  feed  should  be  used,  as 
these  require  less  attention  to  operate. 

An  independent  hot  water  plant  permits  of  an  abundant 
supply  of  hoter  water  both  summer  and  winter  This  plan 
is  preferable  to  having  a  hot  water  coil  in  the  furnace  or 
other  house  heater,  which  at  times  gives  insufficient  hot 
water,  and  at  others  causes  the  water  to  boil ;  then  the  coil 
may  rust  out  or  become  stopped  up,  necessitating  repairs  in 
cold  weather.  Experiments  show  that  little  or  no  coal  is 
saved,  for  the  hot  water  coil  requires  as  much  extra  coal 
as  is  needed  to  run  the  independent  heater. 

If  gas  is  available  and  the  rate  is  low,  the  water  supply 
may  be  heated  by  one  of  the  several  types  of  "gas  heaters" 
now  on  the  market.  In  some  models  the  heating  coils  are 
placed  outside  the  boiler;  in  others  within  it,  or  in  some  a 
cast  iron  plate  or  burner  heats  the  boiler  by  direct  contact. 
Types  where  the  heating  coils  are  within  the  boiler  are 
preferable  because  there  is  less  loss  of  heat  by  radiation; 
the  coils  should  be  brass  or  copper  in  preference  to  save 
fuel.  Some  of  the  latest  models  are  automatic  in  action 
and  keep  the  water  in  the  boiler  at  any  desired  temperature. 
This  method  of  heating  the  water  supply  is  very  clean  and 
convenient,  and  its  cost  is  about  $3.00  to  $4.00  monthly  in 
a  medium  sized  family. 

The  so-called  "instantaneous"  heaters,  of  which  there  are 
several  makes,  operate  by  an  automatic  valve  which  lights 



the  gas  burners  as  soon  as  the  hot  water  faucet  is  turned 
on ;  similarly  the  flame  is  extinguished  when  the  valve 
closes,  by  shutting  off  the  faucet.  These  heaters  are  most 
efficient,  but  are  more  expensive  in  their  first  cost,  and  some- 
what also  in  the  operating  cost,  over  the  simpler  gas  heater. 

All  gas  hot  water  heaters  should  be 
connected  with  a  flue  to  the  outside 
air,  as  poisonous  carbon  monoxide  gas 
is  often  given  off. 

Several  makes  of  water  heaters 
using  kerosene  are  on  the  market,  but, 
owing  to  the  slowness  of  kerosene 
fuel,  do  not  give  as  quick  results  as 
the  gas  heater.  For  homes  without 
gas,  and  where  it  is  not  desired  to  use 
coal,  the  kerosene  heater  may  be  ade- 
quate. The  best  model  on  the  market 
costing  $18.00  has  a  separate,  well- 
jacketed  heater,  and  which  is  claimed 
by  manufacturer's  tests  to  care  for 
"two  bathrooms,  kitchen  and  laundry, 
the  fuel  cost  being  one-half  cent  per 
hour,  with  kerosene  at  12  cents  per  gallon." 

The  approximate  cost  of  the  various  water  heating  device 
is  as  follows:  Coil  in  furnace,  $10.00  to  $12.00;  coal  heater, 
$15.00  to  $25.00;  outside  gas  heater,  $10.00  to  $25.00;  boiler 
and  inside  gas  heater,  $40.00 ;  automatic  outside  gas  heater, 
$50.00;  automatic  instantaneous  gas  heater,  $150.00  (no 
tank  required).  The  boiler  will  cost  about  $14.00  for  a  30- 
gallon  tank  to  $20.00  for  a  ob-gallon  tank  and  the  jacket 
for  the  boiler  $5.00.  The  labor  will  average  $10.00  addi- 
tional. The  local  plumber  will  give  an  exact  estimate. 




The  third  important  piece  of  fixed  equipment  is  the 
refrigerator.  Even  if  a  family  requires  a  separate  cold 
storage  room  for  storing  perishables  and  containing  its 
quantity  of  preserves,  canned  goods,  etc.,  a  good  refriger- 
ator is  indispensable  in  modern  kitchen  economy.  The 
points  to  be  carefully  considered  in  buying  are  the  insula- 
tion, which  must  consist  of  adequate  layers  of  non-conduct- 
ing materials  (cork,  mineral  wool,  etc.)  with  a  dead  air 
space  between;  there  must  be  sufficient  circulation  of  dry, 
cold  air ;  the  ice  chamber  should  be  situated  on  the  side ; 
all  compartments  should  be  one  piece  of  sanitary  glass  or 
enamel  with  easily  removable  shelves  to  facilitate  perfect 
cleansing;  if  possible,  there  should  be  a  coil  under  the  ice 
chamber  and  connection  with  the  drinking  supply  so  that 
a  constant  supply  of  chilled  drinking  water  is  available 
from  a  tap  on  the  face  of  the  refrigerator.  The  refrigerator 
should  preferably  form  a  permanent  part  of  kitchen  con- 
struction, and  be  built  into  the  wall  space  so  that  it  can  be 
iced  from  outside.  This  plan  saves  the  tracking  of  ice 
delivery  into  the  kitchen  and  makes  it  possible  to  use  very 
little  ice  or  none  in  winter  months.  If  the  refrigerator  is 
perfectly  insulated  and  made,  the  modern  kitchen  temper- 
ature will  not  affect  it.  Step-saving  ideals  demand  that  the 
refrigerator  be  near  the  preparing  surface,  in  order  that 
supplies  can  be  withdrawn  with  little  effort. 

In  country  regions  where  the  ice  supply  is  scarce  and 
where  many  food  supplies  are  kept  "down  cellar,"  an  ele- 
vator refrigerator  will  be  found  most  step-saving.  This 
device  operates  on  pulleys  and  counterweights  and  can  be 
easily  raised  or  lowered  through  the  kitchen  floor  into  a 
cold  storage  closet.  It  has  a  small  ice  chamber  and  two 
more  commodious  sections  screened  with  wire  netting. 


The  so-called  "iceless  refrigerators"  operate  in  the  same 
way  through  a  galvanized  iron  cylinder  to  beneath  the  cel- 
lar floor.  Either  will  keep  even  milk  and  butter  in  good 
condition  in  the  warmest  weather. 


Garbage  disposal  is  part  of  the  kitchen  problem.  In 
the  country  it  may  be  fed  to  stock,  or  in  the  city  it  is 
removed  by  the  janitor.  Every  effort  should  be  made  by 
householders  to  have  the  municipality  adequately  handle 
the  garbage  question.  But  in  some  detached  homes,  where 
the  garbage  service  is  inadequate,  and  where  the  house  is 
piped  for  gas,  it  is  desirable  to  install  a  device  for  the  incin- 
eration of  garbage.  These  appear  like  small  portable  stoves, 
are  operated  by  gas,  connected  with  a  flue,  and  so  built 
that  they  can  reduce  a  pailful  of  garbage  to  an  ash  in  ten 
or  twelve  minutes.  It  is  preferable  to  install  them  as  close 
to  the  sink  as  possible  so  that  the  sink  garbage  pail  can  be 
emptied  into  it  with  only  a  few  steps  of  walking. 

In  all  cases,  garbage  should  be  carefully  drained  and 
kept  as  dry  as  possible.  Waxed  paper  bags  may  be  used 
within  the  garbage  pail,  which  will  keep  the  pail  clean  and 
enable  the  garbage  to  be  handled  in  a  sanitary  manner. 


A  small  built-in  fixture  which  has  been  found  to  save 
effort  and  waste  motion  is  a  vegetable  preparing  table, 
which  can  be  incorporated  into  different  kitchens  in  various 
ways.  From  a  close  study  of  how  vegetables  and  other 
foods  are  .prepared  at  the  sink,  the  usual  methods  of  han- 
dling refuse  several  times  and  finally  stooping  to  throw  it 
into  a  garbage  pail  on  the  kitchen  floor  appear  wasteful  of 
time  and  energy.  A  simple  board  or  small  table  surface 
can  be  extended  from  the  right  drain.  In  this  a  circular 


opening  about  eight  inches  in  diameter  should  be  cut  and 
the  whole  surface  covered  with  zinc  or  other  metal.  Under 
this  board  a  small  shelf  must  be  placed  at  a  sufficient  dis- 
tance to  allow  the  garbage  pail  to  rest  on  it  and  permit  the 
cover  to  be  removed  easily.  The  method  of  using  it  is  to 
bring  vegetables  to  the  adjacent  sink,  and  wash  them; 
then  instead  of  peeling  them  on  a  surface  directly,  the  lid 
of  the  garbage  pail  can  be  removed  and  the  worker  peel 
or  prepare  over  the  opening  so  that  the  refuse  falls  at  once 
into  the  pail  without  any  handling  whatever.  If  small  pre- 
paring tools  are  hung  on  cup  hooks  over  this  surface,  the 
whole  will  form  a  serviceable  vegetable  preparing  outfit. 
If  the  garbage  pail  is  kept  in  proper  sanitary  condition, 
there  is  no  unpleasantness  attached  to  this  labor-saving 
method.  If  this  refuse  table  is  placed  near  the  right  of  the 
sink  where  the  dishes  should  be  scraped,  the  refuse  from 
the  plates  also  can  be  scraped  directly  through  this  open- 
ing into  the  pail,  thus  saving  the  unsanitary  handling  with 
a  sink  strainer,  etc.,  as  commonly  done. 


In  choosing  the  small  equipment,  it  is  better  to  buy  too 
little  than  too  much.  The  first  step  taken  in  putting  a 
certain  kitchen  on  an  efficiency  basis  was  to  dispose  of  half 
of  the  twenty-three  saucepans  and  six  egg-beaters  or  whips 
found  in  the  pantry.  Too  many  women  mistakenly  over- 
buy small  equipment,  which  takes  up  room,  requires  addi- 
tional care  in  cleaning,  and  duplicates  itself. 

Here  are  the  points  to  observe  in  buying  utensils  and 
small  equipment: 

(1)  Right  and  exact  size  and  shape  for  purpose  needed. 

(2)  Right  material  for  purpose  needed. 

(3)  Keep  shapes  and  colors  uniform  and  harmonious. 


(4)  Choose  utensils  with  handles  an  integral  part. 

(5)  Avoid   "seconds,"   "three-in-one"   tools,   poorly   fin- 
ished articles  with  rough  edges,  etc. 

(6)  Select  tools  without  complicated  parts,  which  will 
make  washing  easier. 

(7)  Select  utensils  that  are  comfortable  to  hold,  to  grasp 
and  to  handle;  and 

(8)  that  it  will  be  a  profitable  investment  for  the  price 
paid  and  the  amount  of  use. 

Nothing  is  more  essential  before  purchasing  pots  and 
pans  than  to  measure  and  find  out  the  best  sizes  for  the 
needs  of  your  particular  family.  One  reason  for  excess 
equipment  is  that  the  required  size  was  not  studied  before 
purchasing,  and  hence  a  great  number  of  sizes  had  to  be 
bought.  The  shape  is  important  because  broad,  shallow 
utensils  have  more  surface  exposed  to  the  heat  and  hence 
heat  faster,  which  helps  in  economy  of  fuel.  The  tall,  nar- 
row utensil  should  therefore  not  be  chosen. 

"Bail"  handles  become  too  hot,  as  they  hang  at  the  side ; 
hollow  metal  or  black  rubberoid  handles  in  one  piece  allow 
easiest  and  safest  handling. 

Lids  should  not  be  fitted  with  a  ring  or  separate  wooden 
knob,  which  may  work  loose  from  the  nut ;  the  most  durable 
method  is  to  have  a  strap-shaped  metal  knob  welded  to  the 
lid.  Saucepans  and  skillets  should  be  chosen  with  a  lip 
on  either  side  to  facilitate  easy  pouring.  Utensils  should 
be  free  from  seams  and  crevices  in  which  food  particles 
may  collect. 

Just  as  there  are  different  kinds  of  cooking  methods,  so 
there  are  different  metals  and  materials  which  are  best 
suited  to  each  particular  purpose.  Different  metals  are 
adapted  to  different  degrees  of  heat.  They  also  affect 
chemically  certain  food  elements  cooked  in  them.  The 


difficulty  of  cleaning  each  metal  should  also  be  considered. 

ENAMEL  OR  AGATE  WARE.  Here  a  vitreous  material  is 
melted  and  baked  on  to  a  mould  of  iron  or  steel  of  the 
required  shape.  This  gives  light  weight  utensils  of  smooth, 
easily  cleaned  finish.  It  does  not  resist  a  high  temperature, 
but  "chips"  when  foods  go  dry.  The  gray  finish  seems 
more  durable  than  either  the  white  or  blue  and  white, 
though  different  grades  vary  greatly.  It  is  most  suitable 
for  small  bowls,  pitchers,  saucepans,  and  for  simple  stew- 
ing and  boiling. 

IRON.  Heavy  in  weight,  but  easy  to  clean  when  used 
for  some  time.  Resists  very  high  temperature.  Suitable 
for  frying,  roasting  and  baking,  and  very  large  boiling 
kettles.  Sheet  iron  is  a  thinner  quality  used  for  baking 
sheets,  bread  pans,  etc. 

STEEL.  Resists  high  temperatures.  Moderately  hard  to 
clean.  Used  for  same  purposes  as  iron,  also  tea-kettle, 
frying  pans,  etc. 

TIN.  Does  not  endure  high  temperature.  Discolors 
quite  readily.  Is  light  in  weight,  and  best  for  cake  pans, 
colanders  and  similar  small  pieces.  The  best  grades  are 
cheapest  in  the  end. 

ALUMINUM  is  light  in  weight,  does  not  radiate  heat 
quickly,  fairly  easy  to  clean,  affects  acid  foods  slightly  and 
is  seriously  affected  by  water  containing  alkalies.  Made 
in  seamless  shapes,  suitable  for  all  purposes,  but  not  best 
for  frying,  griddles,  etc. 

EARTHENWARE.  Moderate  weight,  endures  moderately 
high  temperature,  easy  to  clean,  impervious  surface,  suitable 
for  slow  cooking  of  all  kinds — bowls,  custard  cups,  pudding 
dishes,  casseroles,  etc. 

WOODEN  WARE.  Use  confined  to  meat,  vegetable  and 
pastry  boards,  mashers  and  wooden  mixing  spoons. 



One  of  the  reasons  so  many  kitchens  have  a  cluttered 
untidy  appearance  is  that  no  two  pots  or  utensils  are  the 
same  shape  or  finish.  If  a  saucepan  of  a  certain  style  is 
decided  on,  use  the  same  style  in  saucepans  of  all  sizes. 
If  gray  agate  has  been  the  material  chosen  for  one  kettle, 
do  not  choose  others  of  white,  blue  or  mottled.  If  some 
mixing  bowls  are  yellow,  do  not  pick  out  others  that  are 
white  or  dark  brown.  A  harmonious  row  of  utensils  as 
to  shape  and  color  has  much  to  do  with  making  attractive 
appearing  shelves. 


The  housewife  should  be  wary  of  buying  apparently 
cheap  tools.  "Seconds"  may  be  uneven  so  the  bottom  does 
not  sit  squarely,  or,  as  in  frying  pans,  have  a  raised  surface 
in  the  center  so  that  grease  sinks  to  edges  and  makes  unsat- 
isfactory frying.  Agate-ware  bargains  commonly  have  an 
exposed  portion  of  the  under-metal,  which  consequently 
greatly  shortens  the  life  of  the  pan.  The  "three-in-one"  or 
combination  tool  is  seldom  a  success.  Just  as  there  is 
no  satisfactory  combination  saw,  plane  and  chisel  for  the 
workman,  so  there  is  no  practical  can-opener,  grater  and 
parer  or  other  combination.  It  is  much  wiser  to  buy  the 
best  grade  of  a  particular  standard  tool  rather  than  to 
invest  money  in  "novelties,"  for  which  extravagant  claims 
are  made. 

There  is  no  one  standard  list  of  equipment  that  will  fit 
every  family,  because  of  differences  in  the  main  equipment, 
in  fuel  used,  in  table  standards  and  number  in  family. 
Here  is  given  a  list  of  utensils  and  fuels  for  a  family  of 
six,  where  all  cooking  is  done  at  home  on  a  small  gas  range 
with  fireless  cooker  attachment.  If  a  kitchen  cabinet  is 
part  of  the  fixed  equipment,  it  will  contain  breadbox,  bread- 


board,  spice  jars,  etc.  Similarly  some  of  the  pieces  may 
be  unnecessary  in  certain  families.  The  prices  given  are 
average  for  the  best  grade  of  materials. 


PREPARING  TOOLS  (Grouped  near  kitchen  cabinet  or  preparing  surface) 

2  half-pint  glass  measuring  cups each  $  .10 

i  graduated  quart  measure,  enamel,  or .35' 

i  graduated  quart  measure,  tin '     .10 

i  serrated  bread-knife .50 

1  biscuit  cutter,  tin , . . .  .10 

2  case  knives .20 

2  kitchen  forks .15 

i  large  sabatier  kitchen  knife 90 

I  small  sabatier  kitchen  knife .45 

i  egg  beater  and  cream  whip  combined 50 

3  earthenware  mixing  bowls,  8,  6  and  5  in.  spread 

20C,    I5C,  ,IO 

4-sided  grater .25 

flour  dredger 10 

flour  sifter 25 

small  funnel,  enamel,  or .20 

small   funnel,  tin 08 

glass  rolling-pin  .50 

i  pastry  board   40 

1  small  meat  board 25 

2  large  wooden  spoons each         .15 

i  spatula,  steel  50 

i  each  standard  tablespoon  and  teaspoon .23 

i  meat  chopper,  stationary 1.25 

PREPARING  TOOLS  (Grouped  near  sink) 

1  can-opener each          15 

2  vegetable  preparing  knives 20 

I  curved  blade  fruit  knife :?5 

i  glass  lemon  squeezer i  o 

i  apple  corer 15 

I  corkscrew  )O 


2  vegetable   scrub   brushes each        .05 

i  pair  of  scissors .45 

i  pineapple  snip 25 

COOKING  AND  SERVING  UTENSILS  (Grouped  near  stove) 

skimmer,  enamel   20 

small  deep  skillet,  8-in.  spread 

large  iron  skillet  10-in.  spread 

each  tea  and  coffee  pot  with  supply  jars 

large  iron  cooking  spoon .15 

long-handled   cooking   fork .15 

ladle  (enamel)    25 

pancake  turner   .15 

wire  potato  masher 25 

i  3-mesh  sieve  or  colander .75 

i  set  skewers   15 

i  tea  kettle  with  boiler  insert,  5  qts.  (aluminum)  ....       5.00 

1  tea  kettle  without  boiler  insert,  5  qts.  (enamel  ware)       2.00 

COOKING  UTENSILS  (Grouped  near  kitchen  cabinet) 

Agate     num 

2  hemispherical  6-hole  gem  pans each  $  .50  $  .75 

3  bread  pans,  9x6x3 40  .70 

2  layer  cake  tins,  square  or  round 30  .45 

2  pie  tins,  10  inches,  i  deep,  i  shallow 30  .35 

i  deep  earthen  pie  plate 25 

I  china  enamel  jelly  mould,  il/2  pts.  to  i  qt...       .50          ;. 

I  iron  baking  pan,  12  x  16 45 

I  earthen  baking  dish,  il/2  qts.,  9-inch  spread. .       .30 

(pudding,  scalloped  dishes  etc.) 
i  large  earthen  casserole,  3  qts.,  stews,  soups . .       .50 

6  earthen  custard  cups 05 

I  small  covered  roaster,  15x11 3.25      4.50 

COOKING  UTENSILS  (Grouped  near  sink) 

i  handled  saucepan,  il/2  qts. — cream  gravies, 
boiling  eggs,  etc 60  .85 

i  handled  saucepan,  3  qts. — cocoa,  warming 
milk,  heating  canned  goods 75  1.05 


2  4-qt.  saucepans — potatoes,  vegetables,  cereals      .85      1.25 
i  8-qt.  saucepan — spinach,  ham,  corn,  etc 70      1.65 


i  clock    i.oo 

i  covered  garbage  pail  (near  sink) , 45 

i  wire  rubbish  burner  (near  sink) 1.25 

1  match-box  (near  stove) .10 

2  oval  flannel  pot-holders  (near  stove) each        '.05 

i  cooking  thermometer  (near  stove) i.oo 

i  handled  asbestos  mat  (near  stove) 10 

Kitchen  salt  and  pepper  (near  stove) 10 

i  toaster  (near  stove) .25 

i  pan-hanging  kitchen  scale  (near  cabinet) 2.50 

Glass  cereal  jars,  spice  jars  (near  cabinet) 


Card  recipe  cabinet,  bill-hook  (near  cabinet) 

Kni  f e  sharpener 

Coffee  mill 

i  ice-pick  and  shaver .25 

i  enameled  egg  holder,  glass  butter  jar each        .25 

1  large-figured  calendar 

Kitchen  dishes,  pitchers,  etc 

White  enameled  plates  and  dishes  exclusively  for 
ice-box  use   

high  stool  on  castors 1.50 

tray    i.oo 

DISHWASHING  EQUIPMENT  (Grouped  near  sink) 

square  dishpan  on  feet 1.50 

wire  dish  drainer $  .50  to      1.25 

large,  I  small  dishmop each        .05 

wire  pot-brush   .10 

wooden  plate  scraper 25 

sink  strainer   25 

soap-shaker 10 

wire  faucet  soap-dish 25 

sink-brush  and  scoop < .10 

6  linen,  glass  and  silver,  towels 

2  mesh  pot-rags  for  wiping  pots  and  surfaces,  .each        .15 
6  crash  dishtowels 

Soaps,  cleansers,  etc 


Other  pieces  of  equipment  might  be  the  portable  steamer, 
bread-mixer,  cake-mixer,  broiler,  if  not  in  connection  with 
the  range,  pastry  outfit,  bread-slicer,  cleaver,  saw,  cherry- 
stoner,  etc.,  which  would  find  a  useful  place  in  some  family, 
but  scarcely  be  needed  in  others.  Equipment  must  be  chosen 
having  the  needs  of  the  particular  family  in  mind  rather 
than  blindly  following  a  set  list. 


One  more  group  of  equipment  must  be  mentioned  in  con- 
nection with  every  kitchen,  and  that  is  the  more  business- 
like helps,  of  which  there  are  several.  The  card  cabinet 
filing  cookbook  which  will  be  described  in  detail  later  must 
have  a  place  on  the  shelf  above  the  preparing  surface. 
This  makes  for  neatness,  accuracy  and  ease  in  following 
recipes.  A  drawer  containing  the  cards  can  be  attached 
to  a  shelf  at  about  the  level  of  the  eyes  with  a  square  of 
glass  protecting  the  cards  as  used.  A  bill-hook  will  keep 
sales  checks  and  other  memoranda  until  wanted.  A  large 
envelope  should  be  used  to  contain  the  direction  tags  which 
come  with  many  pieces  of  equipment  and  which  are  so  nec- 
essary to  turn  to  from  time  to  time.  If  the  calendar  is 
large  and  distinct  enough,  the  daily  deliveries  of  milk,  ice 
or  bread  or  other  memos  can  be  placed  in  the  square  around 
each  date.  A  kitchen  reminder  list  of  some  kind,  and  a 
separate  pad  with  pencil  attached  to  string,  on  which  to 
write  daily  menus,  is  invaluable.  A  small  "bulletin-board," 
possibly  a  slate,  will  also  be  found  helpful  to  outline  work, 
suggestions  or  reminders. 


It  is  preferable  to  have  uniform  glass  jars  to  contain 
cereals,  spices  and  other  dry  food  supplies  like  powdered 
sugar,  beans,  cornstarch,  etc.  Glass  makes  the  best  con- 


tainer  because  then  it  is  possible  to  see  always  the  exact 
amount  on  hand.  All  containers  should  be  air  and  moisture 
proof  and  have  lids  or  stoppers  that  are  easy  to  adjust. 
Quart,  pint  and  half-pint  jars  come  in  various  shapes, 
some  with  excellent  sliding  metal  tops,  which  permit  easy 
opening.  The  square  glass  containers  used  in  pharmacies 
with  solid  glass  plug  stopper  are  equally  excellent  for  cof- 
fee, tea,  rice,  etc.  All  containers  and  all  shelves  should 
be  plainly  labeled,  and  one  can  obtain  attractive  labels, 
square  or  oval,  with  gummed  backs  in  all  sizes  for  every 
need.  The  kitchen  is  now  following  the  laboratory  in  its 
sanitary,  systematic  storing  of  supplies  in  glass  with  plainly 
marked  labels. 



1.  Draw  a  diagram  of  your  kitchen,  pantries,  etc.,  showing 

position  of  stove,  sink,  refrigerator,  work  table,  shelves, 
doors,  windows,  etc.  Let  one-fourth  inch  in  the  plan 
equal  one  foot  in  the  kitchen. 

2.  Draw  a  duplicate  sketch  rearranging  this  kitchen  so  far 

as  possible  in  accordance  with  the  suggestions  of  the 

3.  Show  the  "routing"  on  these  two  plans  (A)  for  prepar- 

ing and  (B)  for  clearing  away  a  meal.  Estimate  the 
distance  and  number  of  steps  saved  by  the  second 

4.  Get    estimates    from    carpenters,    plumbers,    decorators, 

etc.,  of  how  much  the  various  changes  and  improve- 
ments would  cost.  Give  the  order  in  which  you  would 
like  to  have  these  changes  made. 

5.  Tell  what  you  have  already  accomplished  in  the  better 

grouping  of  small  equipment  and  supplies ;  also  of  any 
other  suggestions  you  have  carried  out. 

NOTE.  Those  taking  the  correspondence  course  will  be 
supplied  with  a  Report  Blank  having  cross  section  lines,  which 
are  of  assistance  in  drawing  the  sketches. 




CONDITIONS  in  no  two  homes  are  exactly  alike ;  in 
one  the  family  may  number  six  or  more ;  in  another 
be  only  three.    The  location,  whether  city  apartment, 
detached  suburban  house,  or  isolated  country   farm,  also 
greatly  affects  the  kind  and  extent  of  the  housework.    The 
house   construction   itself   either   increases   or   lessens  the 
amount  of  work  to  be  done.    The  hours  of  meals ;  whether 
or  not  there  are  children  or  invalids  in  the  family ;  all  these 
factors  have  a  bearing  upon  the  plans  and  methods  of  daily 

Letters  by  the  hundred  come  to  my  desk,  all  bearing  a  sim- 
ilar plaint  that  women  like  housework,  are  fond  of  some 
special  branch  like  cooking  or  sewing,  but  that  they  do  not 
seem  to  be  able  to  "get  done"  and  have  any  time  to  them- 
selves. In  other  words,  the  woman  with  the  small  family 
and  the  woman  with  the  large  family  have  the  same  prob- 
lem— not  how  to  do  any  special  task,  but  how  to  plan  and 
work  out  a  schedule  of  all  tasks;  how  to  relate  work  and 
apportion  it  so  that  it  shall  progress  smoothly  with  as  little 
interruption  as  possible.  t 

"My  work  is  so  different  every  day,  and  there  are  so  many 
separate  kinds  of  tasks  that  I  don't  see  how  it  is  possible  to 



make  a  definite  plan  of  daily  work,  or  a  'schedule,'  as  you 
call  it,"  some  women  have  said. 

But  it  is  just  because  there  are  different  tasks  that  a 
schedule  is  needed.  If  a  woman  were  doing  nothing  but  the 
same  thing  without  interruption  from  morning  until  night, 
there  would  be  no  use  for  a  plan  of  work.  There  is  only 
need  of  a  plan  when  there  are  several  pieces  of  varying 
work  to  be  done  at  different  hours  with  different  tools. 
Then  it  becomes  essential  to  arrange  these  varying  tasks  in 
order  and  on  time,  so  that  the  worker  may  proceed  with  the 
least  amount  of  friction  and  effort. 


While  it  may  appear  that  conditions  vary  greatly  in  any 
two  homes,  when  we  compare  all  the  tasks  done  daily,  we 
see  that  no  matter  how  large  or  small  the  home,  or  what 
the  number  in  the  family,  etc.,  the  tasks  themselves  remain 


Cooking  and  serving  of  3  meals       Laundry — washing  and  ironing 

a  day  Mending  or  sewing 

Dish  and  pot-washing  Thorough  cleaning  of  house 

Bed-making  and  bedroom  care  Window,  silver  or  metal  cleaning 

Light    cleaning    of    living-room,       Special  cooking  or  baking 

stairs,  hall,  kitchen,  bath  and       Refrigerator,    pantry    or    closet 
porch  cleaning 

Marketing  and  ordering  of  sup- 

Every  schedule  or  work-plan  has  two  objects : 

(1)  The  order  of  work. 

(2)  The  time  of  work. 

The  order  of 'work  is  by  far  the  most  important,  and  the 
thing  that  must  be  determined  first.  The  reason  for  so 
much  "nerves"  and  useless  effort  is  solely  to  be  found  in  the 
lack  of  order  in  the  work-plan.  The  time  at  which  a  particu- 


lar  task  is  done  is  secondary  and  can  be  decided  only  after 
the  order  is  arranged  and  provided  for. 


The  first  thing  to  do  in  making  a  schedule  is  to  follow  the 
principle  which  other  executives  follow,  namely:  use  the 
head  first,  and  with  pencil  and  paper  write  down  the  few 
absolute  conditions  around  which  the  schedule  must  center. 
For  instance,  the  first  facts  to  be  set  down  would  be  the 
hours  of  meals,  as  these  must  be  definite,  and  on  them  de- 
pend the  cooking  and  some  of  the  other  work.  Next,  write 
down  the  order  of  the  regular  daily  tasks  in  the  way  you 
think  they  will  go  best  in  your  particular  home;  whether, 
for  example,  it  will  be  better  to  wash  all  the  breakfast 
dishes,  straighten  the  kitchen,  and  start  some  cooking  for 
lunch,  before  going  upstairs  to  make  the  beds ;  or  whether 
to  merely  put  away  food  and  scrape  the  dishes,  proceed  to 
making  the  beds,  doing  light  cleaning,  and  return  to  start 
lunch  later,  doing  breakfast  and  lunch  dishes  together.  What 
is  the  best  order  only  the  individual  worker  can  determine 
for  her  individual  case.  By  watching  yourself  at  work,  by 
counting  how  long  one  plan  of  work  takes  versus  a  second 
plan,  and  which  of  the  two  seems  to  save  the  most  inter- 
ruption, most  trotting,  the  best  plan  can  finally  be  worked 

In  making  out  the  daily  schedule,  the  schedule  of  weekly 
or  special  tasks  must  be  considered  at  the  same  time,  because 
some  of  the  special  tasks  are  done  each  day.  For  instance, 
in  planning  both  the  cooking  and  cleaning  of  Monday  or 
Tuesday,  we  must  consider  whether  or  not  the  laundry  is  to 
be  done  on  either  of  these  days.  Again,  in  planning  the  daily 
schedule  for  Friday  or  Saturday,  we  shall  have  to  take  into 
account  the  special  thorough  cleaning  of  the  house,  special 
cooking,  etc.  In  other  words,  there  is  no  such  thing  as  a  true 


daily  schedule,  but  rather  a  schedule  of  every  day,  since  the 
entire  week's  tasks  must  be  considered  at  once. 

Much  of  the  confusion  of  unscheduled  work  arises  be- 
cause too  many  things  are  crowded  into  the  one  day,  while 
other  days  have  too  little.  The  schedule  aims  to  prevent 
just  this  unevenness  in  work.  It  tries  to  consider  all  the 
tasks,  daily  and  weekly,  and  then  group  and  arrange  them 
in  such  a  way  as  to  have  the  work  evenly  distributed  over 
the  entire  week.  Very  often  work  is  so  poorly  planned  that 
suddenly  a  woman  finds  it  "all  piled  up"  and  herself  facing 
the  task  of  an  excessive  load  of  work  at  one  time.  Some 
women,  by  temperament,  like  to  work  "by  spurts,"  but  it  has 
been  found  that  the  smoothest  housework  is  that  which  has 
its  definite  task  done  regularly  so  that  there  never  are 
periods  of  overloading. 

Without  a  schedule  it  too  frequently  happens  that  the 
worker  allows  an  unexpected  piece  of  work  to  interrupt  and 
confuse  her  entire  day.  For  instance,  during  her  morning's 
work  a  woman  might  be  just  ready  to  leave  the  kitchen  and 
go  upstairs  to  make  the  beds.  But  she  suddenly  sees  that 
the  breadbox  is  surprisingly  full  of  stale  and  even  mouldy 
bread.  She  stops  to  give  the  box  a  thorough  scalding.  She 
notices  then  that  the  entire  pantry  seems  unusually  disor- 
derly. A  "spasm"  of  cleaning  fever  seizes  her,  and  she 
decides  that  the  pantry  right  then  and  there  needs  a  thorough 
cleaning.  One  thing  leads  to  another,  and  before  she 
knows  it  the  entire  morning  is  given  over  to  this  unexpected 
task.  When  she  notices  the  clock  she  sees  that  the  cleaning 
and  bedmaking  have  been  neglected  and  lunch  preparation 
entirely  forgotten.  It  takes  her  the  whole  day  "to  catch  up." 
The  schedule  way  would  have  provided  for  a  special  pantry 
cleaning  on  some  definite  time,  and  never  allowed  the  routine 
to  be  so  interrupted. 


So  many  women  have  said,  "Oh,  I  couldn't  bear"  to  do  my 
housework  like  factory  work.  I  want  to  rest  when  I  want 
to,  and  to  do  things  as  I  feel  like  it."  Let  it  be  understood 
that  a  schedule  is  not  a  treadmill,  and  does  not  mean  per- 
petual work  without  rest.  On  the  contrary,  every  schedule 
must  contain  a  definite  "rest"  period.  The  worst  opponents 
of  the  schedule  plan  are  those  women  who  insist  on  working 
"till  they  drop."  Furthermore,  the  schedule  plan  is  the  only 
one  which  forces  regular  rest  or  recreation  periods.  Its 
whole  idea  is  simply,  plan  what  you  are  going  to  do,  do  it, 
and  then  rest;  instead  of  not  knowing  what  you  are  going 
to  do,  resting  or  stopping  when  you  feel  like  it,  and  never 
knowing  when  you  are  going  to  get  done.  In  a  certain  fac- 
tory in  Massachusetts  girls  test  the  delicate  parts  of  ball- 
bearings. The  work  is  so  trying  that  every  two  hours  they 
are  forced  to  stop  for  ten  minutes  in  which  they  can  talk, 
leave  work,  or  do  what  they  like.  In  another  immense 
organization  employing  thousands  of  clerks,  fifteen  minutes 
is  given  during  the  forenoon  as  an  intermission.  Nurses  and 
workers  in  many  other  lines  have  definite  "time  off."  But 
only  by  assigning  definite  hours  for  work,  can  you  also 
assign  definite  hours  of  rest.  For  the  homemaker,  the  sched- 
ule should  provide  a  short  "rest  period"  in  the  forenoon,  and 
a  longer  one  in  the  afternoon. 


While,  as  was  said,  it  is  not  possible  to  give  one  type 
schedule  that  will  apply  to  any  and  all  conditions,  here  is  a 
work  schedule  carefully  planned  for  a  week  for  a  woman 
who  does  all  her  own  work  in  a  family  of  5,  the  3  children 
going  to  school  (but  coming  home  at  noon)  ;  husband's 
shirts  being  sent  to  laundry.  The  house  is  a  detached, 
7-room  suburban  cottage ;  the  fuel  used  gas,  with  coal  water 



Without  Labor-Saving  Equipment 


6:00-  6:30    Rise  and  dress;  start  water  heater 

6:30-  7:00     Prepare  breakfast 

7:00-  7:30    BREAKFAST 

7 130-  8 130    Wash  dishes ;  straighten  kitchen ;  inspect  icebox ;  plan 
meals  for  Monday  and  Tuesday 

8 130-  9  :oo    Prepare  towards  lunch 

9:00-10:00    Bedrooms,   bath   and   hall   cleaned;    sort   and   prepare 

soiled  linen  and  laundry 
10:00-11:00    Thorough  downstairs  cleaning 
ii  :oo-n  :3O    Rest  period 
11:30-12:00     Serve  lunch 
12:00-  i  :oo    LUNCH 

i  :oo-  3  :oo    Lunch  dishes ;  prepare  cooking  for  Monday  and  Tues- 
day ;  mop  kitchen 

3  :oo-  4  :oo    Sewing  and  mending 

4:00-  4:30     Soak  clothes  and  prepare  for  next  day's  washing 

4:30-  5:30    Rest  period;   play  with  children;   walk,   recreation   or 

5  :3O-  6  :oo     Prepare  supper 

6:00-  7:00    SUPPER 

7:00-  7:30    Wash  dishes 


6:00-  6:30  Rise  and  dress;  put  on  boiler 

6 :3O-  7  :oo  Prepare  breakfast 

7:00-  7:30  BREAKFAST 

7 :3O-  8  :oo  Stack  dishes ;  make  beds 

8  :oo-i  i  :3O  Washing 

11:30-12:00  Rest  period 

12:00-  i  :oo  LUNCH  (prepared  day  before) 

I  :oo—  2 :3O  Wash  breakfast  and  lunch  dishes ;  clear  up  laundry 

2 :3O-  4  :oo  Take  in  clothes ;   fold,  sprinkle,  lay  away 

4:00-  5:30  Rest  period 

5  :3O-  6  :oo  Prepare  supper 

6:bo-  7:00  SUPPER 

7:00-  7:30  Wash  dishes 



6  :oo-  6 :30  Rise  and  dress ;  start  water  heater 

6 :3O-  7  :oo  Prepare  breakfast 

7:00-  7:30  BREAKFAST 

7:30-8:30  Wash  dishes;  inspect  icebox;  plan  meals;  start  iunch 

8:30-  9:00  Make  beds;  light  cleaning 

9  :oo-i2  :oo  Ironing 

12:00-  i  :oo  LUNCH 

1  :oo-  2:00  Finish  ironing;  put  away  clothes 

2  :oo-  3  :oo  Wash  dishes ;  straighten  kitchen 

3  :oo-  4  :oo  Rest  period 

4  :oo-  5  :oo  Market ;  walk 
5:30-  6:00  Prepare  supper 
6:00-  7:00  SUPPER 

7:00-  7:30  Wash  dishes 


6:00-  6:30  Rise  and  dress;  start  water  heater 

6 130-  7  :oo  Prepare  breakfast 

7:00-  7:30  BREAKFAST 

7 :3O-  8 :3O  Wash  dishes ;  straighten  kitchen ;  plan  meals 

8:30-  9:00  Make  beds 

9:00-11:30  Bedrooms  and  closets  cleaned 

11:30-12:00  Rest  period 

12  :oo-  i  :oo  LUNCH 

i  :oo-  2  :oo  Wash  dishes ;  prepare  vegetables  toward  supper 

2:00-  3:30  Upstairs  windows  cleaned     (Up  and  down  stairs  win- 
dows alternately  each  week) 

3:30-  4:00  Silver  polished 

4  :oo-  5 :30  Rest  period 

5  :3O-  6  :oo  Prepare  supper 
6:00-  7:00  SUPPER 

7:00-  7:30  Wash  dishes 


6  :oo-  6  .-30  Rise  and  dress ;  start  heater 

6:30-  7:00  Prepare  breakfast 

7:00-  7:30  BREAKFAST 

7 :3O-  8 :30  Wash  dishes  ;  straighten  kitchen ;  plan  meals 


8 :30-  9  :oo  Make  beds 

9:00-11:30  Downstairs  cleaning 

ii  :3O-I2  :oo  Rest  period 

12:00-  i  :oo  LUNCH 

1  :oo—  2  :oo  Wash  dishes ;  start  supper 

2  :oo-  3  :30  Clean  refrigerator,  pantry,  kitchen,  drawers 

3  :oo-  5  :3O  Rest  period;  marketing 
5  :3O—  6  :oo  Prepare  supper 

6:00-  7:00     SUPPER 
7:00-  7:30    Wash  dishes 
7 :30-  8  :oo    Set  bread 


6:00-  6:30  Rise  and  dress;  start  heater 

6 :3O-  7  :oo  Prepare  breakfast 

7:00-  7:30  BREAKFAST 

7 :3O-  8  :oo  Make  beds 

8  :oo-  8 130  Wash  dishes 

8 :3O-i  1 130  Special  cooking,  and  baking 

11  :3O-i2  :oo  Rest  period 

12  :oo-  i  :oo  LUNCH 

1  :oo-  2  :oo    Wash  dishes ;  start  supper 

2  :oo-  3  :3O    Clean  stove ;  wipe  kitchen  and  porch 

3  '30-  5  '30    Rest  period 

5  130-  6  :oo    Prepare  supper 
6:00-  7:00     SUPPER 
7:00-  7:30    Wash  dishes 

(Good  hot  dinner  Saturday  night;  light  or  cold  meals  Sunday) 

From  the  foregoing  schedule  it  will  be  seen  that  both 
daily  and  weekly  special  tasks  are  provided  for ;  that  there 
is  a  definite  rest  period  every  afternoon  and  generally  in 
the  morning.  It  will  also  be  noticed  that  there  are  certain 
units  or  groups  of  work  done  together.  For  instance,  the 
period  when  the  lunch  dishes  are  washed  is  used  for  vegeta- 
ble preparation  so  that  vegetables  and  sometimes  dessert  for 
the  night  meal  can  be  cooking  and  watched  while  the  dishes 
are  washed.  This  considerably  lessens  the  time  necessary 


for  supper  preparation  and  allows  a  longer  free  period  in 
the  afternoon. 

It  will  be  seen  also  that  Tuesday  and  not  Monday  is  given 
to  washing.  This  plan  has  several  advantages.  Sunday 
visitors  generally  leave  the  house  in  confusion  and  the 
woman  more  tired.  Monday  washing  also  means  soaking  the 
clothes  some  time  on  Sunday,  which  is  not  desirable.  The 
Tuesday  washing  plan  allows  for  a  thorough  brushing-up  of 
the  entire  house  on  Monday,  a  sorting  and  soaking  clothes, 
preparing  shirts  to  be  sent  to  laundry,  and  a  double  cooking 
so  that  there  will  be  practically  no  cooking  on  Tuesday. 

Marketing  is  allowed  for  three  times  a  week,  but  if  it  can 
be  done  once  a  week,  so  much  the  better.  Notice  that  ice- 
box inspection  and  meal  planning  take  place  immediately 
after  breakfast,  the  menus  then  being  written  down  on  a 
kitchen  pad.  This  schedule  gives  simply  order  of  work 
without  attempting  any  very  special  timing  of  any  one  task, 
nor  does  it  consider  the  work  assisted  by  any  labor-savers. 


In  the  above  schedule  has  been  shown  how  one  definite 
task  was  taken  up  after  another,  or,  as  it  is  called,  "routed." 
Now,  this  routing  depends  somewhat  on  house  construction. 
In  planning  the  cleaning  particularly,  the  arrangement  of 
the  rooms  should  be  studied.  By  starting  work  in  one  room 
and  proceeding  to  others  in  a  given  order,  saving  of  time 
and  steps  can  be  made.  The  following  diagram  will  show 
the  easier  way  to  clean  a  given  set  of  rooms  and  the  more 
step- taking  plan  which  might  have  been  followed  if  the 
house  construction  had  not  been  studied.  This  is  true  not 
only  of  the  work  itself  but  particularly  in  regard  to  the 
handling  of  utensils  and  tools.  Lack  of  a  definite  order  of 
work  makes  for  double  or  even  triple  handling,  which  is 
altogether  unnecessary. 


Method. — Worker  gets  tools  from  tool  closet  (1),  and  walks  down  hall 
and  begins  on  living  room  (2)  ;  returns  with  trash  to  kitchen  (3),  and 
walks  to  dining  room  (4)  ;  after  cleaning  it,  again  returns  to  kitchen  with 
trash,  and  proceeds  to  clean  the  study  (5)  ;  she  walks  back  to  kitchen 
again,  and  last  cleans  hall  (6),  ending  by  bringing  back  tools  and  last 
refuse  to  kitchen  again,  before  taking  the  final  walk  back  to  tool  closet  (1). 
This  is  not  an  exaggeration,  but  the  method  used  by  a  so-called  "good 


M ethod.— Worker  gets  tools  from  tool  closet  (1),  and  proceeds  direct  to 
study  (2)  ;  from  study  through  door  to  parlor  (3)  ;  across  parlor  hallway 
to  dining  room  (4)  ;  she  then  begins  at  upper  end  of  hallway  (5),  and 
cleans  its  length  back  to  the  door  opening  on  rear  porch,  carrying  all 
waste  and  tools  back  directly  to  service  porch  (6).  Note  that  this  method 
eliminates  all  tracking  to  kitchen  and  results  in  about  two-thirds  less 
unnecessary  steps  and  walking. 



As  was  indicated,  laundry  to  be  sent  away  was  gathered 
and  made  into  a  bundle  Monday  morning.  If  at  the  same 
time  the  bundles  were  carried  directly  near  the  back  door, 
they  would  be  right  at  hand  when  the  laundry  man  came  for 
them.  So  much  unnecessary  trotting  is  due  solely  to  the 
fact  of  running  upstairs  or  going  after  some  article  which 
should  have  been  carried  directly  to  the  place  from  which 
it  is  finally  to  be  handled.  Another  minor  detail  is  the 
emptying  of  garbage,  and  cleaning  of  the  pail.  If  this  is  not 
provided  for,  other  work  will  be  interrupted  by  this  unpleas- 
ant task.  In  general,  it  seems  best  to  empty  it  after  the 
lunch  dishes  and  vegetable  preparing  for  night  have  been 
done,  washing  the  pail  and  setting  to  air  until  night. 

Similarly  with  lamps  if  their  cleaning  and  care  must  be 
included  in  the  work  schedule.  This  is  a  definite  daily  task 
and  should  be  fitted  in  and  not  left  as  an  afterthought  or 
when  this  unpleasant  piece  of  work  might  interrupt  other 
clean  tasks. 

Again,  a  very  small  task  which  often  causes  much  unneces- 
sary dirt  is  the  emptying  of  waste  baskets.  So  frequently  the 
wrong  plan  is  followed  of  carrying  baskets,  tools,  mops,  etc., 
and  dumping  them  into  the  kitchen  when  their  ultimate 
destination  is  somewhere  else.  Again  and  again,  it  has  been 
noticed  that  on  a  general  cleaning  day  waste,  trash,  cleaning 
tools  have  all  been  brought  to  the  kitchen  when  they  might 
just  as  well  have  been  taken  to  their  rightful  closet  or  rub- 
bish box  without  tracking  through  the  kitchen  at  all.  Making 
the  kitchen  a  general  dumping  ground  means  that  additional 
work  and  handling  must  be  done  in  the  kitchen,  thus  wasting 
time  and  effort. 

Another  way  in  which  many  minutes  are  wasted  is  because 
of  a  lack  of  definite  understanding  in  regard  to  tradesmen 


and  deliveries.  For  instance,  it  is  most  inefficient  to  have 
the  iceman  call  every  morning  inquiring  whether  you  need 
ice,  if  you  need  ice  only  three  times  a  week.  Make  a  point 
of  looking  at  the  ice  supply  at  a  definite  morning  hour,  and 
hanging  out  a  card  so  that  the  iceman  can  deliver  without 
interrupting  you  at  all.  Plan  definitely  when  you  want 
tradespeople  to  call  and  insist  that  they  do  not  call  at  other 
times.  The  special  shelf  near  the  kitchen  or  rear  door  on 
which  supplies  may  be  laid  has  been  spoken  of.  Give  orders 
that  bundles,  articles,  etc.,  shall  be  left  here  with  as  little 
interruption  as  possible.  Keep  a  supply  of  change  in  the 
kitchen.  Running  upstairs  to  a  pocketbook,  even  once  a 
day  every  day  in  the  week,  runs  into  enough  time  in  a  year 
to  read  several  best  sellers ! 


The  type  schedule  given  above  will  not  fit  every  family. 
There  is  the  family  with  younger  children  or  babies.  Their 
care  will  have  to  be  provided  for,  and  the  special  baby 
washing,  naps,  airing,  etc.  Such  a  schedule  for  one  day 
might  work  out  as  follows : 


(One  small  baby  on  3-hour  feeding  period;   small  house  or  flat) 
6 130-  7  :oo    Rise  and  dress ;  give  baby  morning  feeding 
7:00-  7:30    Breakfast.      (Uncooked    cereal,    or    cereal    cooked    in 

fireless.    Table  set  night  before) 
7:30-  8:00    Clear  table;  stack  dishes;  plan  meals  for  the  day;  put 

on  water  for  baby's  bath 

8  :oo-  9  :oo     Bathe  baby,  feed  and  put  to  sleep ;  pick  up  after  bath  ; 

straighten  bedroom 

9  :oo-io  :oo    Prepare  baby's  gruel,  sterilized  milk,  etc. ;  wash  baby 

napkins  while  watching  food 
(Baby  naps  9:00-11:00) 
10:00-11:00    Clean  living-rooms,  hall,  etc.,  and  dress  ready  to  take 

baby  for  morning  airing  while  marketing 
11:00-12:00    Outdoors  with  baby  while  marketing 



12  :oo-  i  :oo    Return  for  lunch  and  baby  feeding 

i  :oo~  2 :3O    Wash  combined  breakfast  and  lunch  dishes ;   prepare 

vegetables,  dessert  and  meat,  if  possible,  for  evening 

meal ;  brush  up  kitchen ;  empty  garbage ;  sweep  porch 

(Baby  awake  and  playing  outdoors,  if  possible,  from 

i~3  J  at  3  o'clock  feeding  and  sleep  until  4) 
2 130-  3  :oo    Iron  baby  clothing 

3  :oo-  4  :oo    Rest  period  ;  preferably  nap  with  baby  while  it  is  asleep 

4  :oo-  5  :oo    Afternoon  airing 

5  :oo-  5  130    Start  supper 

5  :3O-  6  :oo    Put  baby  to  sleep  with  night  feeding 

6  :oo-  7 130    Own    supper ;    supper    dishes    washed ;    table    set    for 

breakfast  following  morning 
(Baby's  last  feeding  10  P.  M.) 

Similarly,  the  family  with  an  invalid  or  where  meals  are 
taken  at  very  irregular  hours,  as  by  many  professional  men ; 
or  the  many  country  conditions  where  the  care  of  stock, 
garden,  etc.,  must  be  included.  In  each  case,  the  schedule 
must  be  built  to  meet  and  fit  the  essential  needs  of  the  par- 
ticular family.  It  must  always  be  kept  in  mind  that  the 
schedule  in  itself  is  worthless;  and  that  it  is  useful  only  as  a 
means  to  an  end — that  the  schedule  must  fit  the  family,  and 
not  that  the  family  be  made  uncomfortable  or  be  moulded 
over  to  fit  an  iron-clad  housework  plan. 

We  have  spoken  of  the  order  of  work  and  its  importance 
as  the  backbone  on  which  the  development  of  the  schedule 
rests.  We  now  want  to  think  about  the  timing  of  various 
tasks  in  order  that  we  can  arrange  a  more  closely-knit,  exact 
schedule.  Every  task  represents  a  number  of  motions  and 
effort,  and  hence  time.  On  study  we  find  that  there  is  one 
best,  shortest  way  of  doing  a  task  under  a  given  set  of  cir- 
cumstances. Finding  out  this  best,  shortest  way  and  reduc- 
ing it  as  nearly  as  possible  to  a  habit  is  called  "standard- 
izing" it 


To  standardize  any  task  we  must  study  how  we  do  it  and 
then  see  if  we  cannot  improve  and  shorten  this  former  time 
of  work.  Bed-making,  dishwashing,  cleaning,  especially,  are 
purely  routine  pieces  of  work  and  can  easily  be  standard- 
ized. Let  us  take  dishwashing. 


When  we  say  "dishwashing,"  we  commonly  think  of  a 
single  household  task.  But  when  closely  analyzed  and  made 
the  subject  of  a  time  or  motion  study,  we  see  that  it  is  com- 
posed of  several  parts  or  steps,  each  with  different  motions, 
and  generally  performed  with  different  tools,  as  follows : 

(1)  Scraping  waste  from  surface  of  china,  agate 

or  other  kind  of  dish  or  utensil. 

(2)  Stacking  or  arranging  dishes  on  surface  adja- 

cent to  sink,  preparatory  to  washing. 

(3)  Actual   washing   with   water,    soap   or   other 

cleanser,  with  aid  of  cloth,  mop  or  other  me- 
chanical means. 

(4)  Rinsing  dishes  with  clear  water. 

(5)  Wiping  dishes  with  towel  or  equivalent  drying. 

(6)  Laying  away  dishes  on  or  in  respective  shelves 

and  cupboards. 

The  efficiency  of  the  whole  process  of  "dishwashing"  can 
be  improved  only  by  increasing  the  efficiency  of  each  step. 

From  careful  experiments  made  with  dishwashing  over  a 
period  of  two  months  and  analysis  of  each  of  the  six  steps 
in  the  dishwashing  process,  the  following  results  were 
obtained : 


Number  of  dishes 50  50 

Scraping    and    stacking 7  minutes         7  minutes 

Washing  and  rinsing n        "  10        " 

Wiping    13  2 

Laying  away  8  4 

TOTAL  TIME 41        "  23 


In  both  tests  the  number  of  dishes  washed  was  the  same. 
But  in  Test  B  the  conditions  were  changed.  First,  a  wire 
drainer  was  substituted  for  a  tray  which  entirely  eliminated 
the  hand  wiping;  then  shelves  for  dishes  were  placed  adja- 
cent to  the  sink  instead  of  in  a  pantry  18  feet  distant,  which 
considerably  reduced  the  time  of  the  laying-away  step,  and 
thus  reduced  the  total  process  from  43  to  23  minutes,  or 
nearly  one-half  the  time. 

From  many  time-studies  similar  to  the  above,  the  follow- 
ing general  conclusions  were  reached : 

(1)  The  "height  of  the  sink  must  be  adjusted  to  the 

height  of  the  worker,  and  be  sufficiently 
high  so  that  she  can  work  without  the  slight- 
est stooping. 

(2)  The  depth  of  the  sink  must  be  such  as  to  allow 

ample  accommodation  for  the  dishpan  with 
sufficient  surface  above  to  prevent  sloshing 
of  water  over  the  edge  and  on  person  of 

(3)  Stack  surface  must  be  to  right  of  sink,  drain 

surface  to  left  for  right-handed  worker. 
This  permits  easy  and  rapid  laying-down 
motion  of  each  dish  without  awkward 
crossing  of  left  arm  over  right. 

(4)  Thorough  scraping  facilities  the  actual  wash- 


(5)  Wire   drainer  keeping  each  dish  separate   is 

more  efficient  than  tray  or  other  flat  surface 
which  does  not  allow  quick  drying. 

(6)  Similar   shaped   pieces   can   be   washed   with 

much  greater  rapidity  per  number  than  can 
poorly  assorted  ones ;  hence  the  need  of 
stacking  similar  dishes  in  groups. 


(7)  Sitting  down  at  dishwashing  does  not  lessen 

the  actual  time,  but  does  greatly  lessen  the 

(8)  Scalding  dishes  in  drainer  more  sanitary  and 

less  time-taking  than  hand  wiping. 

(9)  If  shelves  and  closets  for  dishes  and  utensils 

are  grouped  near  left  of  sink  or  in  same 
relative  position,  the  time  saved  in  the  laying 
away  step  will  be  considerable  over  that  in 
which  distant  pantries  are  used,  entailing 
several  trips  with  trays,  etc. 

(10)  These  generalizations  cover  washing  of  pots, 
silver  and  glass  as  well,  except  that  all  in 
these  last  three  classes  must  be  dried  by 

This  shows  the  method  of  analyzing  and  standardizing 
any  particular  task.  The  standardization  includes  close 
observation  of  the  way  the  worker  uses  her  hands,  the  tool 
and  its  conditions  and  particularly  the  preparatory  and  fol- 
lowing steps  of  any  given  piece  of  work.  For  instance, 
many  a  woman  might,  by  timing  herself,  find  that  she  made 
a  cake  on  a  ic-minute  schedule,  which  is  rapid  work.  But 
if  she  counted  up  the  time  she  spent  gathering  her  eggs,  but- 
ter, milk,  etc.,  together,  and  the  time  she  spent  "clearing  up" 
and  putting  her  materials  and  pans  away,  she  would  find 
that  the  total  time  was  not  10  minutes,  but  possibly  25 
minutes.  In  this  case,  standardization  of  her  work  would 
involve  a  more  step-saving  kitchen  arrangement,  and  better 
grouping  of  tools. 

Every  task  consists  not  of  one  single  set  of  motions,  but 
of  a  number  of  sets  or  processes  linked  together,  as  was 
shown  above  in  dishwashing.  The  only  way  in  which  the 
whole  process  can  be  improved  and  shortened  is  by  studying 


each  one  of  these  steps,  improving  and  lessening  the  time  it 
takes,  which  will  thus  lessen  the  time  of  the  whole  task. 

While  cooking  will  be  discussed  in  a  later  chapter  in 
greater  detail,  it  may  be  mentioned  here  that  every  cooking 
task  consists  of  these  three  parts: 

(1)  Getting  materials  ready  for  work. 

(2)  Actual  cooking  proper. 

(3)  Clearing-up;  replacing  materials  and  utensils. 

As  was  pointed  out,  time  is  lost  not  in  point  2,  but  in 
points  i  and  3,  and  these  conditions  must  be  improved  and 
time  shortened  here  before  we  can  shorten  the  entire  time 
of  cooking. 


In  considering  cleaning  also,  we  find  that  it  is  not  a  single 
act,  but  composed  of  many  complex  processes,  as  Sweeping, 
Wiping,  Dusting,  Polishing,  etc.  Cleaning  the  average  room 
includes  several  or  all  of  these  processes.  Again,  each  of 
them  is  done  with  a  separate  tool. 

Now,  we  find  that  much  time  is  lost  by  needless  handling 
of  cleaning  tools.  By  carefully  scheduling  the  order  of 
cleaning  a  number  of  rooms,  less  frequent  handling  of  uten- 
sils will  be  necessary.  The  time  of  cleaning  a  bedroom  daily 
may  be  cut  down  from  20  to  10  minutes  by  repeating  each 
day  the  definite  cleaning  order  or  schedule  decided  on. 


Following  are  a  few  time-studies  of  common  tasks.  It 
must  be  remembered,  however,  that  this  "time"  will  not 
apply  in  every  case.  They  are  only  the  result  of  work  done 
under  one  given  set  of  conditions.  In  your  home  they 
might  be  widely  different,  owing  to  the  different  conditions 
surrounding  your  work,  or  the  different  tools  used.  The 
amount  of  furniture  in  each  room,  the  size  of  the  room,  etc., 


will  affect  a  time-study  of  room-cleaning;  or  even  the  win- 
dow washing  will  vary  with  the  dirt  on  the  windows,  and 
the  tools  and  method  used.  Because  you  cannot  do  a  similar 
piece  of  work  in  the  same  time  does  not  mean  that  you  are 
not  a  good  worker — these  figures  are  given  only  to  show 
you  how  you  can  work  out  your  own  time-studies,  and  use 
them  as  a  basis  of  a  schedule  in  your  own  home : 

Making  double  bed,  approximately 5  minutes 

Making  single  bed,  approximately 3        " 

Brushing  up  bedroom  14x16,  approximately 12        " 

Daily  care  of  bathroom,  approximately 10        " 

1.  Washing  50  dishes  and  50  silver  (entire  process)  by 

hand    40        " 

2.  Washing  50  dishes  and  50  silver  by  hand,  but  under 

standardized  conditions    23        " 

1.  Setting  table   for  night  meal,   family  of   six    (trips 

with  trays) 13        " 

2.  Setting  table  for  night  meal,  family  of  six  (tray  on 

wheels)     6 

Washing  average  size  3-foot  window,  in  and  out 12        " 

Washing  8-light  pane   window 16 

1.  Mopping  kitchen  (10x12)  on  hands  and  knees 20 

2.  Mopping  kitchen  (10x12)  with  improved  mop 14 

1.  Breadmaking,  by  hand,  4  loaves,  including  cleaning 

board 24        " 

2.  Breadmaking  with   mixer,  4  loaves,  including  clean- 

ing board    16        " 

Many  women  still  persist  in  thinking  that  by  timing  them- 
selves they  are  holding  a  kind  of  whip  of  drudgery  over 
themselves.  On  the  contrary,  no  one  factor  makes  a  piece 
of  work  more  interesting  than  that  of  timing  it,  and  if  pos- 
sible, lessening  this  time  in  future  work.  Instead  of  mak- 
ing a  task  drudgery,  the  timing  acts  as  a  stimulus  to  do  the 
work  more  efficiently  and  "beat  the  record"  of  a  previous 
effort.  Women  who  have  tried  the  timing  plan  say  it  makes 
the  work  more  fun  to  do  it  with  eyes  on  the  clock  in  a 


determination  to  see  in  just  how  little  time  they  can  accom- 
plish it  and  yet  do  good  work  without  "hurry." 

The  more  closely  the  worker  can  figure  the  time  it  takes 
for  any  given  task,  the  more  carefully  can  she  arrange  the 
housework  schedule.  She  may,  for  instance  have  decided 
this  to  be  the  order  of  the  morning's  work : 

(1)  Prepare  and  serve  breakfast. 

(2)  Scrape  dishes;  lay  away  food. 

(3)  Make  beds;   brush  up  bedroom. 

(4)  Brush  up  living  rooms. 

(5)  Lunch  preparation. 

(6)  Rest  period. 

But,  by  timing  herself  at  these  various  pieces  of  work,  she 
will  be  able  to  add  definite  figures  opposite,  as, 

Preparing  and  serving  breakfast 6 130 —  7 

Scrape  dishes  and  lay  away  food.  .  .  .   7:30 —  8:15 

Make  beds  ;  brush  up  bedrooms 8:15 —  9 

Brush  up  living  rooms 9      —  9 145 

Lunch  preparation 9 145 — 10 145 

Rest  period 10 145 — 1 1 145 

By  working  out  a  still  closer  time  schedule  she  might  be 
able  to  also  include  in  the  morning  other  work  like  special 
cleaning,  cooking,  sewing,  or  her  marketing.  The  more 
closely  work  is  timed  the  more  nearly  perfect  the  schedule 
will  be.  This  timing  will  not  be  a  handicap,  but  make  the 
work  more  automatic  so  that  it  requires  less  nervous 


Sometimes  women  criticize  the  idea  of  the  schedule,  saying 
that  it  is  impossible  under  home  conditions  of  children,  sick- 
ness, etc.,  to  run  the  housework  train  on  schedule  time,  and 
that  it  is  not  practical  to  think  that  at  a  given  hour,  say  8:15, 


the  beds  are  going  to  be  made,  day  in  and  day  out.  The 
answer  is  that  we  do  not  make  any  rule  or  helpful  plan  based 
upon  exceptions.  The  fact  that  even  the  best  "limited" 
express  has  to  stop  unexpectedly  for  accidents  or  because 
other  trains  are  not  living  up  to  their  schedule,  does  not 
interfere  with  the  careful  working  out  of  a  schedule  under 
ordinary,  normal  circumstances.  Because  once  in  a  week 
we  are  suddenly  called  from  home,  or  because  the  baby  is 
suddenly  taken  ill  with  croup  and  all  schedules  have  to  go  by 
the  board,  is  no  sufficient  reason  why  there  should  not  be  a 
schedule  for  the  many  regular  days  on  which  there  are  no 
unexpected  interruptions,  and  which,  after  all,  form  the 
average  day's  work. 

Even  if  the  exact  time  plan  for  a  certain  task  cannot  be 
followed,  the  order  can  usually  be  followed  and  the  entire 
schedule  either  swung  later  or  earlier  in  the  day,  or  the  less 
vital  work  omitted  entirely.  For  instance,  if  we  have  a 
carefully  planned  schedule  which  starts  with  scraping  dishes 
at  7:30,  but  unexpectedly  receive  an  important  telephone 
call  which  takes  us  out  of  the  house  for  an  hour,  we  merely 
shift  the  schedule  an  hour  ahead  to  8:30  and  begin  later, 
cutting  down  the  least  important  morning's  work,  but  still 
following  the  regular  order.  It  is  just  in  emergencies  that 
the  value  of  the  schedule  is  most  fully  felt;  with  it  we  have 
a  guiding  plan  of  work  under  normal  circumstances.  Under 
the  abnormal  circumstances,  it  does  not  permit  us  to  become 
flustered  and  completely  upset. 

Again,  the  schedule  enables  us  to  have  a  better  "grip  on 
ourselves."  Hundreds  of  women  write  in  that  they  don't 
know  where  they  are  at;  that  they  can't  get  ahead  of  the 
work,  or  never  find  time  for  themselves.  Now,  an  attempt, 
at  least,  to  work  out  and  follow  a  household  schedule  gives 
a  "grip"  on  one's  self  that  is  most  helpful  and  encouraging. 
It  makes  you  know  what  must  be  done  and  sets  the  problem 


before  you  of  a  certain  given  number  of  hours  in  which  to 
do  it.  If  you  can  plan,  can  arrange  and  master  this  situation, 
then  you  feel  as  proud  and  as  confident  as  other  workers  in 
business  or  other  fields  who  likewise  have  the  assurance 
that  comes  from  working  under  schedule  conditions. 

I  have  seen  women  in  food  factories  fill  thousands  of  bot- 
tles of  mustard  per  day,  and  girls  bind  books,  or  stamp  and 
label  cartons.  In  all  these  cases,  a  very  great  amount  of 
work  was  demanded,  but  while  the  workers  were  tired  at  the 
end  of  the  day,  they  uniformly  said  that  there  was  little 
nervous  strain  because  they  knew  what  they  could  do  in  a 
day  and  when  it  was  to  be  done  and  when  they  were  to  be 
through.  In  other  words,  standardised  work  anywhere  re- 
laxes the  nervous  strain  and  gives  a  worker  a  feeling  of 
mastery  that  working  hit-and-miss  never  permits. 


While  a  schedule  of  household  work  most  certainly  helps 
the  woman  who  does  all  of  her  own  housework,  it  is  just  as 
important  and  necessary  in  a  home  where  one  or  more  ser- 
vants are  employed,  or  where  a  worker  comes  in  for  the 
day,  as  cleaning  woman,  laundress,  etc.  One  of  the  most 
frequent  and  strongest  reasons  alleged  by  servants  them- 
selves as  to  why  housework  is  not  a  desirable  occupation  is 
that  they  too  "never  have  time  to  themselves,"  and  do  not 
work  under  any  standard  conditions.  In  large  establish- 
ments where  there  are  many  workers  this  point  is  usually 
much  better  handled  than  in  the  small  home  with  one  general 
maid-of-all-work.  It  is  actually  much  easier  to  secure  help 
for  a  large  establishment  where  there  are  definite  assigned 
duties  and  definite  work  hours  than  it  is  to  secure  a  worker 
for  "general  housework"  in  homes  where  the  mistress  either 
does  not  know  or  has  not  taken  the  trouble  to  schedule  out 
the  work  for  the  one  maid. 


Much  friction  can  be  avoided  if  the  mistress  will  either 
alone  or  in  co-operation  with  the  worker,  work  out  a  daily 
and  weekly  schedule.  How  many  times  we  hear  a  mistress 
remark,  "I  wonder  what  Katy  is  doing  now  ?"  and  there  is  a 
feeling  that  Katy  is  shirking  her  work  or  taking  unnecessary 
time  for  herself.  Again,  Katy  never  knows  what  her  definite 
rest  period  or  "time  off"  will  be,  and  the  result  is  unsatis- 
faction  on  both  sides. 

There  is  no  difference  between  planning  a  schedule  for  a 
worker  and  planning  a  schedule  for  one's  self.  All  the  tasks 
that  must  be  done  daily  and  weekly  should  be  written  down 
and  arranged  in  a  tentative  order.  Some  definite  afternoon 
hour  or  hour  and  a  half  should  be  allowed  for  the  worker 
in  which  to  care  for  herself  and  do  as  she  likes.  It  should 
also  take  into  account  the  special  holidays  or  afternoons  off 
previously  arranged  with  her  at  the  time  of  engaging  her. 
Good  workers  much  prefer  to  work  under  schedule  condi- 
tions and  appreciate  the  fairness  of  such  an  arrangement, 
which  will  prevent  argument  as  to  why  such  and  such  a 
piece  of  work  has  been  neglected.  The  schedule  enables  the 
worker  to  "know  where  she  is  at,"  and  will  prevent  too  much 
work  being  crowded  into  any  one  day.  How  can  a  mistress 
expect  a  smooth-running  household  and  workers  to  give  good 
service  if  the  workers  are  left  to  follow  out  a  hit-and-miss 
plan,  to  do  work  as  they  feel  like  it,  or  to  be  blamed  for 
something  which  was  overlooked,  when  the  mistress  herself 
never  gave  definite  scheduled  orders  that  this  work  should 
be  done? 

Both  a  daily  and  weekly  schedule  can  be  written  down  for 
the  hired  worker.  It  should  include  the  smallest  details,  as 
on  what  days  tradesmen  come,  when  to  have  laundry  bundle 
ready,  the  exact  hours  at  which  meals  are  expected  to  be 
served,  when  special  tasks  like  silver,  window  washing, 
pantry  overhauling,  etc.,  are  to  be  done.  Besides,  a  simple 


daily  schedule  including  the  best  order  of  bedmaking,  brush- 
ing up,  meal  preparation,  etc.,  should  be  written  down  and 
both  these  schedules  hung  in  the  kitchen  or  written  down  in 
a  little  booklet  and  given  to  the  worker  when  she  first  comes. 
While  such  a  schedule  will  vary  in  every  household,  the 
following  points  should  be  covered  in  a  schedule  made  for 
the  worker : 

(1)  Hour  of  rising  for  worker. 

(2)  Hour  of  meals. 

(3)  Hour  of  consultation  with  mistress  regarding 

food  supplies  and  meals. 

(4)  Daily  work  routine. 

(5)  Days  on  which  special  work  is  done. 

(6)  Definite  rest  period  each  afternoon. 

(7)  Definite  arrangements  as  to  holidays  or  off 


In  connection  with  this  schedule,  explicit  directions  can 
be  given  as  to  where  tools  are  kept,  how  to  use  and  care  for 
them,  and  minor  details  of  the  way  work  is  preferred  to  be 
done  in  this  particular  household.  These  directions  will  be 
spoken  of  in  a  later  chapter,  where  it  will  be  shown  how  a 
mistress  can  make  a  "practice  book"  which  will  be  inval- 
uable to  put  in  the  hands  of  a  new  worker  and  which  will 
assist  in  "training"  a  servant  more  rapidly  and  enable  the 
work  to  be  done  with  far  less  misunderstanding  and 



(Winter;  family  of  adults;  city  conditions) 

6  A.  M.     Worker  rises 

Attends  to  furnace  and  range 
Prepares  and   serves  breakfast 


Inspects  supplies  with  mistress  and  plans  meals,  perhaps 

'phoning  to  tradespeople 
Dishwashing  and  kitchen  straightening 
Daily  chamberwork 
Brushing  up  living-rooms 
Prepares  and  serves  lunch 

Luncheon  dishes;  supper  preparation;  kitchen  straighten- 
ing. Special  afternoon  task  of  cleaning 

Afternoon  rest  period,  generally  3  130  to  4 130  or  3  130  to 
5,  in  which  worker  freshens  up,  changes  to  afternoon 
uniform  and  has  time  to  herself 

Prepares  and  serves  supper 

Washes  dishes  and  makes  slight  preparations  for  breakfast 

More  specific  directions  giving  the  hours  and  times  of 
these  tasks  would  have  to  be  worked  out  in  each  special 
case,  depending  on  the  number  in  the  family,  the  size  of  the 
house,  and  the  houfs  of  meals,  etc.,  and  whether  some  of  the 
work  was  done  by  the  mistress  herself  (as  daily  care  of 
bedrooms),  or  whether  some  of  the  work  was  done  by  other 
hired  help,  as  care  of  furnace  by  hired  man,  or  laundry 
work  done  by  laundress.  If  there  are  more  than  one  worker, 
the  schedules  should  show  the  duties  of  each,  where  one 
worker  takes  the  place  of  the  other,  and  other  details  which 
will  prevent  any  clash  between  them. 


In  developing  plans  for  more  standardized  housework  it 
will  be  found  that  equipment  as  well  as  methods  affects  the 
schedule.  As  was  shown  in  the  discussion  of  improved  dish- 
washing methods,  every  step  must  be  studied  in  a  given  task 
to  see  where  time  and  effort  can  be  saved  by  doing  it  in  a 
better,  shorter  way.  This  way  may  depend  also  on  the  kind 
of  equipment  used.  For  instance,  a  work  scheduled  in  a 
certain  home  may  be  carefully  developed  and  followed  where 
the  fuel  is  coal  or  gas,  but  by  using  a  fireless  cooker  in  con- 



nection  with  these  fuels  the  schedule  would  be  greatly  modi- 
fied, the  time  at  which  cooking  was  done  would  be  altered 
and  the  rest  period  changed.  This  is  shown  in  the  following 
schedule  : 


A.  M. 
6  :oo-  6 130 
6:30-  7:15 

7:i5-  7:45 
8  -30-  9 :30 
9 :30-io  :45 


11  :45~i2:oo 

12  :oo-  i  :oo 

P.  M. 
1:00-  2:00 
2  :oo-  3  :oo 
3:00-  4:00 
4  :oo-  5 :30 

Without   a   Fireless   Cooker 

Rise  and  dress 

Prepare  breakfast 


Wash  dishes  and  clear  up  kitchen 

Make  beds;  brush  upstairs  rooms  and  bath 

To  kitchen  to  start  luncheon.     Return  to  cleaning  of 

downstairs  rooms 
To  kitchen  to  watch  cooking  and  prepare  other  food 

for  lunch 
Serve  lunch 

Wash  lunch  dishes;  mop  kitchen;  sweep  porch 
Finish  interrupted  downstairs  cleaning  of  morning 
Special  cleaning;  windows,  or  silver,  stove  or  pantry 
Prepare  roast,  vegetables  and  dessert  for  dinner  and 

watch  their  cooking 
5 :30-  6  :oo    Dress ;  serve  dinner 

With  a  Fireless  Cooker 
A.  M.        (30  minutes  saved) 
6:30107:00    Rise  and  dress 
7:00-  7:15     Remove  breakfast  from  fireless 
7:15-  7:45     Breakfast 
7 :45~  8 :45     Wash    dishes   and   clear    up    kitchen ;    place    lunch    in 


8 :45~  9  '45     Make  beds ;  brush  upstairs  rooms  and  bath 
9:45-10:45     Clean  downstairs  rooms 

10:45-11:45     Special  cleaning;  windows,  stove,  silver  or  pantry 
11:45-12:00     Serve  lunch 
12:00-  i  :oo    Lunch 


P.  M. 

1  :oo-  2  :oo    Wash  lunch  dishes ;  mop  kitchen ;  sweep  porch 

2  :oo-  2  130     Put  dinner  in  fireless 

2 :30-  5  :45    Rest  or  recreation  period 

3^4  hours  saved 
5  145-  6  :oo    Serve  dinner  from  fireless 

Again,  the  use  of  a  washing  machine  might  change  the 
schedule  of  washday  quite  differently  than  if  a  boiler  were 
used.  If  a  vacuum  cleaner  is  used  this  might  quite  consid- 
erably alter  the  amount  of  time  necessary  to  a  daily  cleaning 
with  broom.  Many  of  the  better  pieces  of  equipment  affect 
the  schedule  not  so  much  in  point  of  time  saving  in  a  single 
operation  as  in  the  number  of  times  or  amount  of  handling 
the  method  without  the  equipment  entails.  To  illustrate ; 
a  twice-a-week  cleaning  with  a  vacuum  cleaner  might  take 
the  place  of  an  every-day  brushing  up  with  the  broom.  Or 
the  preparation  and  handling  of  a  boiler,  laundry  stove,  sad 
irons,  etc.,  would  make  a  different  schedule  than  if  a  wash- 
ing machine  were  used  with  an  abundant  hot  water  supply 
from  a  central  hot  water  heating  system. 


The  housekeeper  who  faces  the  greatest  number  of  prob- 
lems seems  to  be  the  woman  in  the  country  without  "con- 
veniences" and  whose  fuel  requires  more  attention,  and 
whose  home  is  usually  larger  and  home  duties  more  numer- 
ous. In  addition,  the  country  woman  has  her  chickens,  her 
garden,  her  canning,  perhaps  even  butter-making,  and  fre- 
quently many  more  to  cook  for. 

Here  is  where  the  schedule  meets  the  severest  test  and 
where  also  it  helps  the  most.  As  was  said,  if  a  worker  has 
only  one  or  two  tasks  to  do  all  day  long  there  is  scarcely 
any  need  for  planning,  but  if  her  hands  and  head  must  see 
through  a  dozen,  yes  more,  tasks,  then  a  plan  becomes  an 


absolute  necessity,  if  she  is  not  going  to  find  herself  worked 
to  death,  fagged  out,  with  no  recreation  time.  The  schedule 
for  the  .country  worker  must  include  all  the  tasks  which  fall 
into  her  particular  hands.  It  must  attempt  to  divide  the 
whole  week's  work  so  that  only  a  fair  share  is  done  each 
day.  It  too  must  give  the  worker  time  to  attend  a  grange 
meeting,  to  read  an  agricultural  bulletin  or  to  merely  sit  out- 
doors and  enjoy  some  of  her  own  trees  and  sunshine. 

The  meal  problem  is  generally  the  heaviest,  so  that  the 
point  to  begin  the  schedule  with  here  is  careful  menu  plan- 
ning and  arrangement  of  cooking  so  as  to  simplify  as  much 
as  possible.  The  use  of  a  fireless  cooker,  an  oil  stove,  or  a 
steam  cooker,  will  cut  down  the  cooking  time.  Also  cooking 
ahead,  as  is  frequently  practiced  in  the  country,  is  the  best 
means  of  having  a  lighter  afternoon.  Simple  furnishings 
and  the  doing  away  with  unnecessary  care-making  articles 
will  lessen  the  cleaning  problem,  as  generally  the  country 
woman  has  less  time  to  spend  on  cleaning  and  the  upkeep 
of  the  house.  Careful  planning  of  trips  outdoors  will  save 
time,  bringing  in  vegetables  on  returning  from  feeding  poul- 
try, etc.  Washing  vegetables  outdoors  or  out  of  the  kitchen 
will  prevent  much  unnecessary  cleaning  work  in  the  kitchen. 
Lamps  can  be  carried  down  on  going  downstairs  in  the  morn- 
ing so  that  special  trips  will  not  have  to  be  made  to  come  up 
and  get  them. 

The  arrangement  of  the  kitchen,  particularly,  affects  the 
country  schedule,  and  every  means  should  be  taken  that  the 
pocketbook  affords  to  solve  the  water  problem  and  make 
the  kitchen  as  convenient  a  workshop  as  possible.  One  case 
comes  to  mind  of  a  farmer  who  had  water  piped  into  his 
barn  for  his  convenience  in  watering  the  animals,  but  who 
refused  to  pipe  it  into  the  kitchen  for  his  wife,  who  was 
thus  forced  to  carry  wash  water  from  a  distant  outside 
pump.  Built-in  conveniences  like  wood-bin,  elevator  ice-box 


which  saves  running  up  and  down  cellar,  ample  shelf  or 
dresser  room  will  make  a  difference  of  an  hour  perhaps  in 
the  work  schedule. 


The  argument  is  sometimes  advanced  that  business  can  be 
run  more  on  the  sechedule  plan  because  there  are  no  inter- 
ruptions like  there  are  in  homes.  But  a  trip  through  any 
business  office  or  establishment  will  show  that  this  is  not 
true.  There  are  visitors  who  must  be  interviewed,  constant 
calls  on  the  telephone,  demands  of  stenographers  or  clerks, 
letters  must  be  written,  merchandise  looked  over  and  direc- 
tions given.  Yet  the  modern  man  in  his  work  has  applied 
the  schedule  method  with  the  result  that  he  can  handle  twice 
as  much  business  as  his  father  with  half  the  effort. 

Today  the  woman  in  the  home  is  called  upon  to  be  an 
executive  as  well  as  a  manual  laborer.  Just  to  be  a  good 
worker  and  keep  on  working  until  you  drop  is  not  sufficient 
— or  efficient  either.  The  more  planning,  the  more  brains, 
the  more  management,  a  woman  puts  into  her  housework, 
the  less  friction  and  the  less  nervous  energy  she  will  have 
to  expend.  Housework  above  any  other  must  be  followed 
on  the  schedule  plan  so  that  a  woman  will  know  what  she 
must  do,  how  long  it  takes  her  to  do  it,  and  when  she  can 
get  through  and  do  something  else. 

Many  women  everywhere  are  working  schedules  out  for 
their  own  particular  conditions.  As  one  little  woman,  the 
mother  of  four  babies,  said  at  the  close  of  a  lecture:  "I 
never  used  to  know  what  piece  of  work  I  had  to  do  next, 
but  as  you  said,  I  sat  down  and  wrote  out  all  the  things 
that  had  to  be  done,  trying  to  arrange  them  in  the  best  order 
I  could.  I  followed  this  order  for  a  week,  perhaps  longer, 
seeing  where  I  had  made  a  mistake  and  could  arrange  some- 
thing better  in  its  place.  It  took  me  about  six  weeks  to 


master  the  situation,  but  I  did  overcome  it  and  have  been 
doing  housework  the  schedule  way  ever  since,  and  thanks  to 
this  plan,  I  now  do  just  as  much  work  and  have,  in  addition, 
about  an  hour  and  a  half  a  day  in  which  to  sew  for  the 
babies.  If  I  can't  finish  everything  on  schedule  owing  to 
interruptions  from  the  babies,  etc.,  I  at  least  have  the  satis- 
faction of  doing  the  most  important  work  in  an  orderly  way 
and  knowing  where  I  must  catch  up  later." 

No  tiny  piece  of  work  or  task  is  too  small  to  be  left  out 
of  the  schedule.  Indeed,  the  three-meals-a-day  problem,  or 
even  the  cleaning  problem,  do  not  have  to  be  considered  and 
planned  for  so  much  as  the  little  task,  the  ordering,  the  run- 
ning back  and  forth,  the  right  location  of  tools,  the  deliv- 
eries, the  minor  details  which  either  make  or  mar  the  house- 
keeping management.  There  is  no  excuse  for  "Oh,  I  forgot 
to  order  more  sugar,"  for  making  four  trips  upstairs  which 
could  have  been  taken  in  one,  or  of  finding  that  there  isn't 
another  egg  in  the  house.  Scheduled  work  can  be  proved  a 
success  no  matter  what  the  conditions,  the  family,  or  the 
location.  You  can  maka  your  housework  easier  and  find 
time  for  yourself  if  you  will  only  try  to  follow  the  schedule 
plan.  Find  out  what  you  must  do,  write  out  when  you  can 
best  do  it  and  try  to  improve  even  this  plan.  Repeat  com- 
mon tasks  in  the  same  manner,  and  if  possible  at  the  same 
time  so  that  they  become  mechanical  and  thus  take  less 
energy.  That  is,  study  dishwashing,  or  cleaning,  or  laundry, 
or  any  other  minor  tasks  until  you  know  just  how  you  ought 
to  proceed  to  do  it  in  your  particular  home.  Watch  yourself 
at  work  and  make  a  "time  study"  of  the  time  and  steps  in 
one  method  and  then  in  another.  When  you  have  found 
out  the  method  that  seems  shortest,  practice  it  until  it  be- 
comes second  nature  and  habitual.  Time  yourself,  just  for 
fun,  at  first,  and  you  will  see  the  practical  value  in  the  end. 
Try  to  go  your  former  schedule  "one  better"  and  beat  your- 


self.     You  will  be  repaid  in  more  recreation  time  and  in  a 
grip  on  your  housework  that  you  have  never  had  before. 


After  finding  the  plan  of  work  which  seems  best  and 
after  having  arranged  each  task  in  its  approximate  time, 
make  a  permanent  record  of  it.  One  way  is  to  take  sheets 
of  paper  about  6x9  and  on  each  sheet  write  the  outline  for  a 
separate  day.  Punch  a  hole  at  the  top,  tie  loosely  together 
and  fasten  on  a  cuphook  in  the  kitchen  either  over  the  sink, 
table  or  other  conspicuous  place.  Each  day  turn  one  of  the 
sheets  over  to  the  proper  day,  as,  Tuesday.  Another  way 
is  to  use  large  filing  cards  and  keep  them  in  a  filing  cabinet 
over  the  kitchen  table,  substituting  a  new  card  in  place  each 
morning.  A  notebook  at  hand  will  serve  in  which  to  jot 
down  suggestions  and  improvements  which  can  later  be 
added  to  the  permanent  record. 

For  a  servant  it  is  best  to  write  the  schedule  in  a  per- 
manent blank-book  so  that  they  will  not  be  lost.  Special 
instructions  or  standards  for  each  specific  task  can  also  be 
included,  as,  "Standard  Practice  for  Dishwashing,"  for 
"Setting  the  Table,"  for  "Cleaning  Rooms,"  for  "Laundry 
Work,"  etc.  Such  a  "practice  book"  will  correspond  to  the 
"instruction  card"  given  workmen  in  factories  where  scien- 
tific management  prevails.  These  instructions  can  include 
the  exact  tools  to  'use  and  approximately  how  long  it  takes. 
This  makes  for  accuracy  and  avoids  misunderstanding. 

For  instance,  a  practice  card  on  bread-making  to  be 
handed  a  new  worker  might  be  as  follows : 

2  c  milk  2  t  sugar 

2  c  water  or  potato  water  i  yeast  cake  softened 

i  c  shortening  in  i  c  tepid  water 

4  t  salt  (level)  Flour  (about  3  quarts) 


Hear  milk  and  water  to  boiling,  add  salt,  sugar  and  shortening. 
Put  into  the  bread  mixer.  When  cooled  to  100°  (luke  warm),  add 
the  yeast  which  has  been  soaking  in  tepid  water.  Add  half  the  flour 
to  make  a  soft  batter  and  stir  vigorously.  Add  remainder  of  flour 
to  make  a  stiff  dough  and  stir  till  springy. 

Let  rise  in  a  warm  place  until  double  the  bulk  (about  2  h),  then 
stir  down,  take  out  of  mixer,  form  into  loaves,  let  rise  in  the  baking 
pans  until  double  the  bulk  (about  2  h)  and  bake  about  I  hour.  Keep 
the  dough  warm  throughout,  8o0-QO0. 

Wednesdays   and   Saturdays — baking   days. 

Make  4  loaves,  three  plain,  one  with  raisins,  and  pan 

of  hot  biscuit 

Use  breadmixer  and  agate  measuring  utensils 
Preparation  time   required,  about  8  minutes — soak 

mixer  and  scrape  board  as  soon  as  work  is  finished 

In  a  similar  way,  ''practice  instructions"  can  be  given  on 
each  of  the  cleaning  tasks  which  will  be  mentioned  in  a  later 
chapter.  The  very  smallest  detail  of  work  can  be  timed  and 
written  down.  The  more  detailed  the  schedule  the  less 
chance  for  the  unexpected  to  be  overlooked,  or  for  any 
mistake,  forgetting,  confusion  and  hurry. 

Have  you  a  small  house  or  a  large  house  ?  Babies  to  care 
for,  meals  to  cook,  and  cleaning  work  to  be  done?  Then 
try  the  "schedule  way"  for  two  weeks  at  least.  See  if 
"things"  don't  come  easier,  and  that  you  are  less  worried 
and  tired.  Determine  to  "master"  this  planning  of  work — 
for  that  is  all  a  schedule  is,  a  plan  of  work  which  shall 
permit  the  tasks  of  housework  to  be  done  in  an  orderly, 
smooth  manner  with  the  least  friction  and  confusion.  You, 
too,  can  have  a  "housework  train."  It  is  your  part  to  decide 
at  what  stations  it  shall  stop,  and  for  how  long  at  each  one. 
It  is  a  route  from  drudgery  to  efficiency  and  personal 




1.  Make  out  a  schedule  of  your  present  plan  of   work. 

Study  to  see  where  it  can  be  improved.  Try  the  new 
schedule  two  weeks.  Revise  and  try  another  two 
weeks,  and  report. 

2.  Time  yourself  for  at  least  a  week  on  the  same  task,  as, 

washing  dishes,  peeling  potatoes,  making  beds,  or 
cleaning  the  bathroom.  How  long  does  it  take?  Do 
you  find  the  time  varying  from  day  to  day?  Write 
down  two  complete  "time-studies"  on  these  tasks, 
showing  the  first  record  and  the  last. 

3.  "Standardize"  some  household  task  so  that  you  can  do 

it  every  day  in  an  identical  manner  without  much 
mental  attention.  Does  this  not  make  it  seem  less 

4.  What  are  your  worst  "interruptions"  ?    Make  a  schedule 

which  will  take  care  of  them  as  much  as  possible. 

5.  Do  the  same  task  with  two  different  tools,  and  note  the 

difference,  or  do  the  same  task  with  two  different 
methods,  or  do  it  under  two  different  sets  of  condi- 
tions. Find  out  the  way  that  seems  the  best  and 
shortest  for  your  particular  case  and  report. 






THERE  is  a  great  contrast  between  methods  of  house- 
work in  the  United  States  and  in  other  countries,  with 
the  balance  of  convenience,  labor-saving  and  easier 
methods  in  the  American  housewife's  favor.  The  reason 
for  this  is  that  in  no  other  country  has  mechanical  inven- 
tion been  applied  so  extensively  and  successfully  to  all  the 
different  tasks  of  the  home.  The  inventiveness  of  the 
Yankee  is  proverbial,  and  he  has  turned  this  quality  to  the 
making  of  mechanical  labor-savers  not  only  in  his  own  shop 
and  office,  but  for  the  benefit  of  the  homemaker  as  well. 
There  are  on  the  market  today  literally'  thousands  of  house- 
hold tools,  devices  and  equipment  for  every  possible  need 
of  the  home.  It  only  remains  for  the  homemaker  to  choose 
among  them  wisely. 

Another  reason  for  the  great  supply  and  demand  for 
household  labor  savers  in  this  country  is  that  the  American 
homemaker  has  to  face  the  increasingly  complex  problem 
of  scarce  domestic  help.  Even  today  in  other  countries 
service  cost  has  been  low,  and  one  can  secure  a  cook  for 
$12  or  a  housemaid  for  $8  a  month.  With  such  cheap  labor, 
the  need  for  the  mechanical  replacers  of  labor,  or  "mechan- 
ical servants,"  has  not  been  keenly  felt  there.  In  the 



United  States,  according  to  estimates,  only  8  percent  of 
all  families  employ  even  one  servant  permanently.  This 
means  that  92  percent  of  homemakers  are  performing  their 
own  household  tasks.  It  is  to  this  class  of  women  who  are 
actively  concerned  in  the  work  of  the  home  that  the  labor- 
saver  and  improved  modern  tool  most  appeal.  The  home- 
maker's  time  and  effort  are  worth  conserving  by  every 
means.  She  should  therefore,  be  eager  to  buy  and  use  all 
the  household  tools  which  will  save  her  strength  and  time 
and  liberate  her  from  household  drudgery. 


While  some  women  are  "handy"  with  tools,  the  fact  re- 
mains that  most  women  are  unfamiliar  with  the  different 
principles  involved  in  mechanical  tools  and  devices.  The 
boy  almost  unconsciously  absorbs  knowledge  about  gears, 
motors,  force  pumps,  turbines,  etc.,  in  his  daily  work  and 
play,  but  the  girl  neglects  handling  or  learning  about  tools, 
believing  it  unnecessary  or  possibly  unfeminine. 

The  homemaker,  however,  needs  a  most  thorough  knowl- 
edge of  the  principles  of  applied  mechanics.  Even  many  a 
good  course  in  school  physics  unfortunately  leaves  a  stu- 
dent with  but  little  practical  knowledge  applied  to  the  tools 
and  equipment  to  be  found  in  every  kitchen  and  home.  The 
more  a  woman  knows  about  tools  the  more  intelligent  she 
will  be  as  a  buyer.  Such  knowledge  will  save  her  from  the 
useless  expense  of  buying  worthless  equipment,  and  make 
her  more  interested  in  purchasing  the  good  tools  and  high- 
class  equipment  which  will  help  greatly  in  saving  time  and 


The  only  right  and  economical  view  to  assume  in  buying 
any  and  all  equipment  is  to  ask  one's  self  beforehand,  "Will 


this  article  be  a  permanent  investment  ?"  We  cannot  afford 
to  buy  tools  for  temporary  use.  They  should  be  regarded 
in  the  light  of  permanent  purchases  whose  use  will  be  ex- 
tended over  a  considerable  period  of  time.  Too  many 
women  buy  equipment  on  a  basis  of  cost  only.  They  look 
at  the  price  without  considering  how  many  times  the  article 
will  be  used.  It  is  not  the  cost,  but  the  number  of  times  of 
use,  which  must  be  the  basis  of  economical,  efficient  buying. 
For  instance,  a  woman  may  see  an  attractive  cherry 
seeder  costing  only  $1.00.  The  ease  with  which  it  removes 
the  pits  and  time  it  saves  influences  her  to  its  purchase. 
She  will,  however,  hesitate  and  pass  by  a  serving  tray  on 
wheels  costing  $10.00  which  she  can  just  as  readily  see  will 
save  her  steps  in  setting  and  clearing  the  table,  serving 
meals,  etc.  The  reason  that  she  buys  the  $1.00  device  in 
preference  to  the  $10.00  article  is  not  because  she  cannot 
afford  either  of  them,  but  because  she  is  wrongly  buying  on 
a  basis  of  cost  only.  The  cherry  seeder  may  be  used  only 
ten  times  during  the  cherry  season  and  never  used  the  rest 
of  the  year.  The  serving  tray  will  be  used  three  times  a 
day  every  day  in  the  year,  and  on  an  investment  basis  com- 
pares with  the  cherry  seeder  as  follows : 

First   Cost  Per 
Cost       Use 

Cherry  seeder,  used  10  times  during  season $  i.oo      $0.10 

Serving  tray,  used  3  times  daily,  365  days 10.00          .009 

This  illustration  is  used  not  to  disparage  the  cherry  seeder 
or  any  other  good  device,  but  to  show  that  equipment  must 
be  bought  on  a  basis  of  the  number  of  times  of  use,  and 
not  on  the  basis  of  first  cost.  In  other  words,  the  home- 
maker  must  ask  herself,  not  "How  much  does  it  cost?"  but 
"How  many  times  will  I  use  it?" 

This  investment  point  of  view  must  be  taken  especially  in 
regard  to  more  expensive  equipment  like  washing  machines, 


dishwashers,  mangles,  fireless  cookers,  and  others  in  which 
the  first  cost  represents  considerable  money  outlay.  If  her 
family  is  large  and  she  hears  of  a  good,  labor-saving  dish- 
washing machine  costing  $50.00,  her  attitude  must  not  be 
"Oh  I  cannot  afford  $50.00!"  She  must  reason  to  herself 
something  like  this :  "This  dishwasher  with  care  will  last  a 
minimum  of  ten  years.  Allowing  6  percent  interest  on  my 
money,  the  annual  cost  of  such  a  washer  would  be  $5.00 
depreciation  and  $3.00  interest  or  15  cents  per  week  or 
about  2  cents  per  day." 

The  question  of  purchase  then,  resolves  itself  not  into 
whether  one  can  afford  $50.00  but  whether  one  can  afford 
2  cents  a  day  to  reduce  the  drudgery  of  dishwashing.  This 
is  the  investment,  "long  distance"  view  which  is  the  only 
really  economical  one  to  take  in  purchasing  all  tools,  no  mat- 
ter how  small  or  great  their  'cost.  The  chief  reason  why 
women  have  not  still  more  successfully  put  their  homes  on 
a  mechanical  .and  labor-saving  basis  as  has  long  since  been 
done  by  men,  is  because  they  have  taken  the  short-sighted 
view  and  spent  most  of  their  money  on  small,  cheap,  but 
seldom  used  articles  on  a  cost  basis. 


The  second  important  question  the  homemaker  must  ask 
herself  before  purchasing  equipment  is,  "Is  this  tool  needed 
in  my  particular  family  ?"  A  tool  that  would  be  an  excellent 
investment  for  Family  A  might  be  an  injudicious  and  un- 
necessary purchase  for  Family  B.  For  instance,  even  so 
very  useful  a  device  as  a  breadmixer  might  be  an  unjusti- 
fiable outlay  in  a  small  family  where  bread  was  made  only 
'once  a  week.  Similarly,  an  excellent  fireless  cooker,  no 
matter  how  worth-while  in  itself,  might  be  questionable  as 
an  investment  for  a  family  especially  fond  of  broiled  meats, 


or  with  an  aversion  to  stewed  foods,  and  which  seldom  made 
soups  at  home,  or  followed  cooking  methods  in  which  lies 
the  chief  value  of  the  fireless.  Too  often  women  are  in- 
fluenced in  their  purchasing  solely  because  other  neighbors 
have  bought  a  certain  device;  because  it  appears  attractive 
in  the  «tore,  or  because  they  think  it  is  a  helpful  tool  in 
itself,  without  considering  its  relation  to  the  needs  of  their 
particular  family. 


Again,  one  of  the  most  neglected  points  in  the  mind  of 
the  woman  purchaser  is,  the  scientific  construction  of  the 
tool  or  device.  This  is  the  most  difficult  point  on  which  it 
is  necessary  to  be  informed,  and  usually  her  only  means 
are  the  words  of  salesmen  and  descriptive  circulars.  But 
the  scientific  construction  should  be  understood,  especially 
before  buying  such  pieces  as  refrigerators,  stoves,  fireless 
cookers,  various  kinds  of  washing  devices,  and  others  where 
the  satisfactory  working  depends  on  proper  insulation,  con- 
venient leverage,  etc.  Before  buying  say,  a  refrigerator,  it 
is  best  to  read  some  authority  or  some  dependable  pamphlet 
on  the  principles  of  refrigeration.  This  will  enable  the 
prospective  buyer  to  question  the  salesman  intelligently, 
compare  the  various  models  examined,  and  see  if  they  ful- 
fil scientific  demands  as  to  insulation,  lining,  air  currents, 
etc.  If  this  is  done,  there  will  be  fewer  purchases  of  re- 
frigerators which  waste  ice  and  give  poor  service  after 
short  use. 

Another  reason  why  a  woman  should  understand  scientific 
construction  before  purchase  is  that  there  will  be  fewer 
chances  of  her  being  disappointed  in  the  device  afterward 
because  of  her  own  failure  to  understand  it.  For  instance, 
a  friend  hearing  of  the  widespread  craze  over  fireless  cook- 


ers,  purchased  an  excellent  make.  After  a  two  weeks*  use 
she  returned  it,  complaining  that  "it  wouldn't  work,"  and 
was  thereafter  prejudiced  against  all  fireless  cookers.  The 
real  situation  was  that  she  hadn't  understood  the  scientific 
idea  of  cooking  by  conserved  heat  on  which  the  fireless  is 
based.  She  didn't  learn  exactly  how  to  operate  it  before 
purchase,  and  so  was  dissatisfied  and  deprived  of  the  serv- 
ice of  a  good  device,  largely  because  of  her  own  failure  to 
understand  scientific  principles. 

The  best  method  is  to  have  one  or  several  demonstrations 
of  any  device,  handling  it  one's  self  before  purchase.  First 
hand  information  from  those  who  have  used  it  thoroughly 
is  also  better  than  trusting  entirely  to  circulars.  Another 
means  is  to  know  the  standing  of  the  manufacturer,  insist 
on  his  guarantee,  and  whenever  possible,  buy  trade-marked, 
identified  lines  of  goods.  Very  often  there  is  a  free  test 
offered  in  the  home,  especially  with  vacuum  cleaners, 
washers,  etc.,  which  should  always  be  taken  advantage  of. 
Every  possible  test  should  be  given  the  device  before  actual 


Very  often  a  device  which  fulfils  other  conditions  men- 
tioned above  fails  in  the  small  but  essential  point  of  com- 
fort in  use.  This  is  especially  true  of  handles,  levers,  etc., 
which  either  by  their  shape,  finish,  or  point  of  attachment 
prove  uncomfortable  when  used  in  the  hands  of  the  worker. 
There  is  the  case  of  a  breadmixer  with  the  leverage  applied 
at  the  top  of  the  pail;  otherwise  a  fine  labor-saver,  it  re- 
quires an  awkward  arm  motion  which  would  not  be  the 
case  if  the  leverage  were  applied  at  the  base  and  side  of 
the  pail  as  indeed  it  is,  in  another  make.  The  handles  of 
many  egg-beaters,  mashers,  spoons,  etc.,  are  not  shaped  for 
the  comfort  of  the  hand,  although  there  are  others  on  the 


market  which  do  offer  this  point  of  comfort.  Sometimes 
the  handle  is  too  short  or  too  long,  flat  instead  of  rounded. 
Or  a  lever  would  be  easier  to  operate  if  several  inches 
longer,  and  many  other  instances  occur  where  the  small 
but  impoitaiat  points  of  comfort  are  not  considered. 


Frequently  the  lack  of  a  well-finished  surface,  or  poor 
construction  spoils  an  otherwise  good  tool.  An  excellent 
dish  drainer  with  a  tray  of  galvanized  iron  is  on  the  market, 
but  the  edges  of  the  lower  pan  are  so  imperfectly  S9ldered 
and  so  rough  that  the  hand  continually  becomes  scratched 
while  working  near  it.  Again,  the  hinges  of  a  fine  fireless 
cooker  were  found  to  be  so  jagged  that  as  the  cooker  set 
out  in  the  room,  the  worker  tore  her  apron  upon  it  every 
time  she  passed  quickly.  This  detail  of  finishing  should  not 
have  been  overlooked  in  such  a  high-priced  device,  nor  in- 
deed in  any  other.  The  interior  of  kitchen  cabinets,  the 
trays  of  gas  ranges,  the  seams  and  handles  of  many  other 
utensils,  especially  those  made  of  wire,  tin  or  galvanized 
iron,  are  all  places  for  the  housewife's  careful  inspection 
before  purchase. 


"Is  this  device  easy  to  wash  and  keep  clean?"  is  another 
important  question  which  should  be  asked  previous  to  buy- 
ing. Too  frequently  the  time  and  difficulty  of  washing  and 
keeping  a  tool  in  good  condition  is  entirely  overlooked. 
Many  devices  have  complicated  parts,  gears,  beaters,  ad- 
justable cutters,  etc.  Now,  the  question  of  how  long  it 
takes  to  wash  and  assemble  these  parts  after  use  must  be 
considered,  because  this  time  really  forms  part  of  the  total 
time  that  the  device  is  being  used.  For  instance,  there  is  a 


most  efficient  stationary  puree-strainer  consisting  of  a  per- 
forated drum,  stand,  rotating  blade,  separate  handle  and 
three  screws.  It  does  most  excellent  rapid  work  in  mashing 
potatoes,  straining,  etc.,  but  it  requires  six  or  eight  minutes 
to  wash,  dry,  and  assemble  the  parts  ready  for  the  next 
use.  In  short,  while  it  does  the  actual  work  in  less  time 
than  the  old-fashioned  strainer,  the  additional  time  required 
to  clean  it  makes  the  total  time  of  both  equal.  The  value 
of  this  tool,  then,  cannot  be  estimated  in  terms  of  time,  but 
only  in  terms  of  the  superior  quality  of  the  work  done  by 
this  device  over  some  other. 

It  should  be  firmly  remembered  that  no  device  should 
take  longer  to  clean  and  adjust  than  the  time  it  saves  by  its 
increased  efficiency  over  some  other  method — otherwise,  it 
ceases  to  be  a  labor-saver  and  must  be  justified  on  some 
other  grounds.  For  the  woman  who  does  her  own  work, 
this  point  of  the  time  and  care  required  in  washing  and 
handling  any  tool  must  not  be  overlooked. 


Just  as  it  is  necessary  to  know  exact  measurements  in 
buying  apparel,  furnishings  or  other  household  articles,  so 
it  is  worth  while  to  consider  exact  sizes  in  buying  house- 
hold tools  and  equipment.  Shall  one  purchase  a  two-hole 
or  a  three-hole  fireless?  Will  a  certain  vacuum  cleaner  be 
adequate  in  size  for  the  number  of  rooms  and  work  de- 
manded? How  many  sheets  or  other  unit  of  capacity  will 
a  given  washing-machine  hold? 

These  questions  of  size  must  be  asked  in  buying,  in  order 
to  purchase  a  utensil  or  other  piece  of  equipment  adapted 
to  the  particular  needs  of  a  particular  family.  Unneces- 
sarily large  equipment  has  the  disadvantages  of  taking  up 
floor  or  storage  space,  being  in  many  cases  heavier  to  han- 
dle and  care  for,  and  particularly  offering  a  larger  surface 



to  clean.  If  a  two-hole  fireless  be  ample,  it  is  surely  unwise 
to  purchase  a  three-hole  which  will  take  up  another  square 
foot  of  space  and  be  that  much  heavier  to  move ;  or  a  "large" 
meat-chopper  offers  no  advantage  over  a  "medium"  size 
under  most  conditions. 

Sanitary  and  easily  cleaned 

In  one  pantry  recently  explored  by  the  writer,  no  less  than 
twenty- four  saucepans  and  cooking  utensils  were  found. 
When  this  was  commented  upon,  (chiefly  because  it  took  up 
so  much  space),  the  homemaker  replied  that  she  had  to  have 
them.  The  truth  was,  that  they  were  badly  chosen  as  to 
size,  and  that  the  same  service  could  have  been  filled  by  as 
few  as  eight  pots,  if  selected  with  their  exact  purpose  in 
mind,  thus  cutting  down  pantry  space  two-thirds.  It  is 
easy  to  measure  the  capacity  of  any  utensil  with  a  quart 


measure  or  to  secure  from  the  manufacturer  the  estimated 
capacity  and  power  of  other  equipment.  If  the  kitchens 
of  the  future  are  to  be  more  step-saving  and  less  costly  the 
minimum  of  equipment  should  be  chosen. 


All  equipment  falls  broadly  into  two  classes:  (i)  the 
fixed,  like  the  sink,  range,  etc.,  and  (2)  the  portable,  to 
which  the  great  bulk  of  minor  tools  and  devices  belong ;  and 
this  latter  class  can  again  be  divided  into 

(1)  Labor  savers. 

(2)  Fuel  savers. 

(3)  Time  savers. 

(4)  Step  savers. 

In  addition,  there  is  a  fairly  large  group  whose  main  ap- 
peal is  sanitary  or  hygienic  value ;  there  is  also  a  wide  group 
of  miscellaneous  tools  which  cannot  be  clearly  classed.  In 
many  cases,  too,  the  same  device  overlaps  into  two  or  even 
three  of  the  above  groups,  but  this  classification  is  very 
convenient  because  it  helps  the  homemaker  decide  exactly 
what  value  she  most  receives  from  the  tool  or  device. 

We  shall  discuss  in  this  chapter  all  equipment  except  that 
belonging  particularly  to  the  cleaning  or  laundry  processes 
which  will  be  taken  up  separately  in  the  discussions  of  these 


Many  of  the  best  household  tools  fall  under  the  heading 
"labor  savers."  The  list  is  long  and  includes  the  mechanical 
helps  which  replace  more  laborious  hand  process  work. 
Such  a  partial  list  is : 

Bread  and  cake  mixers. 

Egg  beaters,  cream  whips,  mayonnaise  mixers. 

Ice  cream  freezers,  butter  churns. 


Coffee,  spice  and  meat  grinders. 

Stationary  colanders,  strainers  and  mashers. 

Potato  parers,  fruit  corers  and  parers,  slicing  devices  of 

all  kinds. 

Stationary  chocolate  and  cheese  graters. 
Stationary  nut  crackers. 

Dishwashing  machine. 
Dishdraining  rack. 


The  results  of  standardizing  dishwashing  by  hand  have 
been  given  on  pages  78  to  80,  showing  that  it  is  possible  to 


reduce  the  time  nearly  one-half  by  substituting  rinsing  on 
a  wire  drainer  for  wiping  and  arranging  shelves  adjacent  to 
the  sink  for  laying  away  the  dishes.  The  following  tests 
were  made  with  the  most  prominent  portable  dishwashing 
machines  on  the  market. 

Both  hand  tests  and  tests  with  four  different  types  of 
mechanical  commercial  dishwashers  were  made  simul- 
taneously over  a  considerable  period.  In  each  of  these 
tests  the  same  number  of  dishes  (50)  and  silver  (50)  were 
used  at  each  test.  The  temperature  of  the  wash  water  was 
140  degrees  with  the  washers,  and  120  degrees  with  hand 

H  S 

M  ® 



tests.    The  average  from  three  tests  is  given  below  with  full 


Dishwasher  A:  Tub  or  barrel  model;  in  poorly  finished,  aluminized 
sheet  iron.  Principle  of  force  pump ;  operating  through  a  per- 
forated cylinder  in  center  of  washer  from  which  water  is  forced 
over  the  dishes  by  action  of  a  hand-lever  at  top  of  lid.  Two 
drain  racks;  only  fair  stacking  of  dishes  possible.  Very  labori- 
ous method  of  draining  water  by  hand  from  stop-cock  in  base 
of  can.  Can  bulky  and  space-taking.  Action  easy,  but  force 
of  water  poor  and  not  satisfactory  for  thorough  cleansing. 

Results :  Inadequate ;  many  dishes,  especially  cups,  not  entirely 

Amount    of   wash    water 4  gallons 

Amount   cf  rinsing   water...  3  gallons 

Washing  time    10  minutes 

Rinsing  time    7  minutes 

Dishwasher  B:  Tub  model  of  enameled  stamped  metal;  operating 
on  principle  of  turbine  by  hand  lever.  Low  gearing.  One  wire 
rack  without  handles,  perforated  upper  lid.  Action  of  lever 
very  easy;  force  of  water  only  moderate.  Wastes  space  in 
upper  part  of  tub.  Difficulty  in  removing  rack  without  handles. 

Results :  Inadequate,  as  custard  in  cups,  coffee  grounds,  etc.,  not 
removed  in  given  period  of  washing.  Good  points  are  neat, 
small  appearance  of  can  and  simplicity  of  emptying  water  by 
pressure  on  small  valve. 

Amount    of   wash    water 21/&  gallons 

Amount   of  rinsing   water 2%  gallons 

Washing  time    6  minutes 

Rinsing   time    4  minutes 

Dishwasher  C:  Square  box  model  of  galvanized  iron;  on  principle 
of  force-pump  operating  by  hand  lever  on  outside  of  box ;  a 
spray  of  water  thrown  by  swinging  nozzle  which  can  be  moved 
from  side  to  side ;  water  easily  emptied  by  pressure  on  small 
valve.  Height  about  three  inches;  too  low  for  convenient 
operation.  Maximum  amount  of  dishes,  40 ;  silver,  25  pieces ; 
held  in  small  detachable  box  in  center.  Vertical  wire  racks  for 
dishes,  with  separate  side  cup-hooks. 

Results :  Satisfactory,  but  action  back-breaking  owing  to  low  height 
and  general  inconvenience  of  this  model. 

Amount    of   wash    water 1%  gallons 

Amount   of  rinsing   water.  .    1%  gallons 

Washing  time    6  minutes 

Rinsing  time    . .          .     .  . 3  minutes 


Dishwasher  D:  Tub  model  of  substantial  retinned  metal.  Power 
transmitted  through  hand  lever  and  chain  sprocket  to  a  shaft 
and  bevel  gear  at  bottom  of  can  which  operates  a  horizontal 
dasher  inside  on  the  principle  of  the  turbine;  throws  water 
with  great  force,  adequately  spraying  upper  and  lower  tray 
which  have  convenient  handles.  Permits  satisfactory  stacking 
odd-shaped  pieces  in  top  tray  under  convex  lid.  Action  a  little 
too  difficult  and  lever  should  work  much  more  easily. 

Results:  Entirely  adequate,  and  even  milky  and  egg-soiled  dishes 
entirely  cleansed. 

Amount    of   wash    water 2%  gallons 

Amount   of  rinsing   water 2%  gallons 

Washing  time    5  minutes 

Rinsing   time    3  minutes 

Total  time,  including  6  m  scraping  and  stack- 
ing, "5  m  drying,  4  m  laying  away  and  2  m 

cleaning  washer    25  minutes 

Hand  Method:  Stack  surface  at  right  of  sink,  drain  surface  at  left 
of  sink,  rectangular  washing  pan,  wire  drainer  keeping  each 
dish  separate  and  permitting  them  to  dry  after  rinsing  without 
wiping,  long  handled  dish  mop. 

Amount  of  wash  water 1%  gallons 

Amount  of   rinsing  water 1  gallon 

Washing  time    14  minutes 

Rinsing  time    2  minutes 

Total  time,  including  6  m  scraping  and  stack- 
ing, 5  m  drying,  4  m  laying  away  on  adja- 
cent shelves  and  5  m  cleaning  sink 36  minutes 


The   case  for  all  mechanical   washers   can  be   summed   up   as 
follows : 

(1)  There  is  less  danger  of  chipping  and  breaking. 

(2)  There  is  much  greater  sanitation  and  possible  sterilization. 

(3)  There  is  no  discomfort  or  hard  usage  to  hands. 

(4)  They  cut  down  only  actual  washing  time,  but  that  consider- 
ably.    If   operated   by  motor  power  the   amount  of   effort   as 
well    would    be    greatly    reduced.     This    was    seen    in    several 
hotel  dishwashers  operated  by  power  where  the  labor  of  the 
operator  is  negligible. 

(5)  They  offer  a  sanitary  container  for  the  temporary  storage  of 
soiled  dishes  over  night  or   until  desired  number  accumulate, 
permitting  washing  to  be  done  once  a  day  in  a  small  family. 
This  is  a  very  great  advantage. 


The  case  against  the  mechanical  washer  in  its  present  form,  and 
under  existing  conditions,  is : 

(1)  Results,  except  in  one  of  the  small  portable  detached  washers, 
were  unsatisfactory,  and  the  amount  of  effort  required  in  op- 
eration somewhat  offset  other  good  points. 

(2)  In  every  test,  the  portable  washer  "crept"  about  the  floor  with 
the  action  of  the  lever.     The  difficulty  of  filling  and  emptying 
these  models  by  hand  was  considerable  and  had  to  be  included 
in  the  total  washing  time. 

(3)  The   time   required    for   the    steps   of   stacking,    scraping  and 
laying  away  is  identical  under  both  hand  and  mechanical  meth- 
ods.    The  only  steps  affected  are  the  ones  of  actual  washing 
and  sometimes  wiping.     This  saving  of  time  and  also  of  effort 
is  much  more  marked  in  those  machines  operated   by  power, 
as  was  seen  in  close  study  of  hotel  washers. 

(4)  The  use  of  the  washer  is  strictly  limited  to  dishes,  glass  and 
silver;    no   odd   shaped   utensils,   pitchers,   eggbeaters,    or   pots 
were   successfully   washed   in   all   cases,   and   the   arrangement 
of  the  racks  does  not  permit  the  stacking  of  these  articles. 

(5)  The  time  in  one  step,  washing  (5  minutes  vs.  14  minutes)   is 
cut  considerably  by  the  use  of  a  mechanical  device;  but  this 
saving   is   partially   offset   by   the   increased   amount   of    effort 
required  to  operate  the  lever  in  all  cases.     In  no  case  would  it 
be    advisable   to   operate    a    dishwasher   in   a   beautiful    street 
dress,    as    some   manufacturers    suggest   by   their    circulars — in 
order  to  thoroughly  cleanse   the   dishes  considerable  physical 
movement  must  be  made. 

(6)  The    quantity    of    exceedingly   hot    water    required    in    nearly 
every  case  with  a  washer  is  a  point  against  it  in  many  homes 
under  present  conditions.     The   efficiency  of  all   washers   was 
found  to  depend  very  largely  on   the   degree  of   heat  of  the 
water ;  second,  the  satisfactory  "self-wiping"  of  the  dishes  as 
they  rest  on  the  racks,  which  is  made  such  a  strong  point  by 
the  washer  manufacturers,  depends  even  more  largely  on  this 
same  factor. 




It  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  defects  pointed  out 
in  the  mechanical  washer  refer  solely  to  those  operated  by 
hand,  and  not  to  dishwashers  operated  either  by  motor  or 
other  power;  and  to  those  not  permanently  connected  with 
the  plumbing  and  hot  water  system. 


Combines    kitchen    table,    with    white    enameled     top,    with   a   dishwashing 


In  conclusion,  it  is  the  writer's  opinion  that  no  portable, 
detached  washer  which  entails  hand  filling  and  emptying, 
has  very  great  efficiency  value.  The  ideal  for  the  mechanical 
washer  must  be  a  permanent  installation  connected  with 
an  adequate  water  supply  of  scalding  water,  having  its 
drain  outlet  connected  with  the  regular  plumbing.  Such  con- 


nections  are  not  difficult  or  expensive  to  make.  At  present 
the  best  solution  of  the  hot  water  problem  is  to  put  in  one 
of  the  automatic  instantaneous  gas  hot  water  heaters  which 
can  be  regulated  to  give  scalding  hot  water  in  any  quantity 
desired.  These  heaters  for  furnishing  hot  water  all  over 
the  house  on  the  turn  of  the  faucet  cost  about  $150,  but  a 
small  "bath"  instantaneous  heater,  for  dishwashing,  can  be 
installed  for  $45. 


In  the  days  when  wood  was  to  be  had  for  the  picking  up, 
costing  nothing  but  labor,  and  when  coal  was  $3  and  $4 
a  ton,  no  question  arose  of  economy  of  fuel.  Today  the 
cost  of  all  fuels  has  so  markedly  increased  that  the  con- 
servation of  fuel,  and  thus  the  lowering  of  fuel  cost  is  one 
of  the  homemaker's  chief  problems. 

Since  she  must  pay  the  prices  demanded  for  fuels  today 
(range  coal  costing  in  many  sections  anywhere  between  $6 
and  $10  per  ton  and  other  fuels  also  being  high)  the  only 
way  she  can  meet  the  problem  is  by  using  such  cooking 
methods  and  cooking  equipment  as  will  conserve,  not  waste 
fuel.  In  addition,  she  can  today  command  the  services  of 
three  fuels  practically  unknown  to  her  grandmother — gas, 
alcohol  and  electricity. 

The  great  disadvantage  of  both  coal  and  wood  is  that  it 
is  not  possible  to  put  them  under  direct  control ;  even  with 
the  best  constructed  range,  much  of  the  heat  generated  is  not 
actually  used  in  a  cooking  process.  Regarded  solely  in  the 
light  of  a  cooking  equipment,  both  coal  and  wood-using 
stoves  are  wasteful  of  fuel.  Moreover,  they  result  in  a 
large  percent  of  waste  products  like  ashes,  clinkers,  dust, 
etc.,  which  entail  labor  in  keeping  the  stove  and  kitchen  in 
proper  condition. 


The  ideal  cooking  fuel  is  one  that  can  be  directly  con- 
trolled and  checked,  the  moment  it  is  desired  to  finish  a 
cooking  process.  It  must  also  be  one  in  which  waste  prod- 
ucts, offensive  gases,  radiated  heat  and  other  accompani- 
ments of  combustion  are  reduced  to  the  minimum.  Gas  as 
a  fuel  has  these  advantages  and  even  when  the  price  is  as 
high  as  $1.50  per  1,000  cubic  feet  it  costs  less  to  use  than 
coal,  if  any  value  is  placed  on  the  housekeeper's  time.  At 
low  prices,  60  cents  to  80  cents  per  1,000  cubic  feet,  the  ad- 
vantages are  all  with  gas. 

The  newer  models  of  the  gas  stove  have  an  upper  oven, 
which  makes  for  efficiency  by  preventing  unnecessary  stoop- 
ing. Burners  of  different  sizes  are  provided  and  broilers 
and  warming  ovens  so  placed  as  to  be  in  the  most  con- 
venient position.  Before  using  any  gas  stove  it  is  best  to 
have  a  demonstration  by  the  agent  of  the  local  company 
who  should  explain  the  care  of  the  burners,  how  to  adjust 
the  flame,  how  to  detect  when  there  is  too  much  or  too  little 
air  mixed  with  -the  gas  and  other  details  which  will  enable 
the  operator  to  use  the  range  most  intelligently.  Besides  the 
gas  range,  there  are  other  devices  using  gas  now  perfected. 
Such  are  the  gas  iron,  chafing  dish  and  percolator  with  gas 
connection,  gas  water  heater  and  other  pieces  heated  by  gas. 


Within  very  recent  years,  the  new  fuel,  denatured  alcohol, 
has  been  offered  the  homemaker.  Denatured  alcohol  is 
formed  by  adding  wood  (methyl)  alcohol  and  petroleum 
benzine  to  ordinary  (ethyl)  alcohol.  It  is  thus  com- 
pletely unfit  for  food  use  and  is  indeed  dangerously  poisonous. 
It  burns  with  a  clear,  intense  flame  (with  no  by-products  of 
carbon,  odors,  etc.),  and  there  are  on  the  market  special 
stoves  for  its  use  which  resemble  the  small  gas  "hot  plate." 
But  its  cost  in  this  country  (even  at  the  wholesale  prices  of 



45  t°  75  cents  per  gallon)  makes  it  too  expensive  a  fuel  for 
regular  family  use.  Also  the  fuel  value  in  a  gallon  of 
alcohol  is  only  about  2/3  that  of  a  gallon  of  kerosene  or 
gasolene.  Its  use  at  present  must  be  confined  to  the  occa- 

Portable  oven  fits  over  two  burners 

sional  chafing-dish,  percolator,  plate  warmer  and  other  small 
pieces  for  distinctly  table  service.  There  are  however,  sev- 
eral excellent  one-burner  stoves,  easy  of  operation,  which 
will  fill  many  a  place  in  sick-room  and  light  housekeeping 
cookery  where  other  fuels  are  not  available. 



To  the  rural  housekeeper  especially,  who  is  out  of  the 
range  of  gas  and  electricity,  and  who  nevertheless  wishes  to 
free  herself  from  the  labor  and  dirt  of  coal  and  wood 
ranges,  kerosene  offers  a  solution  of  the  fuel  problem. 
Kerosene  can  be  bought  everywhere,  the  price  averaging  12 
cents  per  gallon,  with  a  saving  of  several  cents  per  gallon 
if  bought  by  the  barrel. 

Kerosene  burns  with  a  slow  heat,  not  to  be  compared  with 
gas  in  intensity.  The  chief  criticisms  generally  advanced 
against  it  is  the  odor,  and  possibly  smoke  present  and  it 
radiates  more  heat  than  gas.  Neither  of  these  accompani- 
ments however,  need  be  present  if  the  stove  is  properly 
cared  for  daily.  The  best  type  of  stove  is  by  all  means  that 
using  a  wick,  as  the  "wickless"  stoves  are  much  more  un- 
satisfactory and  require  more  attention. 

Kerosene  stoves  are  now  manufactured  in  two,  three,  or 
four-burner  models  with  an  upper  standard,  warming  shelf 
and  portable  oven,  which  make  them  compare  in  appearance 
and  results  quite  favorably  with  gas  stoves.  They  require, 
nevertheless,  daily  care  in  wiping  off  each  wick  and  atten- 
tion to  see  that  the  wick  is  never  raised  too  high  or  burns 
with  "points"  which  will  cause  yellow,  smoky  flame  instead 
of  the  blue  flame  necessary  for  perfect  results.  In  the 
writer's  opinion,  a  three-burner  kerosene  stove  and  a  fireless 
cooker  are  the  ideal  country  combination  to  supplant  the 
laborious  coal  range  with  its  waste  of  heat  and  imperfect 
control.  In  my  summer  home,  with  a  family  of  eight,  we 
consume  between  three  and  four  gallons  of  kerosene  a  week. 
A  fireless  cooker  is  used. 

A  late  type  of  the  "Perfection"  oil  stove  contains  a  fireless 
cooker  oven  with  thermometer,  cabinet  style,  four  burners, 
shelf,  etc. — in  fact,  a  complete  oil  range. 



Gasoline  is  in  somewhat  bad  repute  as  a  fuel  because  of 
the  many  distressive  accidents  from  the  use  of  gasoline 
stoves.  Most  often,  however,  such  accidents  come  from 
carelessness,  such  as  filling  the  reservoir  when  the  stove  or 

Marketed  by  the  Standard  Oil  Co. 

lamp  is  lighted,  spilling  the  gasoline,  knocking  over  the 
stove,  etc.  In  the  older  styles  the  flame  might  easily  be 
blown  out  by  a  draught  of  air,  the  gas  would  then  continue 
to  form  and  an  explosion  might  result  if  a  light  were 
brought  into  the  room. 

The  best  types  of  gasoline  stoves  are  safe  if  used  with 
intelligence  and  care.  The  supply  tank  can  be  placed  in 
a  different  room  and  piped  to  the  stove,  the  stove  can  be 
secured  to  the  floor  and  placed  away  from  draughts. 

A  good  gasoline  stove  gives  a  blue  flame  nearly  equiva- 


lent  to  gas  in  intensity  and  so  is  a  quicker  fuel  than  kero- 
sene. The  chief  disadvantage  is  that  the  generator  in  the 
burner  must  be  heated  for  some  time  before  the  burner 
can  be  lighted  properly.  Gasoline  is  more  expensive  than 
kerosene,  costing  from  14  to  25  cents  a  gallon. 

Acetylene  Gas 

Acetylene  gas  is  still  another  fuel  being  used  more  and 
more  in  country  homes  for  cooking  as  well  as  for  lighting. 
Acetylene  generators,  approved  by  the  National  Insurance 
Board,  are  safe  if  given  intelligent  care.  The  gas  burns 
with  a  very  intense  blue  flame  and  must  be  used  in  stoves 
and  hot  plates  especially  designed  for  it.  The  expense  of 
using  acetylene  for  cooking  is  greater  than  kerosene  but  not 

If  a  coal  or  wood  stove  must  be  used  in  winter,  by  all 
means  have  the  fuel  stored  on  the  same  floor  level  as  the 
stove — not  in  the  celler.  Some  of  the  steel  ranges  are  now 
provided  with  a  sheet  iron  pipe  from  the  ash  pit  of  the  stove 
to  a  metal  ash  can  in  the  basement,  through  which  the  ashes 
may  be  dumped  as  necessary.  This  arrangement  saves  much 
labor  and  dirt  and  could  be  adopted  in  many  cases. 


The  most  modern  of  all  fuels  is  electricity,  which  while 
not  a  fuel  proper,  is  a  source  of  heat  and  thus  a  means  of 
cooking.  Several  years  ago  there  was  scarcely  a  piece  of 
electric  cooking  apparatus  on  the  market,  and  the  use  of 
electricity  was  confined  chiefly  to  lighting  and  power  pur- 
poses. Today  electricity,  "the  silent  servant"  is  being 
adapted  to  not  only  the  small  portable  cooking  devices  such 
a  percolator,  toaster,  grill,  hot  plates,  etc.,  but  to  the  larger 
fixed  equipment  of  stoves  and  ranges  proper. 



No  other  fuel  can  be  under  such  direct  control.  No  other 
fuel  equals  it  in  entire  absence  of  unpleasant  gases,  odors, 
soot  or  other  products  of  combustion.  It  is  without  doubt 
the  most  ideal  cooking  fuel  from  the  standpoint  of  cleanli- 
ness, direct  control  and  absence  of  waste  heat  by  radiation. 
Because  it  can  be  measured  and  the  degree  of  heat  so  ac- 
curately obtained,  electric  cooking  can  be  performed  at 
any  continuous  desired  degree. 


The  fireless  cooker  ovens  shut  off   the   current  at  any  desired   temperature. 
The  clock  will  *.urn  on  the  current  at  the  time  set. 

At  present  however,  electric  cooking  is  not  much  used 
for  two  reasons :  the  present  high  rate  of  current,  and  the 
high  cost  of  the  equipment  itself,  owing  to  the  fact  that 
electric  equipment  can  be  made  only  of  the  highest  grade 
materials  and  requires  expensive  metals  in  its  construction. 
Many  sections  of  the  country  have  not  progressed  far 
enough  to  make  separate  rates  for  cooking  and  power  from 
the  usual  rate  charged  for  lighting.  Other  localities,  notably 



Oregon  and  some  of  the  western  states,  have  a  low  "flat" 
rate  which  covers  cooking  and  the  use  of  electricity  as 
power  to  operate  washers,  vacuum  cleaners,  etc.  Thus  the 
cost  of  current  differs  widely,  and  can  only  be  summed  up 
in  the  extreme  figures  of  3  cents  to  15  cents  per  kilowatt 
hour,  the  average  being  about  10  cents  in  medium  sized 


Cost  per  hour 



6c  to  150  per  kilo 

40c  to  75c  gal. 

Disc,  stove, 
I  burner  250  w.  i%c  to 

I  burner 


Coal  range 

per  1,000  feet 
$i  per  100  feet 
I2c  per  gal. 
$5  to  $9  per  ton 

per  month 

i  medium  top 

5  ft.  per  h.  */3c  to 

i  burner  2c  to  3C 

i  medium  flame  J^c 

Entire  stove 

(without  water 

back)  3/Sc  to 


There  are  a  few  terms  constantly  used  in  speaking  of 
electric  apparatus  which  should  be  familiar  to  the  home- 
maker.  The  first  of  these — the  "watt" — is  the  unit  of 
measurement  of  electrical  energy.  It  is  estimated  by  the 
kilo  or  1,000  watts,  usually  expressed  "kilo-watt"  or  kw. 

The  second  term  is  the  volt,  which  is  the  unit  of  electrical 
pressure.  Electricity  may  be  considered  as  forced  under 
pressure  along  the  conducting  wires  to  the  stove  or  other 
apparatus.  If  a  wire  of  large  diameter  is  used,  the  pressure 
or  "voltage"  can  be  lower  than  if  a  lower  pressure  or 
voltage  is  employed.  The  common  high  pressure  voltage 
used  in  houses  is  generally  200  to  250  volts ;  low  pressure 
being  at  100  to  no  volts. 


pere"  which  is  the  unit  of  electrical  quantity  flowing 
through  the  wire.  The  number  of  amperes  multiplied  by 
the  volts  gives  the  number  of  watts — (AXV=W),  for 
instance,  if  the  pressure  used  is  200  volts,  and  5  amperes 
of  current  are  absorbed  in  the  circuit,  the  number  of  watts 
used  is  200X5,  equals  1,000. 


The   coils   of   these    newer   electric   stoves   are    visible    and   become   red   hot 
when  the  current  is  on 

Stoves,  percolators  and  small  appliances  are  rated  in 
"watts"  as  for  instance,  a  certain  kettle  may  be  rated  at 
480,  a  grill  or  table  cooker  at  550,  or  a  small  hot  plate  stove 
may  have  two  or  three  degrees  of  heat,  say  600  for  "high," 
and  300  for  "low."  This  ability  to  change  the  degree  of 
heat  is  one  of  the  economies  of  electric  cooking,  as  it  is 
possible  in  many  devices  to  change  from  a  high  degree, 
(perhaps  900)  for  full  boiling,  to  a  medium  degree  (600) 
for  simmering  and  slower  cooking  to  the  lowest  (300) 


used  merely  to  keep  foods  warm.  The  user  should  always 
know  the  amount  of  volts  supplied,  as  a  device  which  is 
fitted  for  220  volts  supply  will  not  heat  when  connected 
to  a  no  volt  supply,  but  if  a  device  wired  for  a  no  volt 
current  is  connected  to  a  220  volt  circuit  it  will  be  over- 
heated and  probably  ruined.  Every  electrical  device  from 
reputable  manufacturers  is  marked  at  the  bottom,  as  a 
toaster  may  be  marked  206-215  V. — 2.4  A.  This  means 
that  the  toaster  may  be  used  on  any  voltage  between  206 


and  215  and  that  it  will  take  2.4  amperes  of  current.  Mul- 
tiplying these  figures  would  show  that  the  toaster  will  use 
about  500  watts  an  hour.  If  the  cost  of  electricity  is  10  cents 
per  kw.h.  (1,000  watts  per  hour),  the  cost  of  running  the 
toaster  will  be  5  cents  an  hour.  Both  the  wattage  and  volt- 
age are  usually  given  in  catalogs  of  electric  equipment,  and 
should  be  noted  carefully  before  buying. 

When  electric  energy  is  to  be  delivered  to  any  great  dis- 
tance "alternating"  current  of  2,000  volts  or  more  is  pro- 
duced, thus  permitting  small  conducting  wires  to  be  used. 
As  such  high  voltage  is  very  dangerous  to  life,  a  small 
"transformer"  is  put  in,  usually  on  the  pole  nearest  the 
house,  which  reduces  the  voltage  to  the  desired  intensity, 
most  commonly  to  no  volts.  All  household  heating  and 



lighting  apparatus  work  equally  well  with  "direct"  or  with 
"alternating"  current  of  the  required  voltage,  but  direct  cur- 
rent motors  cannot  be  used  on  alternating  current,  nor 
alternating  current  motors  on  direct  current  circuits,  except 
for  a  few  special  motors  which  may  be  used  on  both.  For 
an  alternating  current  motor  also  the  number  alternations 

Fan,  grinder,  polisher  and  cream  whipper  attachments  at  extra  price. 

or  the  "cycles"  of  the  current  must  be  known.  Direct  cur- 
rent is  used  for  electric  cars  and  in  small  plants.  Nearly 
all  electric  lighting  circuits  use  alternating  current. 


But  while  electricity  has  not  come  into  its  own  as  a  fuel 
for  reasons  given  above,  it  has  more  certainly  entered  the 
modern  household  as  a  source  of  power.  In  no  other  coun- 
try are  there  so  many  household  labor-savers  operated  by 
electricity.  First  perhaps  in  importance  is  the  increasing 
number  of  vacuum  cleaners.  Washing  machines,  mangles 
and  other  laundry  equipment  electrically  operated,  are  being 


put  on  the  market  in  greater  numbers,  thus  robbing  wash 
day  of  many  of  its  former  terrors.  Dishwashers,  coffee 
grinders,  meat  choppers,  and  other  similar  pieces  come 
fitted  for  power. 

One  piece  of  electric  apparatus  which  is  bound  to  come 
into  more  general  use  is  the  small  utility  motor.     Such  a 


motor  can  be  attached  so  as  to  operate  a  common  hand- 
power  washing  machine.  It  will  also  polish  silver,  freeze 
ice  cream,  grind  meat  or  coffee  and  can  be  connected  to  a 
house  pump,  to  a  vacuum  cleaner  or  many  other  pieces  of 
household  equipment.  In  one  case  where  such  a  motor 
was  attached  to  a  simple  ironing  machine,  all  of  the  family 
ironing  was  done  in  one  hour,  which  previously  took  over 
five  hours  by  hand.  In  many  rural  sections  electricity  is 
being  successfully  used  to  operate  churns,  separators,  grind- 
stones, pumps,  etc.  It  should  be  only  a  step  to  continue 


its  use  to  help  the  woman  on  the  farm,  lighten  her  wash- 
day labors,  wash  her  dishes,  or  clean  her  house.  A  last 
most  important  use  of  the  small  motor  is  its  application  to 
the  sewing  machine  so  that  there  is  no  treadling,  and  the 
machine  and  material  need  only  be  guided  by  the  worker. 


Watts  Cost,  on 

Consumed  Basis  of  roc 

Per  Hour  Per  Kw. 
Combination  kettle,  saucepan  and  disk  stove 

for  table  cooking 550  5J^c  per  hour 

Coffee  percolator,  3  pts 440  4/^c  per  hour 

Toaster 600  6c      per  hour 

Iron,   5  Ibs 450  4*/2C  per  hour 

Oven,   3   heats 150  ij4c  per  hour 

300  3c      per  hour 

600  6c      per  hour 

Electric   radiator 1,000  or  loc      per  hour 

750  or  7^c  per  hour 

500  5c      per  hour 

Small  utility  motor,  for  running  sewing 
machine,  chopping  meat,  polishing,  venti- 
lating, operating  washing  machine  or 

mangle    100  ic      per  hour 

Water  heater 500  or  5c      per  hour 

i,oooor  ice      per  hour 

2,000  or  2oc      per  hour 

3,000  3oc      per  hour 

Chafing    dish 600  or  6c      per  hour 

300  or  3c      per  hour 

200  2c      per  hour 

Heating    pad 60  or  3/5c  per  hour 

30  3/ioc  per  hour 

Baby's  milk  warmer 440        4  2/5c  per  hour 



Even  though  the  modern  fuels  discussed  above  are  less 
wasteful  of  heat  than  coal  or  wood,  it  is  nevertheless  neces- 
sary to  economize  fuel  still  further  by  the  use  of  devices 
and  utensils  which  conserve  heat  or  make  for  economical 
cooking.  Foremost  among  such  equipment  is  the  much- 
discussed  tireless  cooker,  based  on  the  principle  of  cooking 
with  conserved  heat  in  an  airtight  box,  instead  of  by  direct 

The  first  cookers  were  merely  well  insulated  boxes  into 
which  the  container  of  heated  food  was  left  to  cook  slowly 
until  finished.  Improvements  were  made  by  adding  the 
so-called  disks  or  radiators  of  soapstone  or  other  metal 
with  a  rack  to  hold  them,  thus  permitting  roasting  and 
baking  as  well  as  boiling  and  stewing. 

Another  step  in  advance  has  been  to  combine  the  principle 
of  the  fireless  in  some  regular  cooking  stove.  For  instance, 
there  is  the  regulation  gas  or  electric  stove  with  usual 
burners.  In  addition,  such  a  stove  has  an  insulated  oven  or 
compartment  corresponding  to  the  "well"  of  the  fireless 
with  its  heated  radiators.  Food  is  put  into  this  compart- 
ment, heated  for  a  short  period,  after  which  the  fuel  is 
turned  off,  when  the  food  continues  cooking  by  means  of 
the  heat  radiated  from  the  compartment  walls,  or  from  a 
disk  or  metal  plate  in  the  bottom  of  the  compartment.  In 
a  gas-fireless  stove  recently  used  by  the  author,  a  5-pound 
rib  roast  was  thoroughly  browned  and  cooked  in  the  oven 
fireless,  using  only  20  minutes  of  actual  fuel.  In  the  ordi- 
nary oven  about  one  hour  and  a  quarter  would  have  been 

The  advantages  of  fireless  cooker  ovens  are  that  they 
have  greater  cooking  space,  take  up  no  extra  room,  require 
no  preheating  of  hot  plates,  save  more  fuel  and  more  time. 



In  some  of  the  later  models,  the  cooking  compartment, 
whether  gas  or  electric,  is  under  automatic  control.  In  one 
gas  stove,  with  a  fireless  cooker  oven,  the  gas  is  turned  off 
automatically  at  the  time  set  and  the  cooking  continues  on 
the  fireless  principle  (page  203).  An  electric  stove  with  a 
fireless  cooker  oven  will  turn  on  the  current  automatically 


at  the  desired  time  and  also  turn  off  the  current  when  the 
required  temperature  is  reached  (page  123). 

One  of  the  best  time  and  fuel  savers  is  the  automatic  oven 
temperature  regulator,  which  maintains  indefinitely  any  de- 
sired oven  temperature.  This  gives  constant  temperatures 
for  baking,  saves  watching  and  some  gas.  With  the  regu- 
lator set  for  low  heat,  the  cooking  may  continue  for  three 
to  five  hours,  thus  giving  about  all  the  advantages  of  a  fire- 
less  cooker,  with  none  of  the  disadvantages.  Still  another 
cooker  is  an  electric  pressure  cooker,  heat  insulated  so  that 
it  acts  like  a  fireless  cooker. 



(1)  It  reduces  fuel  cost,  sometimes  as  much  as  one-third  or  one 

(2)  It  lessens  labor  by  eliminating  a  great  deal  of  work  attendant 
upon  the  usual  cooking  processes,  as  basting,  looking  at  food, 

(3)  It  saves  time  by  making  unnecessary  so  much  useless  pot- 
watching  and  time  spent  in  kitchen  while  foods  are  cooking, 
to  prevent  scorching,  etc. 

(4)  It  cooks  food  with  little  loss  of  weight,  owing  to  absence  of 
evaporation  or  drying  out,  as  in  usual  methods. 

(5)  It   brings   out   the  juices   and    flavors   of    foods,   and   renders 
tender   inexpensive   cuts   of   meat   as   is   almost   impossible   in 
any  other  way. 

(6)  It  is  especially  adapted  for  the  long  cooking  of  cereals,  soups, 
beans,  and  large  pieces  like  whole  ham,  etc. 

(7)  The  utensils  used  in  fireless  cooking  do  not  scorch  or  stick; 
hence  can  be  washed  with  the  least  effort. 


(1)  Considerable   planning   and    forethought   necessary   to   operate 
one  successfully.     (This  may  be  considered  an  advantage!) 

(2)  Does  not  brown  foods  as  well  as  an  oven.     Flavor  not  so  good 
with  some  foods. 

(3)  Unless  used  often  the  fuel  or  time  saved  does  not  justify 
the  investment. 

(4)  Requires  intelligence,  care  and  some  experience  to  get  good 


Another  important  fuel  saver  is  the  steam  cooker.  This 
consists  of  several  round  compartments  fitted  horizontally 
into  each  other,  or  a  square  compartment  with  sections, 
below  both  of  which  there  is  a  water  tank.  Steam  from 
this  water  penetrates  all  compartments  and  cooks  the  food. 
By  accommodating  from  four  to  ten  different  dishes  or 
foods,  the  steam  cooker  saves  fuel  which  would  be  con- 
sumed if  each  of  these  were  cooked  on  a  separate  burner. 
Steam  cooking  is  also  preferable  to  boiling,  especially  with 


vegetables,  cereals,  etc.,  because  it  causes  less  loss  in  weight, 
flavor,  and  particularly  loss  of  important  mineral  salts 
which  are  too  frequently  extracted  in  the  boiling  process 
and  thrown  away. 

In  a  recent  test  it  was  proved  that  odors  from  different 
foods  do  not  contaminate  each  other.  Boiled  cabbage,  rice, 
custard  and  beets  were  all  cooked  at  the  same  time.  The 


custard  and  rice  were  entirely  free  from  cabbage  odor. 
This  cooker  can  also  be  used  excellently  as  a  canning  device, 
accommodating  from  4  to  24  jars,  according  to  size. 


We  have  also  the  "triplicate  pail"  or  the  3  or  2  interlock- 
ing pots  fitted  to  one  burner  —  not  very  useful.  There  are 
also  various  combinations  of  pots  and  insets  which  permit 
boiling  in  a  lower  compartment  and  the  steaming  of  one  or 
two  foods  above.  The  newest  tea  kettle  with  its  "boiler 
inset"  permits  the  cooking  of  oistard,  rice,  etc.,  at  the  same 



time  that  a  quantity  of  water  is  being  heated  for  other  uses, 
in  this  way  taking  the  place  of  the  cumbersome  double 

Several  radiating  plates  are  manufactured  especially  for 
gas  stove  or  range  use.  One  of  these  is  triangular  in  shape 
so  that  it  covers  three  burners  at  once,  but  uses  the  heat 
from  only  one,  thus '  permitting  foods  on  the  other  two 
burners  to  cook  slowly  by  radiated  heat  alone. 

A  new  cooking  pot  which  is 
an  improvement  on  the  cast- 
iron  pot  of  our  grandmother 
has  a  rack  in  the  bottom  and 
a  lid  fitted  with  a  steam  valve. 
The  valve  is  left  open  at 



first  while  the  food  is  being  browned ;  it  is  later  closed  so 
that  the  generated  steam  falls  back  on  the  food,  thus  in- 
creasing the  tenderness,  and  the  pot  once  heated  requires 
only  a  minimum  of  fuel.  A  further  development  along  this 
line  is  the  pressure  cooker,  fitted  with  a  clamped  cover, 
pressure  gauge  and  safety  valve.  These  save  much  fuel 
and  time  and  give  excellent  results.  The  small  portable 
ovens  to  fit  over  one  burner  of  a  gas  stove  use  about  one- 
half  as  much  gas  as  the  large  oven  and  are  useful  for  cook- 
ing one  or  two  small  dishes  quickly. 



Another  group  of  modern  utensils  which  save  fuel  is  the 
devices  operated  on  the  vacuum  principle.  These  are  either 
in  the  form  of  bottles,  jars  or  large  containers  which  when 
filled  with  a  food  or  liquid  of  a  desired  temperature,  retain 
it  for  a  considerable  number  of  hours.  Coffee  made  in  the 
morning  can  be  poured,  scalding,  into  the  vacuum  bottle 
and  be  ready  to  serve  at  a  later  meal.  Many  foods  may  be 
kept  in  these  containers  without  a  second  fuel  expense  for 
" warming-up."  Platters  and  dishes  with  hot  water  pans 
underneath  also  permit  foods 
to  be  kept  hot  for  a  consider- 
able time.  There  are,  too,  plat- 
ters and  serving  dishes  made 
of  a  composition  metal  which 
retain  heat  for  several  hours 
and  permit  the  most  satisfac- 
tory service  of  meat,  fish,  etc., 
at  the  right  temperature.  Ov- 
ens with  glass  doors  are  said  -BOLO"  OVEN,  ADJUSTABLE  T,, 

r        1      i_  11          •  ,1  TWO   S1?ES   BY   SHELF  IN 

to    save    fuel   by   allowing   the  CENTER,  SAVES  FUEL 

food   to   "be    watched    without 

needless  opening,  but  some  heat  passes  through  the  glass 
as  "radiant  heat."  This  could  be  reflected  back  into  the 
oven  by  a  piece  of  bright  sheet  metal  over  the  glass.  Vari- 
ous roasting  pans  and  other  utensils  are  fitted  with  insulated 
hoods  or  covers,  all  of  which  save  heat  by  preventing  radia- 


While  many  devices  in  other  groups  also  save  steps  there 
are  a  few  pieces  of  equipment  which  may  be  called  dis- 
tinctly step  savers.  Chief  among  these  is  the  kitchen  cabinet 




which  combines  a  pantry,  table  and  shelf -space  into  one 
article  of  furniture.  No  one  piece  of  kitchen  equipment 
does  more  to  co-ordinate  utensils  and  working  processes 
than  the  manufactured  kitchen  cabinet.  The  newest  models 
have  flour  and  sugar  bins,  cereal  and  spice  containers,  rack 
shelf  space  and  adjustable  moulding  boards.  When  used 
with  a  stool,  such  a  cabinet  saves  endless  steps  by  grouping 
within  arm's  length  of  the  worker  both  supplies,  utensils 
and  tools  needed  in  many  kitchen  processes. 





The  serving  tray  on  wheels  is  another  distinctive  step 
saver.  Several  models  are  on  the  market,  some  with  single, 
others  with  double  tray,  mounted  on  rubber-tired  wheels 
which  can  be  steered  easily.  Such  a  tray  enables  the  home- 
maker  to  serve  a  complete  meal  with  one  or  possibly  two 
carryings  of  dishes,  or  to  clear  the  table  with  similar  ease. 
This  kind  of  tray  can  also  be  used  excellently  as  a  stack- 
table  when  there  is  no  drain  to  the  right  of  the  sink,  or  it 
can  be  used  to  wheel  clean  dishes  to  the  pantry,  avoiding 
constant  trips  and  the  dangers  attendant  on  tray  carrying. 
Larger  and  more  massive  styles  are  found  in  the  typical  hotel 
dishcart  which  can  be  used  equally  well  in  the  large  house- 

The  so-called  "Lazy  Susan"  or  servette  finds  favor  with 
the  homemaker  who  is  her  own  maid.  This  is  a  revolving 




circular  wooden  or  glass  disk,  supported  on  a  stand  placed 
in  the  center  of  the  table.  Foods  laid  on  the  disk  may  be 
revolved  to  each  person  in  turn,  thus  saving  "passing,"  or 
frequent  rising.  It  also  saves  space  on  the  table  by  giving 
a  place  to  bread  and  butter,  sauces,  condiments  and  other 
small  dishes. 

A  unique  refrigerator  most  excellent  in  country  homes 
particularly  is  a  worth-while  step  saver.     This   "elevator 


ice-box"  looks  much  like  other  small  refrigerators,  has  three 
compartments,  but  is  operated  by  clock-work  pulleys.  It 
is  so  installed  that  the  pressure  on  a  button  in  the  floor 
causes  the  ice  box  to  rise  up  into  the  kitchen ;  or  a  similar 
pressure  causes  its  descent  into  the  cellar.  This  saves  the 
hundreds  of  tedious  steps  entailed  by  the  country  home- 
maker  who  has  to  keep  many  food  products  "down  cellar." 
And  if  the  cellar  is  cool,  this  icebox  can  be  satisfactorily 
used  even  without  an  ice  supply. 

Any  other  device  or  equipment  which  co-ordinates  work, 
such  as  these:  a  tool-basket  with  compartments,  a  house- 


maid's  bucket  with  places  for  rags,  soap,  powder,  etc., 
speaking  tubes  or  "house"  telephones,  etc.,  can  be  grouped 
properly  under  the  important  head  of  step  savers,  and  hence 
energy  and  effort  savers. 


There  is  no  one  more  important  kitchen  tool  than  the 
knife,  and  yet  no  other  tool  is  so  universally  abused.  A 
cook  can  be  judged  by  her  knives,  and  it  is  indeed  rare  to 
go  into  a  kitchen  and  find  either  good  knives  or  knives  in 
good  condition.  Many  make  the  mistake  of  thinking  they 
can  buy  a  well-made  knife  at  a  low  price,  but  it  is  unwise  to 
purchase  an  inexpensive  knife  when  it  is  the  most  used  tool 
in  the  kitchen  which  cuts  our  bread,  prepares  our  vege- 
tables, slices  meat,  and  without  which  no  meal  can  be  pre- 

The  most  efficient  knife  blade  for  general  kitchen  cutting 
is  triangular  in  shape  and  is  called  the  "sabatier"  knife. 
In  moderate  size,  it  will  cost  75  cents,  and  a  larger  size 
$1.00  or  more.  For  cake  and  bread  slicing  a  special  knife 
with  serrated  edge  cuts  quicker  and  cleaner  than  the  ordi- 
nary straight  edge.  Even  the  small  vegetable  preparing 
knives  should  be  of  the  best  quality,  firmly  riveted  into 
the  handle,  and  with  points  best  adapted  to  their  use  of 
picking  out  eyes,  etc.  As  was  suggested  previously,  the 
important  point  about  knives  is  not  only  their  selection  but 
their  care.  No  knife  or  cutting  device  of  any  kind  should 
be  ruthlessly  banged  into  a  drawer  along  with  nutmeg- 
grater,  apple  corer  or  other  implements  which  unquestion- 
ably will  dull  the  edge.  Strips  of  leather  or  grooves  of 
wood  can  be  placed  where  convenient,  and  into  these  knives 
can  be  slipped,  each  having  its  separate  pocket.  Small  knives 
and  cutting  devices  in  which  the  metal  blade  is  not  exposed 


between  the  wooden  handle  at  the  bottom  can  be  fitted  with 
screw  eyes  and  hung  up. 

Knives  must  be  kept  in  good  condition  by  frequent  sharp- 
ening. Either  a  "steel"  or  sharpening  stone  is  excellent  if 
the  worker  understands  how  to  get  the  best  results,  but 
for  many  one  of  the  newer  knife  sharpening  devices  seems 


easier  to  use.  One  consists  of  a  double  set  of  wheels  placed 
opposite  each  other.  The  knife  blade  is  inserted  between 
them,  and  the  wheels  are  set  revolving  by  means  of  a  small 
handle  at  the  side.  These  little  sharpening  devices  are 
clamped  permanently  on  the  wall  or  table  and  make  quick 
and  correct  sharpening  possible. 

Here  is  a  partial  list  of  helpful  small  cutting  devices 
which  save  time  and  make  easier  the  preparing  of  vege- 
tables and  other  foods. 


Sabatier  kitchen  knife  (medium) $1.00 

Sabatier  kitchen  knife  (small) 60 

Vegetable  parers 25 

Serrated  breadknif e 50 

Breadslicer  50 

Medium  sized  shears 60 

Grape  fruit  knife  with  curved  edge 50 


Vegetable  Scalloper    25 

Strawberry  huller   05 


No  kitchen  is  complete  without  accurate  measures.  They 
are  necessary  to  good  cooking  and  scientific  kitchen  work, 
and  to  better  marketing  and  purchasing  because  they  en- 
able the  homemaker  to  check  up  and  co-operate  with  dealers 
and  manufacturers. 

A  reliable  scale  easy  to  read,  should  be  placed  in  a 
permanent  position  preferably  near  the  preparing  table 
where  most  measuring  is  done.  The  best  scale  for  house- 
hold use  is  the  so-called  pan  or  hanging  scale.  This  type 
is  preferable  to  others  because  here  the  weight  is  suspended 
from  the  dial  and  not  placed  over  it.  This  means  that  there 
is  less  chance  of  the  scale  getting  out  of  order,  or  of  being 
tampered  with  as  is  the  case  where  the  weight  is  placed 
above  the  spring.  Scales  of  this  type  come  with  attractive 
white  enamel  pan,  glass  protected  dial,  and  a  convenient 
hook  for  hanging.  A  dial  registering  only  ten  pounds  is 
better  than  one  indicating  twenty  because  the  clearer  letter- 
ing and  more  space  to  each  division  permits  easier  reading 
of  the  fractions  of  the  pound. 

If  the  stove  used  had  no  heat  gauge,  an  oven  thermometer 
will  be  required  for  accurate  cooking.  Such  thermometers 
come  fitted  with  an  easel  back  so  that  they  can  be  stood  on 
either  shelf  or  base  of  oven,  and  have  large  white  figures 
on  a  black  background  for  easy  reading.  A  cooking 
thermometer  of  the  tube  type  will  also  give  more  satisfac- 
tory results  in  the  cooking  of  finer  dishes.  A  glass  graduate 
measure  registering  both  ounces  and  tablespoons,  and  the 
familiar  glass  measuring  cup  and  triplicate  measuring  spoon 
cannot  be  dispensed  with.  Quart  and  pint  measures 
(liquid)  with  the  funnels  an  integral  part  of  the  measure 
save  time  and  the  washing  of  separate  utensils.  A  set  of 


"dry"  measures,  peck,  quart,  pint,  will  assist  in  checking 
purchases  and  help  along  the  cause  of  honest  weights  and 


No  one  group  of  minor  kitchen  furnishings  has  done 
more  to  make  for  neatness  and  sanitation  than  the  increas- 
ingly popular  group  of  paper  products.  The  kitchen 
"roller"  can  easily  be  replaced  by  the  paper  towel  roll  in 
its  attractive  white  holder,  lessening  the  laundry  labor  and 
making  for  increased  cleanliness.  The  same  roll  or  sep- 
arate "towels"  of  paper  can  also  be  used  for  draining  fried 
foods,  making  food  containers,  wiping  up,  and  in  general, 
taking  the  place  of  unsanitary  "rags." 

Paraffine  paper  is  developing  daily  new  uses  in  keeping 
foods  moist,  wrapping  cakes,  etc.  It  may  be  secured  in 
disks  cut  to  fit  any  size,  square  or  round  pan,  as  for  jelly 
glasses  or  cake  making,  thus  saving  time.  The  same  disks 
can  be  used  in  connection  with  paper  plates.  It  is  possible 
by  using  a  fresh  disk  at  each  course,  to  serve  an  entire 
meal  (except  soup  of  course,)  on  the  same  paper  plate.  The 
paper  plate  too,  is  no  longer  confined  strictly  to  picnic  use, 
but  can  be  utilized  at  many  summer  meals  for  children,  and 
indeed  in  most  attractive  forms  at  adult  meals  from  time 
to  time.  Each  season  brings  new  paper  dishes,  bowls,  etc., 
which  are  convenient  for  icebox  use.  Pies  are  found 
equally  delicious  if  baked  in  a  paper  plate. 

Much  has  been  said  about  paper  bag  cookery,  and  it  need 
only  be  mentioned  here  that  while  not  adaptable  to  all  forms 
of  cooking,  the  paper  bag  does  save  labor  and  pan-washing, 
and  will  be  found  especially  helpful  in  cooking  fish  and 
certain  meats  and  other  dishes.  The  same  paraffme  bags 
used  in  cooking  are  excellent  when  used  in  the  garbage 
pail,  preventing  waste  from  coming  in  contact  with  the 



metal  can,  thus  corroding  it,  and  permitting  the  entire  bag 
of  garbage  to  be  easily  moved.  This  plan  was  followed 
most  successfully  in  Boston,  and  found  a  great  preventive 
of  the  fly  nuisance. 


1.     Roll  Paper  Towel.  2.     Paper  I'lates.  3.     Paraffined  Sundae  Dish. 

4.      Oblong  Dishes. 

Paper  tablecloths  are  made  exactly  resembling  damask. 
Paper  napkins  also  are  made  in  fine  quality,  and  these  and 
the  new  paper  plates  which  look  just  like  china  can  do  much 
to  reduce  laundry  and  dishwashing  for  the  busy  homemaker. 


Oblong  deep  dishes,  1-3  Ibs '  .$1.75  to  $2.06"  per  M 

Table  plates,  5  inches  in  diameter $i-95  per  400 

Table  plates,  china   finish 25c  per   dozen 

Paraffine  disks,  5  to  6  inches IDC  per  M 

Paraffine  disks,  9  to  10  inches • 25c  per  M 

Roll  paper  towel 35c  per  150  sheets 

Paper  tablecloth,  66x72   inches $1.00  to  $1.50  per  dozen 

Paper  napkins  $1.00  to  $2.50  per  M 

Paraffine  paper  cooking  bags,  15  to  60  bags  for  25c,  depending  on  size 

Paper  cups 25c  per  100 

Paraffine  sundae  dishes 500  per  100 

Paper  dish  cloths   3Oc  per  dozen 

Paper  cake  pan  linings,  round  or  square I5c  per  50 


There  are  many  minor  helpful  tools,  many  of  which  can 
be  justified  largely  on  sanitary  grounds.  Others,  like  a 
good  canner,  will  do  much  to  save  labor  and  give  better  re- 
sults in  this  important  part  of  food  preparation.  Still  others 
make  for  neatness,  for  skill,  or  fill  other  demands  of  the 
efficient  kitchen.  The  following  list  could  be  expanded 
indefinitely : 

Canning  machine. 

Sanitary  egg  holder,  prevents  breakage. 

Milk  bottle  cap,  makes  pitcher  of  bottle  and  keeps  milk  clean. 

Cream  dipper  to  remove  cream  from  quart  bottle. 

Cream  syphon. 

Glass  butter  and  food  containers. 

Gas  lighters,  do  away  with  burnt  matches,  safer,  quicker. 

The  subject  of  Helpful  Tools  will  be  touched  upon  further 
in  the  next  chapter  on  Cleaning  and  in  Food  Planning ,  the 
Laundry,  and  elsewhere. 

In  the  endeavor  to  save  time  and  labor  in  housekeeping 
it  must  be  remembered  that  correct  planning,  good  practice 
and  efficient  head  work  are  far  more  effective  than  the  most 
elaborate  and  expensive  equipment,  without  efficient  manage- 



1.  In   your   housekeeping  at  present,   which   seems   most 

important    and  why  (a)   to  save  time,  (b)  to  save 
labor,  (c)  to  save  money? 

2.  All  things  considered,  what  fuel  is  best  for  you  to  use 

for  cooking  in  winter?     In  summer? 

3.  Your   method   of   washing   dishes — how   can   you   im- 

prove it? 

4.  Based  on  the  study  of  your  schedule  of  work,  what 

would  be  your  next  purchase  of  helpful  household 
tools,  if  you  were  free  to  choose? 

5.  Tell  of  your  failures  in  the  purchase  of  household  equip- 




Shelf  for  bottles  and  cleansers. 

Brooms,  mops,  etc.,   on  separate  hooks. 

Bag  for  string,  paper,   gloves,  etc. 

Labels,  and  a  definite  place  for  each  article  make  it  easy  to  quickly 
find  the  right  tool.  Using  Oliver  cleanser.  Note  long  handled  scrub  brush 
and  mop  wringer. 




INCREASINGLY  high  standards  of  sanitation  in  the 
home  have  made  cleaning  one  of  the  most  important 
divisions  of  housework.  Probably  a  house  that  was 
regarded  as  clean  a  century  ago  would  not  be  considered 
"clean"  in  our  modern  sanitary  sense,  which  disproves  of 
large  carpets,  tufted  furniture,  and  an  excess  of  draperies 
and  ornaments.  This  high  cleaning  standard  results  in  a 
definite  money  expense,  and  in  a  time  expense  on  the  part 
of  homemaker  and  houseworker.  In  many  homes,  cleaning 
is  one  long  drudgery,  consuming  hours  in  disagreeable  and 
fatiguing  work.  How  can  a  home  be  kept  satisfactorily 
cleansed  without  too  great  an  expense  of  time  and  effort  ? 


First,  a  clearer  idea  of  the  term  cleaning  must  be  under- 
stood. As  generally  used,  it  would  appear  to  be  a  single 
piece  of  work.  But,  like  many  other  household  tasks, 
cleaning  is  composed  of  many  different  processes,  many  of 
them  complex  and  done  with  different  tools  and  motions,  as : 

1.  SWEEPING — carpets,  rugs,  bare  floors,  tufted  furniture,  etc. 

2.  WIPING  or  scrubbing  windows,  walls,  tiles,  porcelains,  etc. 
.  3.  DUSTING  furniture,  woodwork,  walls  and  ornaments. 

4.  POLISHING — silver,  brass  and  other  metal  objects,  utensils. 

"Cleaning,"  therefore,  may  be  any  one  of  these  processes, 
or  several  of  theVn,  and  in  cleaning  the  ordinary  room  we 
find  all  of  them  included. 


Again,  cleaning  is  almost  entirely  muscular  or  physical 
work  or  exercise  more  than  any  other  kind  of  housework. 
To  make  a  broad  comparison,  it  might  be  said  that  the 
several  steps  of  cleaning  can  be  likened  to  different  athletic 
exercises,  as  tennis,  ball,  rowing,  skating,  etc.  We  know 
that  in  tennis  certain  bodily  motions  are  gone  through,  while 
in  playing  ball  other  kinds  of  motions  are  performed.  So, 
too,  an  analysis  of  cleaning  and  its  steps  shows  that  each 
different  step  is  a  different  kind  of  muscular  adjustment. 
That  is,  sweeping  (i)  with  a  common  broom  uses  definite 
sets  of  muscles  in  the  back  and  arms  with  a  broad  swing 
and  play;  again,  scrubbing  (2),  as  commonly  practiced  in  a 
prostrate  position,  uses  an  entirely  different  adjustment  of 
back,  arms,  and  trunk.  In  the  third  step  of  cleaning — 
dusting  (3) — there  is  again  a  different  motion  of  the  body, 
much  less  violent,  and  done  chiefly  with  one  arm  and  a 
slight  stooping.  In  polishing  (4)  the  worker  may  either 
stand  quietly  or  sit,  using  only  the  arms.  Other  special 
cleaning  steps,  like  beating  rugs,  shaking  draperies,  or  clean- 
ing walls  with  a  long-handled  tool,  will  require  other  and 
differing  muscular  adjustment  or  physical  motion. 


The  usual  method  of  "cleaning"  a  room  is  to  perform 
several  of  these  differing  steps  consecutively  in  the  same 
room,  changing  rapidly  from  one  to  another.  That  is,  if  a 
group  of  rooms  were  to  be  cleaned  thoroughly,  the  worker 
would  first  sweep,  then  dust,  then  wipe  floors  in  one  room, 
and  then  repeat  the  four  processes  in  the  next  room,  and 
so  on.  This  would  mean  a  frequent  change  from  one  mus- 
cular process  to  another,  or,  as  it  is  called,  a  "change  of 
shift."  But  a  study  of  this  method  proves  that  it  is  most 
fatiguing  and  time-taking.  Every  time  there  is  a  change  of 
shift  (from  sweeping  to  scrubbing  or  from  any  one  step  to 


another),  there  is  waste  motion  and  effort.  The  reason  is 
that  it  takes  time  to  "speed  up"  on  any  one  muscular  act, 
and  for  the  muscles  to  become  adjusted  to  any  repeated 
consecutive  motion.  In  tennis,  ball,  etc.,  the  first  efforts  are 
never  as  easy,  smooth  and  rapid  as  when  the  player  has 
been  performing  for  some  time  and  "gotten  into  his  stride." 
The  same  holds  true  of  cleaning,  and  the  more  rapid  the 
change  of  shift  from  one  step  to  another,  the  less  easy, 
smooth,  and  effortless  the  work.  The  usual  cleaning  methods 
of  jumping  rapidly  from  sweeping  to  scrubbing,  etc.,  can  be 
compared  to  an  attempt  to  jump  from  tennis  to  rowing,  and 
from  that  to  swimming  or  other  sport,  and  expect  to  do 
smooth,  rapid  work  in  each.  No  wonder  a  worker  is  "all 
fagged"  when  she  attempts  to  work  in  a  way  no  athlete 
would  follow! 


Efficient  cleaning,  therefore,  depends  on  avoiding  rapid 
change  in  shifts  of  work;  or,  to  put  it  differently,  to  con- 
tinue one  cleaning  process  as  long  as  possible  before  chang- 
ing to  another.  The  idea  works  out  concretely  in  the  fol- 
lowing way: 

Let  us  suppose  that  it  is  general  cleaning  day  on  an 
upstairs  floor  with  four  bedrooms  and  a  bath.  The  usual 
practice  would  be  to  sweep,  dust,  and  mop  each  room  sep- 
arately, that  is,  with  rapid  change  of  shift ;  but  let  us  work 
the  new  way,  and  sweep  all  rooms  through  consecutively, 
next  dust  them,  and  last  mop  them,  continuing  a  similar 
process  through  four  rooms  without  a  break,  instead  of 
stopping  in  each  to  change.  Similarly,  any  special  cleaning 
process,  like  washing  windows,  should  be  continued  through 
as  many  rooms  as  possible,  and  one  kind  of  work  should  not 
be  dropped  and  another  allowed  to  interrupt  it. 



Not  only  did  the  old  method  of  rapid  shift  change  cause 
fatigue  and  lose  time,  but  its  second  fault  lies  in  the  fre- 
quent handling  of  tools  necessitated.  As  was  stated,  each 
step  of  dusting,  scrubbings,  etc.,  is  done  with  different  tools 
—broom,  bucket,  cloth,  etc.  Now  under  the  old  method 
each  change  meant  change  and  handling  of  the  tools.  Room  A 
would  be  swept  and  the  broom  dropped  to  pick  up  the  scrub 
bucket,  and  this  in  turn  laid  aside  for  the  duster.  The  same 
handling  would  prevail  in  rooms  B,  C,  and  D.  In  certain 
house  arrangements  this  extra  handling  would  be  very 

Contrast  this  handling  of  each  piece  many  times  with  the 
handling  under  the  efficient  plan:  In  this  case,  the  broom 
would  be  picked  up  with  which  to  clean  Room  A,  and  never 
laid  down  until  rooms  B,  C,  and  D  had  been  swept  and  the 
broom  laid  down  with  one  final  handling.  Similarly,  a 
bucket  used  in  room  A  could  be  carried  straight  through 
the  other  rooms.  Not  until  work  is  closely  watched  and 
motions  noticed  does  it  appear  how  much  useless  time  and 
effort  is  caused  by  change  of  shift  in  work. 


These  facts  are  clearly  brought  out  in  the  following  time 
studies  of  cleaning  several  rooms  under  the  old  and  the 
new  plan: 

Three  Rooms  Cleaned  Separately 

Preparing    Rooms    for    Sweeping 18  minutes 

Sweeping    Rooms 21  minutes 

Dusting  Rooms 19  minutes 

Total   time 58  minutes 

(Three  handlings  of  each  tool.) 


Three  Rooms  Cleaned  Consecutively 

Preparing    15  minutes 

Sweeping    17  minutes 

Dusting    15  minutes 

Total    time 47  minutes 

(One  handling  of  each  tool.) 

This  rule  of  change  of  shift  and  its  results  apply  particu- 
larly to  such  tasks  as  window  washing,  where  exactly  sim- 
ilar motions  are  done  with  each  successive  window.  Nine 
windows  cleaned  consecutively  take  less  time  than  nine 
windows  cleaned  intermittently  with  stops  for  other  work. 
Several  beds  made  one  after  the  other  (witness  the  sleeping 
car  porter!)  can  be  made  in  less  time,  each,  than  if  the 
worker  makes  a  bed,  and  then  stops  to  brush  up  or  do  other 
work.  It  follows,  then,  that  such  tasks  as  windows,  airing 
of  bedding  in  several  rooms,  shaking  rugs,  etc.,  should  be 
done  in  as  "wholesale"  a  method  as  possible.  The  only 
exception  to  this  avoidance  of  shift-change  may  be  when 
rooms  are  so  far  apart,  or  on  different  floors,  that  the  extra 
walking  entailed  might  be  as  time-taking  as  the  old  method. 
The  fatigue  is  always  less  when  work  is  uninterrupted. 
Change  also  causes  nervous  adjustment,  and  it  is  not  so 
much  the  work  itself,  which  causes  the  fatigue,  as  it  is  the 
"jump"  -from  one  kind  of  work  to  another.  This  has  been 
quite  conclusively  proved  in  various  tasks  by  different 
workers.  Therefore  the  woman  who  wishes  to  work  with 
the  least  friction  will  avoid  such  planning  that  will  force 
her  to  do  too  many  kinds  of  work  on  the  same  day,  or  too 
many  kinds  of  tasks  in  the  same  hour. 


Each  cleaning  task  should  have  its  own  set  of  directions 
or  instructions,  since  each  step  of  cleaning  is  done  with  dif- 
ferent tools  and  in  a  different  way.  This  "standard"  or 


best  way,  these  rules,  can  be  called  "standard  practice," 
just  as  in  industries  we  have  written  rules  for  the  way  this 
piece  of  work  or  that  should  be  done.  We  have  long  used 
"standard  practice"  or  definite  instructions  in  cooking,  as 
in  recipes  and  the  kind  of  bowl,  spoons,  etc.,  to  use.  The 
reason  why  our  meals  are  so  often  better  cooked  than  our 
rooms  are  cleaned,  is  almost  solely  because  there  have  been 
no  written  directions  or  "practice"  for  the  latter,  while  there 
was  for  the  former.  There  cannot  be  a  properly  cleaned 
room  if  some  one  step  is  forgotten,  any  more  than  there  can 
be  a  properly  made  cake  if  some  needed  ingredient  is 

Standard  practice  means,  then,  written  directions  as  to 
method  and  tools,  and  time.  While  these  directions  may 
vary  slightly  owing  to  the  different  construction  and  furnish- 
ing of  homes,  these  following  few  "standard  practices"  will 
help  in  making  such  as  will  exactly  suit  the  particular  needs 
of  any  special  home. 


TOOLS — Carpetsweeper ;  long  handle  dustpan ;  dustless  duster ;  long 

handle  string  mop. 
METHOD — i.  Pick  up  clothing,  shoes  and  soiled  linen   (beds  thrown 

back  in  advance,  windows  open). 

2.  Make  bed,  leaving  valance,  if  any,  tucked  up. 

3.  Remove  burned  matches,  papers,  etc.,  from  bureau,  table,  etc. ; 

arrange  and  dust  toilet  articles,  placing  waste  in  dustpan 

4.  Sweep  rug  with  carpet  sweeper. 

5.  Dust  furniture,  window  and  door  trim,  and  baseboard  edge. 

6.  Use  string  mop  around  rug  edges  and  under  bed,  replacing 

chairs,  etc.,  at  same  time;  let  down  bed  valance. 

7.  Pull  shades  to  half,  allow  sufficient  ventilation. 

It  would  be  easy  to  modify  this  "standard"  if  there  were 
a  fireplace  in  the  room  and  a  hand  washstand ;  in  that  case 
the  "standard"  could  be  amended: 


Remove  ashes  and  lay  wood  for  fresh  fire  (to  precede  step  3). 
Scour  basins  and  bring  fresh  water  (to  follow  step  3). 

In  this  way  a  "standard"  for  any  given  set  of  conditions 
can  be  worked  out  simply  by  setting  down  in  the  best  order 
the  various  steps  which  are  needed  to  do  the  entire  work 
in  the  most  satisfactory  manner. 


TOOLS — Long-handled  toilet  brush  or  tongs. 

Impregnated  metal  polish  cloth. 

Cleaning  cloth  and  cleansing  powder. 

Wet  mop  and  bucket. 

Disinfectant,  soap,  linen. 

METHOD — i.  Remove  soiled  linen  and  bring  new  supply,  also  soap, 
paper  roll  if  necessary,  and. lay  on  convenient  chair. 

2.  Clean   windows    and   medicine   closet   mirror  and    light 


3.  Wipe  window  ledge  and  exposed  woodwork,  including 


4.  Rub  faucets,  towel  bar  and  other  metal  parts  with  im- 

pregnated metal  cloth. 

5.  Clean  bathtub,  then  washbasin  with  cloth  and  cleanser, 

and  last,  the  stand  supporting  toilet. 

6.  Wipe  floor  with  mop,  being  sure  to  get  under  tub. 

7.  Empty  pail   into   toilet,   flush ;   clean   with   toilet   tongs, 

flush  again;  pour  down  disinfectant  and  replace  lid. 

8.  Lay  linen,  soap  and  other  supplies  in  place. 

(On  one  floor) 

CONDITIONS — Large    rugs,    hardwood   border,    4    rooms    opening   on 

central  hall. 
TOOLS — Carpet   or   vacuum    sweeper ;    long-handled   dustpan,    string 

mop ;    dustless    duster    for    furniture ;    flannel    duster    for 

ornaments  and  glass. 
METHOD — Open  windows  top  and  bottom  about  one  foot,  carefully 

pin  back  draperies. 


TRIP  : — i.  Assemble  all  tools  at  entrance  of  room  A;  take  both 
dusters  and  dustpan  in  hand ;  pick  up  waste  into  dustpan 
while  dusting  and  replacing  ornaments  and  tops  of  tables, 
bureau,  etc.,  and  dusting  baseboard,  door  and  window  trim 
and  exposed  woodwork.  Do  this  in  rooms  A,  B,  C  and  D, 
returning  to  Room  A  entrance  and  exchanging  for  sweeper 

TRIP  2 — 2.  Use  sweeper  in  rooms  A,  B,  C  and  D,  returning  and  ex- 
changing for  string  mop,  using  this  on  all  rooms  as  before. 
Return  with  sweeper  and  exchange  for  string  mop. 

TRIP  3 — 3.  Use  string  mop  in  rooms  A,  B,  C  and  D;  return  to  en- 
trance A  (arranging  furniture  if  necessary). 

LAST  STEP — Gather  all  tools  from  entrance  A  and  carry  direct  back 
to  house  closet. 

Under  these  conditions,  dusting  precedes  using  the 
sweeper,  so  that  any  dust  or  waste  from  shaking  and  han- 
dling books  and  ornaments  may  fall  on  the  floor  and  be 
swept  up. 

Sweeping  precedes  mopping  with  oil  or  string  mop,  so  as 
to  avoid  any  tracking  on  the  nicely  oiled  floor.  Either  with 
carpet  sweeper  or  vacuum  cleaner  this  is  the  best  order : 

1.  Dusting. 

2.  Using  sweeper. 

3.  Using  oil  mop. 

If  window  cleaning  must  be  included  on  this  day  (al- 
though it  should  not  be  included,  if  possible)  it  should  be 
done  after  dusting;  if  the  walls  and  pictures  need  thorough 
cleaning,  they  should  be  done  before  dusting.  In  other 
words,  it  is  only  common-sense,  as  well  as  efficiency,  to 
perform  first  those  processes  which  cause  moving  and  shak- 
ing of  objects.  In  general,  the  work  must  be  done  from 
the  ceiling  down,  as : 

1.  Ceiling. 

2.  Lighting  fixtures. 

3.  Pictures  and  mirrors,  hangings. 


4.  Ornaments  and  books  on  tables  and  horizontal  surfaces. 

5.  Furniture  (including  window,  door  and  baseboard). 

6.  Rugs  or  carpets  on  floor. 

7.  Exposed  wood  on  floor. 

If  a  wet  process  like  scrubbing  must  be  done,  it  should 
follow  the  rule  for  floor  cleaning,  and  thus  follow  the  carpet 

It  is  thus  seen  how  easy  it  is  to  make  "standard  practice" 
instructions  for  any  given  set  of  conditions.  This  "prac- 
tice" had  best  be  written  down  when  once  worked  out,  and 
not  left  to  the  memory.  It  must  include,  as  shown  above, 
the  tools,  the  method,  and  the  time.  This  last  element  can 
easily  be  found  after  the  method  has  become  mere  routine. 
It  may  be,  "Bathroom,  25  minutes,"  or  bedroom,  "15  min- 
utes," or  whatever  the  case  may  be.  In  this  way  the  "stand- 
ard practice"  becomes  a  means  of  developing  a  good 

Copies  of  this  "practice"  may  be  written  on  cards  to  be 
pasted  or  tacked  in  an  inconspicuous  part  of  the  room,  or 
included  in  the  instructions  to  a  hired  worker  in  her 
instruction  book. 


Just  as  a  special  place  like  a  kitchen  cabinet  is  needed  for 
keeping  kitchen  tools  in  order,  so  there  must  be  a  definite 
location  for  the  equally  important  tools  of  cleaning.  Such 
a  place  is  the  so-called  "house  closet."  This  may  be  small 
or  large,  specially  built  or  developed  from  the  waste  space 
in  a  back  stairs,  etc. 

In  country  homes  an  excellent  place  for  such  a  closet  is 
on  the  back  porch  or  at  the  head  of  cellar  stairs  or  between 
kitchen  and  washhouse.  The  closet  should  be  high  enough 
to  accommodate  long-handled  brooms  and  mops  hung  up, 
with  additional  space  above  for  a  small  shelf.  Good  dimen- 


sions  are  6  feet  high  by  4  feet  wide  by  i  foot  deep.  This 
permits  the  floor  space  to  conveniently  hold  coal  hods,  scrub 
buckets,  etc.  (See  page  146.) 

Each  tool  should  have  a  screw  eye  of  the  right  size  put 
in  the  handle ;  then  in  the  strip  under  the  shelf  right  angle 
up-hooks  can  be  placed  at  convenient  distances  apart,  on 
which  the  tool  can  be  hung  by  its  screw-eye.  On  the  shelf 
can  be  placed  bottles  and  boxes  of  cleaning  preparations. 

The  closet  is  not  complete  without  a  label  marking  the 
right  place  of  each  tool.  If  these  are  pasted  on  and  then 
shellacked,  they  will  stay  in  place  for  years.  A  shoe-bag 
with  different  sized  pockets  is  excellent  for  holding  dusters, 
twine,  newspapers,  -cleaning  gloves,  etc.  Even  in  such  a 
closet  the  grouping  of  tools  can  be  carried  out,  and  duster, 
dustpan,  and  mop,  or  other  combination,  hung  together  so 
that  they  can  easily  be  picked  up  at  once. 


If  one  general  term  could  be  applied  to  the  manner  of  all 
cleaning  up  to  the  present,  that  term  could  well  be  "scatter- 
ing" ;  for  in  all  the  various  steps  of  sweeping  and  dusting, 
the  work  was  done  in  such  a  way  as  to  scatter  and  spread 
the  dust  particles  (and  bacteria)  from  one  place  to  another. 
The  corn  broom  swept  the  dust  out  of  the  carpet,  only  to 
raise  it  in  the  air  so  that  it  lodged  on  pictures,  mouldings, 
etc.  Again,  the  feather  duster  removed  the  dust  from  these 
same  pictures  only  to  have  it  fall  on  the  floor,  and  thus 
went  on  a  continuous  cycle  of  dust  which  was  never  entirely 
eliminated  from  the  house  after  all. 

The  new  sanitary  ideal  today  has  for  its  watchword 
"absorption."  The  broom  is  being  largely  replaced  by  the 
suction  method  of  the  modern  vacuum  cleaner,  and  the  dust- 
less  duster  holds  dusts  as  it  cleans.  No  one  invention  is  so 
responsible  for  new  cleaning  methods  as  is  the  so-called 


vacuum  cleaner.  The  principle  on  which  these  are  built  is 
that  of  suction,  or  the  intake  of  air.  This  suction  is  devel- 
oped in  various  ways,  and  takes  with  it  the  dust  as  well  as 
air  from  whatever  surface  the  cleaner  is  operated  on.  There 
are  four  broad  types  of  cleaners  as  follows : 

(1)  Large  portable  vacuum  cleaners,  dustbag  within  the 

cleaner;   hand  or  electric. 

(2)  Small  vacuum  cleaners,  dustbag  outside  the  cleaner; 


(3)  Carpet  sweeper,  box  model  vacuum  cleaner    (hand 


(4)  Stationary  machines,  located  in  basement,  with  pipes 

to  all  floors. 


There  is  a  slight  distinction  between  vacuum  cleaner  and 
suction  cleaner.  In  the  vacuum  cleaner,  a  diaphragm  or 
rotary  pump  is  used  to  create  a  partial  vacuum  in  each 
stroke.  The  surrounding  atmosphere  then  rushes  in  to  fill 
this  vacuum,  bringing  in  dust.  At  the  end  of  each  stroke, 
when  operated  slowly,  the  vacuum  model  loses  "pull"  for 
an  instant,  but  this  is  not  noticeable  at  full  speed.  This  type 
of  cleaner  can  make  a  very  strong  pull. 


In  the  suction  type  of  cleaner  using  power,  the  suction  is 
created  by  means  of  fans  or  turbines  operated  by  a  small 
motor  encased  in  some  portion  of  the  cleaner.  These  fans 
in  revolving  cause  an  intake  of  air,  bringing  with  the  air 
dust,  small  fragments  of  paper,  matches,  etc.  In  this  type 
of  cleaner  the  "pull"  is  not  very  strong,  but  a  large  volume 
of  air  can  be  moved,  permitting  the  use  of  a  wide  opening. 
In  the  suction  type  of  cleaner  operated  by  hand,  the  suction 
is  created  generally  by  a  pair  of  bellows  which,  in  being 
shut,  caused  a  similar  but  less  violent  suction  of  air  and 
intake  of  dust.  In  the  hand  type,  however,  the  effort  of  the 
operator  is  needed  to  make  the  necessary  power.  In  the 
suction  type  also  there  is  a  continuous  flow  of  air,  while  in 
the  vacuum  type  there  is  a  distinct  "pull"  for  an  instant,  as 
mentioned  above,  at  the  end  of  each  stroke. 

The  large  portable  vacuum  cleaner  (electric)  is  made 
with  a  powerful  motor  and  is  particularly  suited  to  cleaning 
large  houses  or  where  there  are  many  thick,  all  over  rugs, 
carpets,  and  a  quantity  of  draperies.  This  type  of  cleaner 
is  always  used  with  a  hose  attachment  inserted  in  the  intake 
opening.  At  the  other  end  of  the  hose  is  what  is  called 
the  nozzle  opening,  which  is  the  actual  part  of  the  cleaner 
moved  over  any  given  surface.  This  nozzle  tool  may  be  a 
tool  for  the  floor,  for  mattresses  and  tufted  furniture,  for 
draperies,  etc.,  etc.  The  price  of  such  a  large  portable 
cleaner  is  about  $75.00  because  of  the  cost  of  a  powerful 

The  large  portable  vacuum  cleaner  (hand)  is  operated  by 
an  air  pump  and  lever,  and  preferably  is  worked  by  two 
persons,  one  to  pump  and  one  to  move  the  hose  attachment 
wherever  necessary.  In  both  of  these  portable  type  ma- 
chines, the  dustbag  is  within  the  body  of  the  cleaner.  This 
hand  portable  when  operated  by  two  people  does  almost  as 
good  work  as  any  electric  machine,  but  the  labor  is  consid- 



crable.     It  comes  fitted  with  all  similar  attachments,  and 
costs  from  $20.00  to  $30.00. 

The  small  portable  cleaner  (electric)  is  made  in  many 
models  and  seems  the  best  type  suited  for  average  use  in 
homes  wired  for  electricity.  With  this  type,  the  dustbag  is 
on  the  outside,  the  machine  is  light  in  weight,  and  can  be 


operated  on  carpets  and  floor  without  a  hose  attachment. 
The  hose  is  necessary  here  only  to  clean  draperies,  mat- 
tresses, etc.,  and  anything  off  the  floor  level.  The  advan- 
tages of  such  a  machine  are  that  it  can  easily  be  taken  up 
and  downstairs  by  a  woman,  that  it  rolls  easily,  that  it  takes 
little  storage  space  when  not  in  use.  The  price  of  such  a 
cleaner  is  from  $30.00  to  $45.00. 


The  sweeper  type  of  cleaner  is  operated  by  hand.  It 
consists  of  a  box  built  like  a  carpet  sweeper  in  which  is 
contained  a  bellows.  These  bellows  are  operated  whenever 
the  cleaner  is  moved  backward  or  forward  over  the  carpet, 
the  suction  created  drawing  the  dust  from  the  carpet.  No 
attachments  can  be  used  with  this  type,  which  is  strictly  for 
floor  use  and  is  suitable  only  for  carpets  and  large  rugs. 


It  does  not  clean  bare  floors  well.  This  type  is  somewhat 
heavy  and  fatiguing  to  work  in  comparison  to  the  usual 
carpet  sweeper.  In  some  models  of  this  box  type  a  sweeper 
just  like  a  carpet  sweeper  is  combined  so  that  the  carpet  is 
swept  at  the  same  time  that  dust  is  sucked  out  of  it.  They 
cost  from  $5.00  to  $12.00. 

While  the  powerful  electric  machine  and  even  the  small, 
light  machines  suck  dust  from  a  given  surface  and  pick  up 
lint,  matches,  etc.,  most  of  them  do  not  pick  up  threads, 
crumbs,  or,  in  other  words,  brush  the  carpet  at  the  same 
time  that  they  clean  it  pneumatically.  In  order  to  provide 


for  this  picking  up  of  threads,  many  cleaners,  both  large  and 
small,  are  fitted  with  brush  attachments  either  within  the 
body  of  the  cleaner  or  mounted  without  on  a  small  platform. 
It  is  well  to  note  this  point  in  a  cleaner  before  purchasing. 



The  first  thing  to  decide  before  purchasing  is  the  condi- 
tions in  the  home  in  which  the  cleaner  is  to  be  used.  If 
there  are  large  areas  of  all-over  carpet,  many  draperies,  etc., 
a  powerful  portable  type  will  be  needed.  If  small  rugs, 
matting,  and  bare  floors,  the  light-weight  electric  cleaner 
can  be  used.  If  it  is  more  important  to  have  the  draperies, 
tufted  furniture,  etc.,  cleaned  by  this  method,  select  a 
machine  that  has  a  direct  inlet  to  the  fan-chamber  instead 


of  an  attachment  that  clamps  to  the  floor  suction  nozzle. 
In  all  cases,  select  a  cleaner  having  a  wide  suction  nozzle, 
about  10  or  12  inches,  so  that  there  will  be  enough  width 
in  the  cleaner  nozzle  to  clean  a  sufficient  width  at  one  time. 
Aluminum  parts  and  case  make  the  lightest  cleaner  to  move 
and  use.  The  cleaner  should  be  mounted  on  rollers  so  that 
they  can  be  moved  readily.  The  electric  machine  should  be 
equipped  with  a  small  switch  on  the  handle  so  that  it  is  not 
necessary  to  reach  up  to  the  light  socket  to  turn  the  current 
on  and  off. 

Note  the  details  of  bellows  construction,  the  materials 
of  the  dustbag  and  general  construction  before  purchasing. 
It  does  not  pay  to  buy  a  "cheap  cleaner"  which  will  become 
worthless  in  a  short  time.  The  cost  of  the  electric  models 
depends  on  the  power  and  quality  of  the  motor.  Know 
also  the  voltage,  for  while  most  cleaners  come  fitted  to  a 
100  to  i2O-volt  socket,  the  voltage  should  be  known  before 

Never  attempt  to  run  an  electric  model  over  a  damp  place 
or  allow  it  to  suck  up  water,  as  this  will  spoil  the  motor. 
In  operating  the  cleaner,  be  sure  to  elevate  the  suction  nozzle 
at  the  right  height  from  the  surface.  This  may  make  all 
the  difference  between  fair  and  excellent  cleansing. 


There  are  two  types  of  permanent  vacuum  systems,  one 
operated  by  electric  motor,  and  the  other  by  a  motor  oper- 
ated by  water  pressure.  In  this  case  pipes  are  laid  in  the 
walls,  having  openings  near  the  baseboard  of  each  room, 
and  connected  with  the  motors  in  the  basement.  It  is  then 
only  necessary  to  attach  to  these  floor  openings  the  hose, 
and  thus  clean  all  rooms  easily.  The  present  cost  of  such 
systems  is  fairly  high ;  but  in  new  houses  they  are  worth 
considering,  as  such  systems  certainly  make  for  "dustless 


homes."  Many  hotels  and  institutions  are  so  equipped,  and 
the  cost  of  installation  is  balanced  by  reduced  worker's  and 
cleaning  women's  cost. 

The  water  motor  system  costs  much  less  than  the  elec- 
trically operated  motor  system.  It,  however,  needs  a  pres- 
sure of  about  40  pounds  to  the  square  inch  in  order  to  be 
satisfactory.  The  cost  of  installation  of  electric  systems  is 
from  about  $200  up,  depending  on  the  number  of  rooms. 



Broom   sweeping    (outside   on  porch) 10 

(Moving  to  porch  and  replacing,  6  minutes) 

Hand    vacuum    sweeping 18 

Electric    vacuum    sweeping 12 



Broom 4 

Hand   vacuum 10 

Electric    6 

From  the  point  of  time,  the  vacuum  cleaner  gives  little  if 
any  saving,  the  chief  advantage  being  only  in  the  absence  of 
the  scattering  of  dust,  and  in  the  somewhat  greater  thor- 
oughness of  the  work,  and  the  fact  that  the  rugs  need  not  be 
lifted  from  the  floor.  It  is  the  most  labor  saving  where 
there  is  a  large  rug,  or  stair  treads  covered  with  thick  carpet 
which  it  is  almost  impossible  for  a  broom  to  get  at.  On  bare 
floors  the  hand  vacuum  cleaner  is  almost  totally  useless  ;  the 
electric  models,  even  when  fitted  with  a  floor  tool,  do  not  do 
the  work  as  easily  as  a  long  handled  string  mop.  It  is  on 
carpets  only  that  the  vacuum  cleaner  is  most  worth  while. 
Small  rugs  where  there  are  large  bare  floor  areas  can  be  as 


easily  cleaned  of  surface  dirt  with  a  carpet  sweeper.  The 
thorough  suction  cleaning  given  by  a  vacuum  necessitates 
less  frequent  cleaning,  which  is  the  great  advantage. 

In  the  tirne  studies  given  above,  the  amount  of  effort  is 
important ;  it  took  less  effort  to  clean  the  rug  by  broom 
than  by  hand  vacuum  cleaner.  In  the  electric  cleaner  test, 
the  effort  was  much  less  than  in  either  the  hand  vacuum  or 
the  broom  method. 


Another  great  broad  difference  between  the  tools  of  to-day 
and  yesterday,  is  that  the  modern  ones  are  generally 
mounted  on  handles.  The  scrub  brush,  the  hair  brush,  the 
many  kinds  of  fibre  duster  tools,  even  the  dustpan,  have 
at  last  been  elevated  by  being  placed  on  handles.  Why  stoop 
to  the  dustpan,  when  it  can  come  to  you?  Why  use  a 
bundle  of  coarse  cloths  on  a  floor  to  mop  with,  and  bend 
prostrate  over  the  task,  if  you  can  fasten  the  same  cloths  on 
a  stick  and  get  better  results? 

"But  I  can't  scrub  so  clean  if  I  don't  get  right  down  on 
the  floor,"  some  women  may  say.  We  believe  this  is  only 
imagination,  and  a  habit  of  working,  rather  than  the  facts. 
There  is  practically  no  cleaning  tool  which  cannot  be 
mounted  on  a  handle  and  give  better  results  than  the  same 
tool  used  in  the  hands.  This  is  because  the  "handle"  conies 
under  the  laws  of  the  lever.  By  test  it  has  been  proved 
that  a  handle,  even  a  short  one,  acts  as  a  fulcrum  or  point 
of  leverage,  so  that  greater  pressure  is  exerted  by  means 
of  a  handle  than  if  the  hand  were  used  direct. 

Some  interesting  experiments  were  made  on  lengths  of 
handles  of  cleaning  tools.  Three  women  of  varying  heights, 
5  ft.  3  in.,  5  ft.  6  in.,  and  5  ft.  8  in.,  were  tested  and  grasped 
the  handle  as  follows : 



"Why  stoop  to  the  dustpan  when  it  can  come   to  you?" 



WOMAN  A—     WOMAN   B—  WOMAN  C— 

5  feet  3  inches     5  feet  6  inches  5  feet  8  inches 
Long  handle  scrub 

brush    i  foot  i  inch       I  foot  6  inches  I  foot  9  inches 

from  end  from  end  from  end 

Short  handle  scrub 

brush  i  foot  4  inches    i  foot  9  inches  i  foot  10  inches 

from  end  from  end 

Oil  mop i  foot  5  inches    i  foot  6  inches  i  foot  9  inches 

from  end  from  end 

Broom    i  foot  5  inches    i  foot  6  inches  i  foot  8  inches 

from  end  from  end 

From  these  figures  and  other  data  in  regard  to  the  position 
they  took  as  they  worked,  it  appears  that  each  height  of 
worker  has  a  fairly  constant  distance  apart  at  which  she  uses 
her  arms,  no  matter  what  the  length  of  the  handle  of  the  tool. 
Now  if  the  handle  is  short,  the  worker  has  to  stoop  over  to 
get  into  the  particular  position  in  which  her  arms  remain 
the  proper  distance  apart ;  if  the  handle  is  long,  her  hands 
assume  this  comfortable  distance  without  stooping. 

Again,  the  angle  at  which  a  long-handled  tool  is  used  has 
much  influence  on  the  amount  of  pressure  exerted  on  the 
mophead  or  whatever  it  may  be.  If  the  mop  or  broom  could 
be  held  straight  down,  the  same  amount  of  pressure  exerted 
at  the  handle  would  be  given  to  the  mophead.  The  further 
the  mophandle  inclines  from  the  vertical,  the  less  its  pres- 
sure. Now  we  see  where  the  real  benefit  of  a  long  handle 
comes  in  ;  it  permits  the  worker  to  exert  at  a  standing  height 
the  same  amount  of  pressure  that  she  would  have  to  bend 
greatly  to  exert,  if  the  handle  were  short. 

The  facts  to  remember  in  order  to  make  cleaning  more 
efficient  are : 

i.  Any  handled  tool  should  preferably  be  5  feet  or  over 
in  length. 


2.  The  straighter  the  handle  is  held  to  the  vertical,  the 

greater    the    results    with    any    given    amount    of 

3.  Grasp  handles  with  one  hand  .as  far  down  the  handle 

as  possible — this  gives  a  longer  "force-arnf"  to  the 

handle,  and  hence  greater  pressure  on  the  mop  itself. 

On€  hand  is  used  chiefly  to  direct  the  handle,  while  the 

other,  sometimes  right  and  sometimes  left,  depending  on 

individual  cases,  gives  the  real  force. 

By  the  use  of  the  handle,  then,  it  is  possible  to  sweep,  mop, 
dust,  and  scrub,  upright  and  with  less  effort,  the  same  work 
done  with  a  short  handle  or  none  at  all.  The  longer  the 
handle,  the  straighter  the  position  of  the  worker,  the  fur- 
ther down  the  force  is  applied — the  easier  and  more  efficient 
will  be  the  work. 


As  has  been  pointed  out,  "cleaning"  is  exercise  to  a 
greater  or  less  degree.  Why  not,  then,  dress,  as  if  it  were 
exercise,  in  order  to  receive  the  maximum  benefit  from  the 
work?  No  heavy  skirts,  "pull"  at  the  arms,  tight  waists  or 
shoes  can  result  in  comfortable  work.  While  much  may 
be  said  in  favor  of  the  one-piece  dress,  because  of  its  neat 
appearance,  it  has  been  found  that  a  two-piece  garment  gives 
more  freedom  if  planned  right.  Such  a  dress  is  a  modified 
"jumper"  consisting  of  a  plain,  short,  gored  skirt  and  a 
jumper  waist  like  a  middy  blouse.  This  allows  very  great 
freedom  of  movement  to  both  waist  and  arms  such  as  needed 
in  wiping,  stooping,  etc.  Since  the  waist  of  this  dress  ex- 
tends four  or  five  inches  below  the  natural  waist  line,  it 
permits  a  great  deal  of  bodily  motion  without  exposing  the 
belt.  It  should  have  elbow  sleeves  and  low  collar,  and  can 
be  made  in  seersucker,  chambray,  or  similar  materials. 

No  detail  is  more  important  than  the  kind  of  shoe,  and 


while  it  may  seem  economy  to  wear  "cast-off"  best  shoes 
at  work,  it  generally  brings  poor  results  in  causing  sore  feet. 
Only  a  broad,  low  heel,  preferably  of  rubber,  or  a  rubber 
soled  "athletic"  shoe  or.  a  "nurse's"  shoe  should  be  worn  by 
one  doing  much  cleaning,  and  who  does  not  wish  to  risk  a 
"turned  ankle"  at  rapid  work. 

A  cap  is  also  a  needful  accessory,  keeping  the  hair  from 
coming  loose  about  the  face,  as  well  as  serving  as  a  dust 
protector.  Emphasis  is  here  put  upon  the  kind  of  clothing 
because  right,  neat  clothing  affects  one's  self-respect.  The 
reason  why  many  women  think  of  cleaning  and  similar 
tasks  as  degrading,  even,  is  because  in  the  past  the  worker 
looked  like  a  "slavey,"  and  was  so  uncomfortable  about 
her  appearance  that  it  made  the  work  drudgery  in  her 
mind.  It  seems,  too,  that  a  worker  does  neater,  more  careful 
work  if  she  is  neatly  attired  and  avoids  doing  careless, 
sloppy  work;  while  if  dressed  in  a  slovenly  manner,  her 
work  is  slovenly  too,  because  she  "doesn't  care  how  she 
looks."  It  is  possible  to  do  even  mopping  and  cleaning 
without  becoming  a  "sight."  Training  in  working  in  an 
efficient  manner  results  in  a  neater  appearance,  and  vice 
versa.  It  is  not  how  much  we  get  done,  but  how  well  we 
get  it  done,  with  comfort  to  ourselves  and  others,  that  means 
true  efficiency. 

There  is  also  the  "bungalo"  dress,  which  is  merely  a  large 
allover  apron  with  kimono  sleeves,  buttoning  in  the  back. 
This  has  been  found  very  neat  and  serviceable  as  a  cleaning 
garment,  because  it  permits  little  clothing  used  under  it, 
and  a  great  deal  of  arm  movement.  Another  dress  found 
desirable  is  a  "reversible"  dress  which  fastens  with  only 
one  button!  This  is  made  in  one  piece,  of  a  comfortable 
short  sleeve  type,  and  buttons  at  the  belt.  It  can  be  reversed 
and  worn  on  the  other  side,  if  desired.  Its  advantage  is  the 
easy  way  in  which  it  is  fastened. 


So  many  women  say,  "I  hate  housework  because  it  is  so 
hard  on  my  hands !"  It  is,  however,  possible  to  preserve  the 
nice  looks  of  the  hand  considerably  by  the  use  of  gloves  of 
various  kinds.  The  following  have  been  proved  worth 
while : 

Rubber  gloves— dishwashing,  toilet  cleansing,  washing  baby  nap- 
kins. (Avoid  using  with  grease;  good  pairs  cost  $i.) 

Large  white  cotton  "teamster's"  gloves— for  sweeping  and  dust- 
ing; for  silver  and  metal  cleansing;  while  using  many  kinds  of 
devices  in  the  hand.  (Cost  10  cents  a  pair.)  Grease  the  hands 
with  cold  cream  before  using. 

Yellow  oilskin— may  be  used  instead  of  rubber  as  they  last  longer. 
For  same  purposes  and  also  as  sweeping  gloves.  Cost  about  50 

Rub  cold  cream  on  the  hand  before  beginning  heavy 
cleaning,  slip  on  gloves.  After  work,  rinse  hands,  and  rub 
in  an  astringent  like  benzoin  water. 


Cleaning  is  exercise,  but  even  exercise  must  be  done 
properly.  It  is  possible  to  twist  and  contort  the  body  un- 
necessarily. The  use  of  long  handle  tools  will  allow  the 
worker  to  stand  more  often  than  stoop.  But  there  is  even 
a  best  way  to  stoop,  and  that  is  from  the  waist  and  not  with 
the  back.  Go  upstairs  on  the  ball  of  the  foot,  and  not  the 
heel.  Expand  the  chest  even  while  using  the  arms  with 
broom,  mop,  etc.  Never  prostrate  and  shake  the  body  as  in 
usual  floor  scrubbing,  but  choose  some  tool  that  will  permit 
standing  work.  Pails  can  be  carried  with  less  effort  if  the 
body  is  rightly  balanced.  Tool  handles  can  be  grasped  more 
handily,  so  that  the  hand  is  not  made  misshapen  and  awk- 
ward, just  as  there  is  an  easy,  graceful  way  of  handling 
a  table  fork  and  knife,  and  one  that  is  awkward.  Try  and 


assume  comfortable  positions.  Train  the  hands  to  quick, 
deft  action,  even  in  picking  up  floor  cloths,  grasping  handles, 
levers,  etc.  In  this  way  the  highest  results  and  exercise  will 
replace  drudgery. 


The  needs  of  homes  differ  owing  to  their  differing  fur- 
nishings ;  the  following  list  covers  the  needs  of  many  homes 
in  a  complete  and  yet  not  expensive  way.  If  certain  tools, 
as  vacuum  cleaner,  are  included,  this  will  dispense  with  tools 
doing  equivalent  work.  (Pre-war  prices  are  given.) 



1.  VACUUM  OR  SUCTION  CLEANER  for  thorough  carpet,         p  . 

floor  and  drapery  cleaning. 

Electric  models    $25.00 — $75.00 

Hand  models   (2  persons) 20.00  and  up 

2.  CARPET  SWEEPER  for  threads,  and  surface  cleaning 

every   day    3.50  and  up 

3.  LONG  HANDLE   (5  feet)    HAIR  BROOM   for  exposed 

wood,  tile  and  linoleum  sweeping. 1.50 

4.  SHORT  HANDLE  (3  feet)  HAIR  BROOM  for  sweeping 

fireplace,  picking  waste   into   dustpan 75 

5.  DRY  OR  OIL  STRING  MOP  for  dusting  or  oiling  wood 

floors     75  and  up 

6.  CORN  BROOM — only  for  sidewalks  or  coarse  porch 

floors,  etc.,  or  rugs  swept  outside .45  and  up 


handle,  to  clean  walls,  mouldings,  ceilings,  pic- 
tures etc.  when  no  vacuum  cleaner  is  used...     1.25  and  up 

8.  SHORT  HANDLE  FIBRE  BRUSH  for  dusting  stairs...       .50 

9.  DUSTLESS   DUSTERS    for   furniture   and   woodwork. 

Flannel  or  silk   duster   for   ornaments,   piano, 

etc.,    glassware    25  each 

10.  LONG  HANDLED  DUSTPAN,  with  trap 50 

11.  RADIATOR  BRUSH,  bristles  set  in  a  thin,  narrow  han- 

dle for  cleaning  between  radiator  pipes 50 




1.  OLIVER  SANITARY  CLEANER — long  handle  with  rub-         prjce 

her  grip  at  base  to  hold  mop  cloth ;  excellent 

for  cleaning  tile,  linoleum,   etc $  1.25 

2.  STRING  MOP  for  coarse  work  on  porches,  cellars, 

etc.;  not  needed  generally  if  the  "Oliver"  is 
used  50 


motion   of    foot   wrings   the  mop   head.     Only 

needed  if  string  mop  is  used 1.50 

4.  COMMON    PAPIER    MACHE    BUCKET,    light    weight. 

Bucket     50 

Basket     25 

Use  sponge  and  soap  basket  on  edge. 

5.  SCRUB  CLOTHS  of  knitted  heavy  crash — 22x22  is  a 

good    size     25 

(Such  cloths  are  much  better  than  "cast-offs" 
and  rags,  which  are  hard  to  clean,  and  do  un- 
even work.) 

6.  HANDLED   SCRUB    BRUSH — regular    scrub   brush    on 

4-foot    handle     50 

7.  WINDOW    WASHER — contains    water,    and    is    fitted 

with  both  rubber  edge  and  felt  dryer — mounted 
on  long  handle.  Useful  for  many  high,  out- 
side window  work 1 .00 

8.  WINDOWCLEAN  CLOTH — inside  work,  needs  no  water, 

and  replaces  chamois  for  mirrors,  globes,  etc.      .25 

9.  BATHROOM  TONGS  OR  BRUSH.    The  tongs  are  more 

sanitary  and,  used  with  paper  clean  the  toilet 
bowl.  A  long  handled  brush  is  necessary  if 
tongs  are  not  used. 

Brush     65 

Tongs     75 


i.  SILVERCLEAN    PAN  —  cleans    flat    ware    and    small         Price 

shaped  pieces   in  shorter  time $  i.ooandup 


2.  IMPREGNATED    CLOTHS    FOR    METAL — one    kind    for 

brass,  another  for  nickel.  Use  instead  of  pastes 
and  powders.  Always  wear  gloves  when  using 
them 25  each 

3.  POLISHING  MITT — for  use  on  stoves  and  other  dirty 

work.    Shaped  to  the  hand,  and  white  wool  on 

one  side    25 

ACCESSORIES  Approximate 



2.  BROOM-HOLDERS — small   devices  which   permit  han- 

dles to  be  easily  kept  off  the  floor 10  each 

3.  SHAPED    BROOM    COVER    OF    FELT — for    slipping   on 

corn  broom  in  place  of  string  mop 25 

4.  PAINT  BRUSHES — of  several  sizes  for  getting  into 

stair  corners,  brushing  wicker,  etc 15  and  up 

5.  PUTTY  KNIFE — This   triangular  tool   is  helpful   in 

cleaning  baseboards,  angles,  and  for  general 
scraping  25 

6.  GALVANIZED  IRON  STRIP,  6x3  inches.    If  this  is  held 

flush  with  baseboard  or  window  trim  it  will 
prevent  paper  from  being  soiled  while  wood- 
work is  cleaned  05 

7.  POCKET  BAG  for  string,  gloves,  etc 

8.  WATERPROOF  APRON,   for  doing  heavy  or  unpleas- 

ant cleaning,  or  washing  dishes 50 

9.  RUBBISH    BURNER   of    wire 75 


LINOLEUM — Wash  with  tepid  water  and  naphtha  suds;  rinse  with 
clear  tepid  water  and  dry  thoroughly.  Avoid  water  seeping  under 
edges,  which  causes  rotting.  Do  not  use  brush,  but  soft  cloth.  It 
can  be  successfully  waxed,  which  preserves  it  and  makes  it  easier 
to  care  for. 

MATTING — Sweep  with  hair  broom;  vacuum  cleaner  is  particularly 
good  on  matting;  to  cleanse  thoroughly,  wipe  with  cloth  wrung 
out  of  strong  warm  salt  solution  (one-half  cup  salt  to  one  gallon). 
There  is  a  matting  made  of  woven  paper  which  looks  identical,  but 
wears  better,  as  it  does  not  split. 


TILE  OR  BRICK — Use  scouring  powder  and  hot  water.  Avoid 
sloshing,  and  do  only  a  small  section  at  a  time;  successively  scrub, 
rinse  and  dry  small  sections. 

ENAMELED  WOOD — Woolen  cloth  wrung  out  of  ivory  soap  suds. 
Wipe  with  clean,  damp  cloth.  Do  only  a  small  section  at  a  time. 
Use  no  scouring  powder  which  will  remove  the  finish,  but  whiting 
paste  if  very  soiled.  Polishing  with  dry  flannel  restores  the  high 

WAXED  WOOD — Sweep  with  hair  broom.  Mop  with  dry  mop  or 
bagbroom  covered  with  flannel.  Do  not  oil  or  wash  with  water; 
use  only  mop  moistened  with  turpentine,  then  clean  dry  mop  to 
polish.  Wax  small  spots  as  they  appear,  and  polish  with  weighted 
brush  about  once  a  month.  The  well  waxed  floor  is,  of  all,  the 
easiest  to  keep  clean  and  in  repair. 

VARNISHED  WOOD— Sweep  with  hair  broom;  use  dry  or  oil  mop 
daily.  Never  use  water  if  possible,  as  this  removes  varnish  and 
coarsens  wood.  Repair  small  worn  places  before  they  wear  entirely 
through;  if  a  varnished  floor  is  waxed  it  stands  wear  better  and  is 
easier  to  care  for.  Light  stains  show  dust  less  than  dark  ones. 
Be  sure  no  excess  oil  is  left  on  floor  to  soil  rug  edges.  Varnished 
wood  is  hard  to  care  for,  shows  heel  marks  and  "wears  through" 
quickly  unless  care  is  taken. 

SHELLACKED  WOOD — Use  hair  broom  and  string  mop  without  oil. 
Never  use  water.  In  beginning,  use  equal  portions  of  white  shellac 
and  grain  alcohol  applied  with  a  brush.  Shellac  gives  .a  hard 
finish  temporarily,  but  must  be  renewed  frequently.  Never  use 
shellac  on  linoleum. 

OILED  WOOD — Use  hairbrush  and  dry  or  oil  mop.  This  finish 
looks  well,  but  shows  footsteps  readily.  It  should  not  be  wiped 
with  water,  but  reoiled  with  good  boiled  linseed  oil  every  three 
months  or  so,  being  sure  to  "rub  out"  the  excess  oil. 

PAINTED  WOOD — Use  hair  broom  and  string  mop ;  wipe  with  moist- 
ened flannel  cloth,  but  never  scrub  or  slosh  with  water.  Shellacked 
paint  is  good  in  inexpensive  bedrooms  where  there  is  little  wear,  but 
not  where  there  is  much  treading,  as  the  paint  wears  off  in  ugly 

PAINTED  PLASTER — As  for  enameled  wood. 

BURLAP  OR  FABRIC  WALLS — Use  stiff  small  whiskbroom  or  vacu- 
um cleaner  tool 


CORK  CARPET  OR  FLOOR — It  should  first  be  oiled  when  laid;  then 
use  hair  broom  and  oil  mop;  water  scours  it  but  spoils  the  soft 
coloring.  Not  suited  for  kitchen  or  pantry,  as  it  is  too  porous 
and  absorbs  grease  readily. 

COMPOSITION  FLOORS — As  tile;  only,  being  without  cracks,  coarse 
brush  can  be  used. 

An  excellent  polish  for  all  wood  except  light  maple  or 
mahogany  is : 

Yz  benzine 
Yz  crude  oil 

Mix  thoroughly,  and  use  on  cloth  or  mop  to  both  clean 
and  polish.  It  costs  about  30  cents  a  gallon. 

Briefly,  avoid  water  on  all  wood ;  use  damp  cloth  but  not 
sloppy;  use  cloth  or  soft  string  mop,  but  not  brush. 

From  the  point  of  view  of  care,  only,  and  not  upkeep, 
floors  may  be  graded  in  the  following  order : 

1.  Waxed. 

2.  Stained  and  oiled. 

3.  Varnish  or  shellac. 

4.  Painted. 

5.  Linoleum  or  tile. 


1.  Soaps — strong  for  coarse  work  bare  boards,  cement  walks,  etc.; 
mild  for  fine  woodwork,  china,  glass,  etc. 

2.  BON  AMI — powdered  and  brick,  for  porcelain,  windows,  tile,  etc. 

3.  ELECTRO-SILICON — for  cleaning  silver. 

4.  BARSUM'S  PUTZ  POLISH — brass  polish,  aluminum. 

5.  BRILLO  and  steel  wool — aluminum. 

6.  LIQUID  VENEER  or  other  good  furniture  polish. 

7.  Old  English  Floor  wax  for  floors  and  fine  woodwork. 

8.  Washing  soda  for  cleaning  drains,  traps,  toilets,  etc. 

9.  C-N   Disinfectant,  or   Platt's   Chlorides   for  disinfecting  bath- 



10.  Bathbrick  for  scouring  knives  and  other  steelware. 

11.  Kerosene  for  outdoor  disinfectant,  pouring  down   drains  and 
cleaning  coarse  woodwork. 

12.  Parson's  ammonia  for  washing  windows,  linoleum,  etc. 

13.  Borax  for  softening  water,  for  washing  glassware,  etc. 

14.  Whiting  for  cleaning  enameled  paint  and  nickelware. 

15.  Impregnated  metal  cloth  for  polishing  nickelware. 

16.  French  chalk  for  cleansing  spots  in  fabrics — blotting  paper. 

17.  Linseed    oil    for    wiping    woodwork    and    polishing    cast-iron 
ranges,  etc.     Burn  rags  used  with  linseed  oil;  danger  from  fire — 
spontaneous  combustion. 

18.  "Sapolin"  in  aluminum,  gold,  black,  etc.,  for  finishing  stoves 
and  radiators. 

19.  "Porcela"  for  bathtubs  and  porcelain. 



Wall  surfaces  for  the  kitchen  have  been  already  discussed 
in  Part  I.  Without  doubt  painted  walls  are  the  easiest  to 
care  for,  and  retreat,  as  well  as  being  the  most  sanitary. 
A  painted  wall  may  be  treated  with  a  thin  coat  of  starch 
paste  at  the  time  of  painting ;  this  may  be  washed  off  when 
soiled,  taking  the  dirt  with  it,  and  a  new  coat  applied,  which 
is  as  easy  to  do  as  scrubbing  the  paint.  Paper  is  the  surface 
to  show  the  greatest  marring,  as  well  as  proving  fairly  un- 
sanitary. Grease  spots  in  paper  can  be  removed  by  holding 
over  the  spot  a  clean  white  blotter,  and  holding  a  hot  iron 
over  this,  which  will  draw  the  grease  into  the  paper.  Water- 
color  paints  and  a  fine  brush  can  be  used  to  "tint"  mars  and 
small  abrasions. 


One  of  the  most  satisfactory  wall  surfaces  is  a  material 
called  "lincrusta,"  which  comes  in  definite  sized  sections,  and 
resembles  a  thin  plasterlike  material  on  cardboard.  This 
material  comes  in  different  patterns,  imitating  wood  and 
burlap,  and  can  be  either  painted  or  stained  after  it  is  nailed 
to  the  wall.  It  can  then  be  scrubbed,  if  necessary,  and  as 
it  is  practically  part  of  the  wall,  it  is  most  durable  and 
sanitary.  It  can  be  applied  before  the  "smooth  finish"  coat 
of  plaster,  in  a  new  house,  thus  saving  expense.  In  homes 
with  children,  especially,  lincrusta  proves  the  best  wall  coat- 
ing, as  it  is  practically  lifelong  in  wear  and  upkeep. 

Various  kinds  of  "beaver  board"  also  make  more  easy- 
to-care  for  wall  surfaces,  as  they  are  sanitary,  and  need 
renewing  far  less  often  than  paper,  paint,  kalsomine.  Bur- 
lap and  fabric  coverings,  although  they  may  look  well, 
shrink  and  "bubble"  if  not  very  well  put  on,  and  are  quite 
unsanitary  and  difficult  to  clean. 




1.  (a)   What  cleaning  tools  have  you  at  present  ?    (b)     Do 

you  think  it  advisable  to  add  any  and  what?     (c) 
Where  do  you  keep  these  tools  ? 

2.  If  possible,  report  time  studies  on  cleaning  rooms  sepa- 

rately and  again  without  "change  of  shift." 

3.  Write   out   "Standard  Practice"  for  your  most  unsatis- 

factory or  difficult  cleaning  task. 

4.  What  is  your  experience  (if  any)  with  vacuum  clean- 


5.  From  experience,  do  you  agree  with  the  text  in  the  use 

of  long-handled  tools  ? 



Contains  a  small  refrigerator,  cabinet,  3-burner  gas  stove,  steel  table 
(flreless  underneath),  combined  laundry  tray-sink  and  shelves  for  supplies, 
pots  and  utensils  for  a  family  of  four  on  the  "light  housekeeping"  plan. 




MANY  women  admit  that  while  cleaning  takes  a  great 
deal  of  time,  still  it  is  one  of  the  tasks  of  the  home 
which  can  be  glossed  over,  or  quite  neglected  in 
extreme  need.  But  the  three-meals-a-day  problem  seems  the 
one  from  which  there  is  no  escape.  We  can  leave  the  windows 
unwashed  if  we  don't  get  time  or  are  too  tired,  but  no 
matter  what  the  circumstances  or  how  the  homemaker  feels, 
the  family  must  eat  and  so  food  must  be  prepared  regularly. 
It  is  estimated  that  70  per  cent  of  the  total  time  spent  on  all 
housework  is  devoted  to  meal  planning,  cooking,  serving,  and 
dishwashing,  whether  the  family  be  rich  or  poor. 

Is  it  necessary  that  this  large  proportion  of  time  and  effort 
be  spent  by  the  homemaker  in  order  that  her  family  is  prop- 
erly nourished?  Even  though  three  meals  a  day  must  be 
prepared  every  day  in  the  year,  it  is  possible  to  reduce  the 
work  involved : 

ist:       By  studying  and  understanding  food  values. 
2nd:     By   following   cooking  methods  that   are   well- 
3rd :     By  using  fuels  and  utensils  that  cut  costs  and 

save  effort  and  time. 

The  question  must  be  asked  first,  "Why  do  we  cook?" 
And  the  answer  is  naturally,  "To  nourish  the  body  and 


maintain  it  at  the  highest  point  of  health  and  power  for 
work."  But  again  and  again  it  is  found  in  many  homes  that 
a  great  amount  of  cooking  is  done  that  does  not  fulfil  this 
aim.  Cooking  is  all  too  frequently  unthinkingly  done  to 
feed  the  family,  without  planning  to  nourish  it.  For  instance, 
an  individual  might  eat  two  or  three  large  dumplings  which 
would  undoubtedly  "feed"  him,  but  which  would  not  nourish 
him  properly.  Cooking  is  also  done  according  to  the  whims 
or  tastes  of  the  members  of  the  family,  who  do  not  under- 
stand what  their  body  requires,  but  who  desire  food  that 
merely  gratifies  the  palate.  It  is  therefore  the  all-important 
duty  of  the  homemaker  herself  to  make  a  study  of  food 
values  and  to  supply  her  table  with  rightly-chosen  foods, 
cooked  intelligently. 

The  first  step  toward  simpler,  easier  cooking  is  this  true 
understanding  of  food  values.  The  practice  of  cooking  alone 
never  gives  this,  and  someone  may  "cook  for  twenty  years" 
and  still  not  be  preparing  food  according  to  the  real  needs  of 
the  family.  While  the  knowledge  of  foods  is  a  study  in 
itself  (which  can  only  be  touched  on  here),  nevertheless 
there  are  certain  principles  of  nutrition  on  which  the  easier 
and  better  preparation  of  meals  depend. 


(1)  PROTEIN:     Lean  of  meat  and  fish,  white  of  egg;  abundant  in 

cheese,  beans,  peas  and  other  legumes;  in  milk  and  many 
grains  like  oatmeal,  wheat  and  barley  and  in  nuts. 
(Protein  is  the  only  nutrient  which  can  furnish  the  mate- 
rial to  replace  old  or  grow  new  tissue.) 

(2)  CARBOHYDRATES  :    Starch,  sugar,  etc.    Starch  found  in  all  cereals, 

flours,  meals  and  their  products;  in  many  vegetables — 
potatoes,  beans,  peas,  etc.;  in  nuts  and  some  fruits.  Sugar 
as  cane  sugar,  beet  sugar,  and  present  in  most  fruits,  some 
vegetables  and  in  milk. 

(Carbohydrates    furnish    "fuel"    for    heat    and    (muscular 
.   energy  to  the  body      They  are  the  quick  fuels.) 


(3)  FATS:     Fats  of  meat  and  fish,  butter,  cream,  lard,  suet;  also 

vegetable  oils  like  olive,  cottonseed,  nut  oils  and  shortening 
preparations  made  from  them. 

(Fats  furnish  over  twice  the  "fuel"  for  heat  and  energy  as 
same  weight  of  carbohydrate  or  protein.  Excess  of  food 
supply  is  stored  in  the  body  as  fat.) 

(4)  MINERAL  SALTS:     Salts  found  in  all  vegetables  and  fruits  and 

in  the  outer  coats  especially  of  various  cereals;  also  in 
milk  and  eggs. 

(Mineral  salts  form  the  greater  part  of  the  bony  structure 
and  are  a  very  small,  though  necessary,  part  of  every  tissue 
in  the  body;  they  are  necessary  for  the  digestive  secre- 
tions and  for  the  blood.) 

BULK  OR  WASTE  PRODUCTS  :  Tissues  of  many  vegetables  and  fruits 
which  do  not  contain  nutrients,  but  which  serve  to  give 
"bulk"  to  the  meal,  and  act  as  "brooms"  to  the  system, 
stimulating  the  intestinal  and  muscular  walls,  as  the  cellu- 
lose in  cabbage,  celery,  beets,  carrots,  spinach,  etc. 

WATER:  This  forms  a  large  portion  of  all  foods  and  body  tissues  and 
is  necessary  in  dissolving  the  food,  cariying  away  waste 
products,  and  in  regulating  the  temperature  of  the  body 
through  the  blood. 

Every  food  contains  one  or  more  (sometimes  all)  of  these 
"nutrients."  For  the  average  person  the  best  meal  is  that 
which  is  planned  after  what  is  called  the  "balanced  ration." 


A  "balanced"  meal  is  one  in  which  the  various  food  prin- 
ciples are  combined  in  a  proper  proportion.  The  "balanced" 
meal  must  contain  some  protein,  some  carbohydrate,  some 
fat,  some  mineral  salts,  some  water  and  some  bulk.  This 
combination  or  "balance"  should  be  present  in  all  meals, 
both  for  the  needs  of  the  body  and  for  good  digestion.  In 
other  words,  it  will  not  do  to  eat  nearly  all  starch  at  one 
meal,  nearly  all  protein  at  the  next.  A  meal  should  not 
contain  roast  beef,  beans  and  a  rich  custard  dessert,  or  there 
will  be  too  much  protein ;  a  meal  should  not  contain  corn  on 


cob,  mashed  potatoes  and  rice  pudding,  because  this  would 
give  too  much  starch,  and  a  meal  should  not  consist  of 
pork,  fried  potatoes  and  rich  pudding  with  butter  sauce, 
for  it  would  contain  too  much  fat.* 

A  glance  at  these  two  sets  of  meals  will  show  which  is 
"balanced"  and  which  is  not : 




(2)  ROAST   PORK 







(1)  CREAM     POTATO    SOUP 


(Too   much    starch) 

(2)  ROAST   PORK 



(Too  much   fat) 




(Too  much  protein) 

*  Bulletins  of  the  School,  "Food  Values,"  "Freehand  Cooking,"  "Five 
Cent  Meals"  (10  cents  each)  are  a  help  in  this  connection.  The  book 
"Lessons  in  Cooking,  Through  Preparation  of  Meals"  gives  267  well  bal- 
anced menus,  with  recipes  and  directions  for  preparing  each  of  the  meals, 
500  pp.  illustrated.  Price  $2.00,  postpaid,  on  approval. 



Not  only  does  the  "balanced"  meal  furnish  the  proper 
proportion  of  nourishment,  but  it  lessens  the  cost  of  the 
menus.  The  homemaker  who  understands  the  principles  of 
the  balanced  meal  will  not,  for  instance,  have  an  expensive 
egg  dessert  when  the  first  course  is  a  substantial  meat  dish, 
or  vice  versa.  She  will  not  have  ham  and  eggs  and  cheese 
and  a  floating  island  dessert.  She  will  know  that  many  of 
the  so-called  cheaper  cuts  around  the  flank,  etc.,  furnish  as 
much  nutriment  as  porterhouse  or  expensive  loin.  She  will 
know  that  a  simple  meal  of  cream  soup,  bread  and  butter 
with  a  custard  furnishes  as  much  nourishment  as  an  elab- 
orate luncheon  of  sardines,  sliced  meat,  potatoes,  canned 
peaches  and  cake.  In  other  words,  the  balanced  meal  makes 
for  real  economy. 


But  the  balanced  meal  truly  makes  for  efficiency  in  cook- 
ing, because  the  housekeeper  who  follows  this  plan  does  not 
need  to  spend  the  time  in  preparing  the  balanced  meal  that 
she  does  usually  on  an  elaborate  meal.  When  she  knows 
that  the  simple  balanced  meal,  well  cooked  and  served  will 
satisfy  the  actual  needs  of  her  family,  she  need  not  spend 
hours  over  unnecessary  pot-watching,  making  complicated 
desserts  and  taking  several  hours  to  prepare  the  food  for 
one  meal.  Most  of  the  70  per  cent  of  her  time  spent  in 
cooking  results  because  the  housewife  attempts  to  serve  too 
many  kinds  of  food  or  too  many  courses  at  the  same  meal. 
Cooking  can  be  simplified  largely  by  having  a  simpler 


Another  important  thing  to  remember  in  planning  meal? 
is,  to  consider  the  taste  and  appetite  as  well  as  the  nutritive 


values.  Even  the  best  dinner,  arranged  on  the  most  nourish- 
ing plan,  would  not  necessarily  be  appetizing  if  certain  rules 
are  not  observed.  Every  meal  should  have  contrast — sweet 
with  sour,  light  with  heavy,  crisp  with  soft,  strong  with  deli- 
cate. The  ideal  meal  is  that  in  which  one  passes  from  one 
pleasurable  taste  to  another.  Every  dish  in  the  menu  must 
be  considered  with  relation  to  every  other  from  the  point  of 
view  of  taste  alone. 

It  is  not  only  what  we  eat,  but  the  pleasure  we  enjoy  when 
we  eat  that  makes  meals  satisfactory.  Science  has  proved 
that  the  appetizing  meal  is  more  likely  to  be  well  digested. 
Therefore  the  housewife's  planning  must  include  the  appear- 
ance and  daintiness  of  each  dish,  and  its  contrast  with  the 
others.  We  do  not  want  so  many  courses  as  in  the  so-called 
''formal"  meal,  but  we  do  need  to  follow  the  dexterous  n»an- 
ner  in  which  each  course  opposes  the  other,  and,  as  it  were, 
"plays  up"  the  succeeding  one. 

Two  creamed  foods  should  not  generally  be  served  at  the 
same  meal  or  there  will  be  too  much  "sloppy"  foods.  Dry 
meats  should  be  served  with  creamed  or  scalloped  potatoes, 
dry  potatoes  with  gravy.  A  meal  should  not  contain  two 
strong  flavored  foods  like  cheese,  onions,  cabbage,  cauli- 
flower, turnips.  Rich  puddings  should  have  acid  sauces, 
light  cakes  go  with  rich  desserts,  and  rich  cakes  with  plain 
and  fruit  desserts.  Not  even  a  good  appetite  can  enjoy 
monotonous  unrelieved  foods. 


Nothing  wastes  time  more  or  is  more  inefficient  than  to 
let  the  choosing  of  a  meal  go  until  an  hour  or  two  hours 
before  it  is  to  be  served.  If  left  in  this  way  until  the  last 
moment  it  is  quite  sure  not  to  be  a  "balanced"  meal,  but  one 
hastily  put  together,  of  anything  that  happens  to  be  in  the 
house  or  that  can  be  obtained  quickly. 


Planning  meals  ahead  has  definite  advantages : 

(1)  It  permits  economical  marketing  in  advance,  and 

purchase  in  larger  quantities. 

(2)  It  cuts  down  the  time  necessaiy  in  marketing,  as 

instead  of  shopping  every  day  for  a  small  amount, 
marketing  is  done  once  or  twice  a  week. 

(3)  It  permits  cooking  for  more  than  one  meal  at  a 

time  and  saves  in  the  use  and  washing  of  kitchen 

(4)  It  permits  food  preparation  many  hours  in  advance 

of  the  actual  meal. 

If  meals  are  left  until  the  last  moment  it  is  likely  that 
someone  may  have  to  "run  to  the  store,"  or  telephone  or  pay 
the  highest  price  for  some  article  which  is  to  be  included  in 
the  meal.  The  most  extravagant  way  of  purchasing  house- 
hold supplies  is  to  purchase  in  small  quantities  "by  the  bag" 
or  by  the  box  from  day  to  day.  On  the  other  hand,  by  plan- 
ning meals  in  advance,  the  materials  for  these  meals  can  be 
carefully  chosen,  a  list  made,  and  bought  in  quantity.  Sta- 
ples should  be  estimated  and  bought  in  quantity,  and  by 
weight.  Each  time  an  article  is  divided  in  a  smaller  and 
smaller  unit,  as  a  pound,  a  quart,  it  costs  more  proportion- 
ately than  an  equal  amount  bought  by  the  bushel,  the  case  or 
the  ten  pounds. 

It  has  been  estimated  that  potatoes  which  cost  $1.00  per 
bushel  for  a  6o-pound  bushel,  or  at  the  rate  of  25  cents  a 
peck,  cost  the  consumer  as  high  as  45  cents  a  peck  when 
sold  by  small  bags  or  10  or  15  cents'  worth  at  a  time.  Rice, 
cornmeal,  sugar  and  other  bought  groceries  should  be  pur- 
chased in  3,  5  or  lo-pound  quantity.  The  menus  can  be  so 
planned  as  to  get  the  greatest  advantage  from  a  plan  of 
wholesale  buying. 



In  all  institutions  and  hotels  meals  are  planned  consid- 
erably in  advance  and  a  "purchasing  sheet"  made  out  for 
these  articles.  This  makes  for  economy  because  by  seeing 
what  several  meals  are  to  consist  of  at  one  time  the  house- 
keeper can  apportion  the  materials  to  the  best  advantage  and 
arrange  the  meals  so  that  meats,  vegetables,  etc.,  are  planned 
for  two  or  more  servings. 

A  purchasing  sheet  can  be  made  out  for  one  week  or  for 
two  weeks,  and  should  include  every  item  necessary  for  the 
satisfactory  completion  of  all  the  meals  in  a  given  time. 

This  does  not  mean  that  every  item  for  the  whole  week 
must  be  bought  at  one  time,  but  that  it  be  known  in  advance 
what  every  item  is  which  is  needed  to  develop  these  meals 
satisfactorily.  Thus  the  "purchasing  sheet"  fulfils  the  sec- 
ond benefit  of  meals  planned  in  advance;  it  prevents  the 
possibility  of  being  "out"  of  any  product  needed  in  the 
preparation  of  the  meals. 

To  make  a  purchasing  sheet,  proceed  as  follows : 
First  write  down  the  menus  desired.  Then  estimate  the 
number  of  eggs,  the  pounds  of  tea  and  coffee,  the  amount 
of  potatoes,  meats  and  vegetables,  etc.,  needed.  For  in- 
stance, in  the  meals  following,  by  looking  at  the  desserts  and 
other  dishes  which  call  for  eggs,  we  see  that  30  eggs  are 
needed.  By  measuring  a  pound  of  coffee  it  is  found  that  it 
contains  50  tablespoons.  On  this  basis,  as  5  tablespoon fuls 
are  used  each  morning,  i  pound  of  coffee  will  suffice  for  10 
mornings.  Beets  are  used  twice  and  2  cans  of  tomatoes, 
and  it  is  always  noted  what  foods  are  in  season  before 
making  up  the  menus  in  the  first  place.  Suppose  about  8 
potatoes  are  used  every  meal,  and  that  8  potatoes  weigh 
approximately  2  Ibs.  By  having  potatoes  at  9  meals,  18  Ibs. 
will  be  needed  for  this  one  week.  Since  it  is  further  known 


that  a  bushel  of  potatoes  weigh  60  Ibs.  a  further  estimate 
shows  that  a  little  over  %  bushel  is  needed  each  week.  In  a 
similar  way  every  item,  number  of  pounds,  bunches  or  dozen, 
can  be  worked  out  to  prepare  the  menus  for  any  given 

The  menus  following  and  their  corresponding  purchasing 
sheet  are  for  simple,  average  family  meals,  particularly  sea- 
sonable for  the  cold  winter  months.  They  are  arranged  to 
give  "balanced  combination  of  foods,"  and  yield  a  large 
amount  of  heat  and  energy  so  that  the  body  can  withstand 
the  cold.  That  is  why  the  menus  contain  much  fat  and 
starchy  foods,  hot  cakes,  baked  or  casserole  dishes.  But  it 
will  be  noted  no  starchy  vegetable  is  used  at  the  same  meal 
with  a  starchy  pudding ;  a  heavy  meat  is  relieved  by  an  acid 
salad  or  a  fruit  dessert ;  poor  combinations  like  rice,  potatoes 
and  macaroni  are  avoided,  and  each  meal  has  a  proper  "bal- 
ance" of  protein,  starch,  fat  and  bulk. 

SUNDAY  (i) 



Dinner —  BREAST  OF  LAMB 





MONDAY  (2) 

Breakfast —  STEWED  APRICOTS 






Dinner—  LAMB   CHOPS 



Breakfast —  BAKED  BANANAS 








Breakfast —        BAKED  PRUNES  CRACKED  WHEAT 


Luncheon —  CROQUETTES 






Breakfast —  ORANGES 









FRIDAY  (6) 
Breakfast —  APPLE  COMPOTE 











Breakfast —  STEWED  APRICOTS 










peck  of  apples  i 

pound    each    of    Irish    oat-  5 

meal,  cracked  wheat  and  2 

other  cereal  i 
pints  of  maple  syrup 

pound  of  coffee  y2 

pounds    of    forequarter    of  l/$ 

lamb  J4 

pecks  of  potatoes  l/2 

medium  sized  rutabagas  i 

small  can  of  pimentos  i 

box   of    gelatin  i 

pounds    of    smoked    finnan  i 

haddie  4 

pound    box    of    marshmal-  i 

lows  y> 

pounds  of  dried  apricots  y* 

dozen  eggs  I 
quart  jar,  or  a  large  can  of         2 

beets  2 

pound  box  of  raisins  2 

pounds  of  sausages  i 

pound  of  rice  ^2 

bananas  i*/2 

pound  of  spaghetti  J4 
pound    sharp    American  y% 

cheese  6 
bunches   of  celery 

oranges  2l/2 

bunch  of  carrots  2 

large  cabbage  3 
box  of  grated  cocoanut 

pound  of  dried  prunes 

pounds  of  veal 

cans  of  tomatoes 

small  can  of  pineapple  (or 

the  fresh  fruit) 
pound  of  dried  beef 
box  of  cocoa 
cake  of   chocolate 
pound  of  flageolets 
pint  of  cranberries 
quart  of  sweet  potatoes 
quart  of  oysters 
box  of  oyster  crackers 
pounds  of  halibut 
quart  of  parsnips 
pound  of  bacon 
pound  of  tapioca 
box  of  lemon  snaps 
pounds  of  lentils 
cupfuls  of  mincemeat 
quarts  of  milk  daily 
large  loaf  of  bread  daily 
small  bag  of  salt 
pounds  of  lard 
pound  of  tea 
box  of   corn  starch 
pounds   of   flour   for   rolls. 

cakes,  gravies,  etc. 
pounds  of  butter 
very  small  heads  of  lettuce 


Looking  at  the  menus  it  will  be  seen  that  the  meals  were 
planned  so  that :  Tomato  from  Dinner  No.  4  made  soup  for 
Luncheon  No.  5 ;  potatoes  from  Dinner  No.  I  made  potatoes 
for  Dinner  No.  2 ;  veal  from  Dinner  No.  4  made  potpie  for 
Dinner  No.  5 ;  fish  from  Dinner  No.  6  made  creamed  fish 
for  Luncheon  No.  7;  pudding  from  Dinner  No.  3  made 
Luncheon  No.  4 ;  the  forequarter  of  lamb  made  four  meals 
(explained  below)  ;  cabbage  for  slaw  No.  3  made  creamed 
cabbage  for  Dinner  No.  4;  egg^yolks  from  dessert  No.  4 
made  Breakfast  No.  5 ;  left-over  lamb  from  dinners  Nos.  I 
and  3  made  croquettes  for  Luncheon  No.  4. 

The  fifth  strong  argument  in  favor  of  scheduled  meals  is 
that  it  saves  endless  time  and  nervous  energy.  Under  the 
old  way  one  had  to  stop  and  think  about  "What  shall  I 
have  ?"  at  least  every  other  day.  Poor  planning  means  that 
a  suddenly  needed  article  is  "out,"  and  the  whole  meal  has 
to  be  replanned  to  fit  this  condition.  Poor  planning  also 
makes  for  "hit-and-miss"  results,  and  it  is  impossible  to 
estimate  how  certain  quantities  will  last.  With  "scheduled 
meals"  there  is  no  such  fussing  and  readjusting. 

Such  menus  and  purchase  sheets  should  be  preserved  for 
reference.  With  changes  and  improvements  they  can  be 
used  many  times,  thus  saving  time  in  planning. 



Still  another  advantage  of  planning  meals  ahead  in  this 
way  is  that  it  permits  a  more  accurate  "time  schedule"  to 
be  made  and  followed,  as  outlined  in  Chapter  II,  Plans  and 
Methods  of  Daily  Household.  Indeed,  it  is  impossible  to 
make  a  practical  schedule  unless  the  meals  are  planned  in 
advance  and  the  cooking  fitted  in  with  the  other  household 

It  is  also  advisable,  especially  for  beginners,  to  put  down 
the  order  of  preparation  and  time  at  which  the  cooking  of 


each  dish  must  commence,  so  that  the  whole  meal  may  be 
done  and  ready  to  serve  on  schedule  time. 


It  is  difficult  to  say  just  where  to  draw  the  line  between 
the  saving  made  by  careful  planning  and  by  careful  market- 
ing, as  they  dovetail  so  much.  Careful  marketing  depends 
on  careful  planning,  and  on  the  other  hand  successful,  effi- 
cient marketing  is  based  on  exact  planning. 

A  reference  to  the  menu  shows  that  dinner  on  Sunday 
consists  of  breast  of  lamb,  while  the  second  dinner  is  larnb 
chops ;  Dinner  No.  3  is  of  Irish  stew ;  and  Luncheon  No.  4 
is  croquettes.  All  these  meals  are  obtained  from  the  same 
piece — the  forequarter  of  lamb  or  mutton,  bought  at  one 
time  in  one  section.  As  a  whole,  this  forequarter,  when  it 
weighs  10  pounds  would  cost  $1.50  for  the  piece;  but  if 
bought  in  sections  it  would  cost  considerably  more,  as  the 
following  table,  based  on  pre-war  prices,  shows : 


10  Ib.  forequarter  of  mutton,  at  150  per  pound  $1-5° 

If  divided :  4  Ibs.  shoulder  roast  @  i8c $0.72 

23/4  Ibs.  neck  for  stew  @  130 36 

3^4  Ibs.  rib  chops  @  2OC 65 


tor  23  cents  saved  by  buying  the  entire  forequarter. 

10  Ib.  hindquarter  of  mutton  @  i8c $1.80 

If  divided :  7  Ibs.  of  roast  @  22c $1-54 

3  Ibs.  of  chops  @  28c 84 

—    $2.38 

or  58  cents  saved. 

JO  Ib.  ^shoulder  of  veal  @  i8c $1.80 

If  divided:  7  Ibs.  roast    @   22C $1-54 

3  Ibs.  of  stew  @   i8c 54 


or  28  cents  saved. 


10  Ibs.  of  rib  roast  @  220 $2.20 

If  divided:  8  Ibs.  of  short  rib  for  roast  @  260  $2.08 
2  Ibs.  of  long  ribs  for  soup  @  i8c      .36 


or  24  cents  saved. 

10  Ib.  loin  of  pork  @  200 $2.00 

If  divided:  5  Ibs.  of  roast   @   2oc . ..  $1.00 

••.     5  Ibs.  of  loin  chops   @  22c 


or  10  cents  saved. 

It  would  seem  from  these  figures  that  there  is  a  decided 
saving  in  buying  certain  meats  in  quantity  enough  for  two 
meals  or  more.  This  is  possible  when  the  family  is  large 
enough  and  there  is  adequate  storage  facility  to  keep  the 
uncooked  portion  until  needed.  However,  this  saving  is 
made  only  on  the  better  meats  on  "prime"  cuts.  There  is 
no  saving  in  buying  quantities  of  chuck,  brisket  or  other  of 
the  cheaper  cuts,  because  no  matter  how  much  is  bought 
there  is  no  more  to  be  obtained  at  a  less  price  than  the  small 
quantity  price. 

The  saving  is  on  large  "prime"  sections  which,  when  cut 
up,  make  chops,  roasts  and  choice  pieces,  and  on  which  there 
is  also  more  waste  in  handling  for  the  butcher.  If  he  can 
sell  a  whole  loin  at  once  he  is  willing  to  sell  it  for  four  cents 
a  pound  less  in  order  to  save  the  waste  there  is  in  it  to  him 
when  he  divides  it  up  into  separate  sections  of  chops, 
shoulder,  etc. 

Another  reading  of  these  menus  will  show  that  this 
several-meal-buying  idea  was  followed  out  with  the  vegeta- 
bles and  fruit.  Enough  beets  were  bought  to  do  two  meals, 
a  hot  vegetable  and  a  cold  relish ;  apples  and  oranges  were 
bought  with  the  double  meals  they  would  serve  in  mind; 
cabbage  was  planned  for  two  meals ;  enough  fish  was  bought 
at  once  to  do  for  the  warm  dinner  and  the  creamed  fish  for 
luncheon ;  the  same  was  planned  for  the  veal  and  the  mock 
chicken  pie  it  made  the  following  day.  This  idea  of  over- 
lapping the  same  material  for  two  or  more  meals  and  mar- 


keting  with  this  in  view  results  in  a  big  money-saving, 
because  it  forces  the  housewife  to  buy  more  closely  and  less 
lavishly  and  less  in  the  hit-or-miss  way  which  is  always  more 



Baking  powder 

Flavoring  Extract.. 

Canned  soups 

Canned  vegetables . . 

Canned  fruits 

Olive  oil 

Whole  wheat  flour. . 
Rice,  beans,  lentils, 

tapioca,  etc 

Packaged  jellies,  co- 

coanut,  etc 



Dried  fruits 

Laundry  soap 

Toilet  paper 

Laundry  starch 

White  soap 



ost  by  the  Pound    Cost  in  Qua 

i  pound       $0.30     5  pounds 

2  pound 

.22     2J/2   pounds 

2  oz.  bot. 

.25   ^2  pint 


.10  12  cans 


.15  24  cans 


.20  12  cans 

small  bottle 

.46     i  quart 


.45   tf  bbl.,  98  11 


.10     5  pounds 


.10   12  packages 


.60     5  pounds 


.05   12  packages 


.15     2  pounds 


.05   10  bars 


.09     6  rolls 


.05    10  pounds 


.05    10  cakes 


.40     i  bushel 

i  pound 

.14  5-pound    pai 

tity    Saving 

$1.25    $0.25 






.42      .08 

1. 12 





Many  women  will  say,  "Oh,  I  always  use  up  left-overs 
in  salads  or  in  various  souffle  or  scalloped  forms."  But  there 
is  a  difference  between  the  "left-over"  and  the  deliberate 
planning  to  prepare  sufficient  of  the  same  material  to  last 
two  meals,  with  only  one  "long"  cooking.  For  example,  in 
Dinner  No.  I  creamed  potatoes  are  used.  Now,  without  the 
several-meal  idea  in  mind,  perhaps  a  generous  quantity  suf- 
ficient for  one  meal  would  have  been  prepared,  and  if  some 
happened  to  be  left  over,  it  would  have  been  fried  or  pre- 
pared in  any  accidental  way  that  struck  the  fancy.  But  by 
planning  ahead,  enough  was  prepared  at  one  long  cooking 


to  reheat  with  a  short  cooking  the  second  day, — part  of 
creamed  potatoes  on  Dinner  I  were  scalloped  for  Dinner  2. 

This  plan  makes  a  decided  saving  in  fuel,  for  it  takes 
from  25  to  40  minutes  to  cook  any  potatoes  or  other  vegeta- 
bles for  one  meal.  But  it  takes  only  10  or  15  minutes  to 
reheat  or  scallop  the  potatoes — which  is  called  "short" 
cooking.  In  other  words,  by  planning  meals  ahead  in  this 
way,  instead  of  there  being  two  "long"  cookings,  there  is 
necessary  only  one  "long"  cooking  and  one  "short"  cooking. 
This  is  illustrated  in  the  cooking  of  potatoes  for  Dinner 
No.  I  and  Dinner  No.  4;  croquettes  of  Luncheon  No.  4; 
veal  of  Dinner  No.  4,  fish  of  Dinner  No.  6  and  at  various 
other  times.  This  method  shortens  the  time  of  preparing 
and  saves  money  in  fuel.  In  many  a  home  potatoes  are 
boiled  half  an  hour  for  every  dinner,  and  a  hot  vegetable 
for  every  meal  for  40  minutes,  and  never  a  thought  is  given 
to  the  many  times  this  second  "long"  cooking  could  be 

In  the  cocoanut  pudding,  Dinner  No.  3,  two  distinct 
dishes  were  made  at  one  time,  one  in  a  mold  for  dinner  and 
the  other  in  individual  cups  for  luncheon,  which,  served 
with  chocolate  sauce,  made  a  distinct  dessert.  In  Dinner 
No.  6  all  the  halibut  is  cooked  until  done,  then  the  second 
portion  is  removed  for  the  next  day's  luncheon  before  the 
tomato  -is  added  to  the  first  part.  In  any  case  where  there 
was  a  first  "long"  cooking  of  both  potato  and  vegetable,  they 
were  both  cooked  on  the  same  burner  in  a  steamer. 

In  summer  it  is  easy  to  use  in  a  salad  vegetables  which 
have  had  the  first  "long"  cooking,  because  string  beans,  car- 
rots, beets,  etc.,  when  cooked,  make  just  as  attractive  vegeta- 
bles served  cold  with  French  dressing  as  they  did  hot  the 
first  day.  In  winter,  potato,  cheese  and  egg  "planned-overs" 
can  be  scalloped  quickly  or  served  in  a  cream  sauce.  Dinner 
No.  7  is  a  "baked"  dinner,  and  dinner  No.  3  a  boiled  one — 


all  foods  being  baked  in  one  case,  and  boiled  in  the  other. 
The  greatest  waste  in  fuel  occurs  when  frying,  boiling,  and 
baking  are  all  attempted  at  the  same  meal. 

Aside  from  using  such  helps  as  fireless  cookers,  steamers 
and  portable  ovens,  the  housewife  can  cut  down  fuel  expense 
by  planning  left-overs  or  extensively  developing  this  idea  of 
giving  the  "long"  cooking  only  once  to  either  meat,  vegeta- 
bles or  fruit.  There  are  women  who  claim  that  left-overs 
can  never  %  be  more  than  what  their  name  implies,  but  in 
France  the  use  of  small  pieces  is  an  art,  and  many  of  the 
most  successful  dishes  are  made  from  what  American  house- 
wives would  call  worthless.  The  sauce,  and  the  daintiness 
with  which  they  are  served  are  the  secrets  of  making  left- 
overs successful,  whether  they  are  meat,  vegetable  or  cheese. 

A  novel  way  of  utilizing  left-overs  is  to  use  them  with 
canned  soups,  like  tomato,  mulligatawney,  oxtail,  tomato  and 
vegetable,  costing  13  cents  a  can  or  60  cents  a  half  dozen 
cans.  The  contents  are  diluted,  then  thickened  to  make  a 
pleasant  sauce,  and  the  beef,  mutton,  fish,  etc.,  are  heated 
in  the  sauce  and  then  served  either  at  once  on  toast  or  scal- 
loped for  a  few  moments  in  the  oven  and  dotted  with  bread- 
crumbs. The  smallest  left-overs  can  be  made  into  appetizing 
dishes  in  this  way. 

Mulligatawney  soup  as  sauce  for  portions  of  cold  meat,  beef,  mut- 
ton, pork  or  veal.  Makes  a  delicious  curry,  shepherd's  pie,  baked 
peppers  and  rice,  collops  on  toast,  flank  steak,  etc. 

Oxtail  soup  as  sauce  to  spaghetti,  rice,  peppers,  left-over  meat  of 
any  kind,  hard-boiled  eggs,  etc.,  chopped  Hamburger,  chopped  tail 
of  steak,  pickings  from  any  meat,  made  into  croquettes  or  force- 

Vegetable  soup  as  sauce  for  left-over  soup  meat,  brisket,  roast 
or  pork,  in  individual  casseroles,  etc. 

Mutton  and  beef  broth  as  stock,  the  basis  of  croquettes  and  many 
other  made  dishes,  in  every  case  where  stock  is  generally  used, 
which  causes  the  great  expense  of  the  "long"  cooking  and  strain- 
ing of  stock. 

Tomato  soup,  very  diluted,  as  sauce  to  portions  of  fish,  cheese 
and  canned  salmon  to  make  mock  lobster,  rabbit,  Venetian  eggs,  etc. 



When  any  cooking  is  analyzed  it  is  found  that  it  consists 
of  the  following  three  steps: 

(1)  Grouping  food  materials  and  utensils. 

(2)  Actual  preparation,  or  work. 

(3)  "Clearing  up." 

It  is  also  found  that  while  the  time  spent  in  actual  prep- 
aration (2)  is  nearly  constant,  the  time  spent  in  grouping 
(i)  and  clearing  away  (3)  varies  considerably.  The  first 
help,  then,  to  efficient  cooking  is  efficient  grouping  of  utensils 
and  materials,  as  described  in  Chapter  I.  Only  when  tools 
are  grouped,  when  materials  are  conveniently  arranged  and 
the  kitchen  step-saving,  can  cooking  be  done  easily  and 

Much  time  that  is  often  wasted  in  clearing  up  (3)  can  be 
lessened  by  a  more  dexterous,  neat  manner  of  working. 
For  example,  if  a  recipe  calls  for  both. dry  and  liquid  mate- 
rials, the  dry  materials  can  be  measured  first,  in  this  way 
using  only  one  container  or  cup,  whereas  if  it  is  the  liquid 
that  is  measured  first,  a  clean  one  would  be  needed  to  meas- 
ure the  dry.  The  "wipe  as  you  go"  adage  is  a  good  one; 
but  another  saving  plan  is  to  cook  at  the  same  time  dishes 
needing  similar  tools. 

For  instance,  a  Spanish  cream,  a  prune  whip  and  mayon- 
naise are  types  of  dishes  that  "overlap"  and  use  the  same 
kinds  of  utensils,  bowls,  beater,  etc.  If  made  at  the  same 
time,  there  is  a  saving  in  the  number  of  utensils  and  also  the 
time  of  preparation  over  these  same  dishes  if  made  at  dif- 
ferent times  with  separate  groupings  and  handlings.  Here 
is  where  planning  ahead  will  permit  a  saving  which  would 
be  impossible  with  haphazard  meals. 




Spanish    cream    4  min.       7  min.          5  min.  6 

Boiled   salad  dressing 3  min.       8  min.          5  min.  8 

Cake    4  min.       9  min.         6  min.  n 

Prune  whip  3  min.       5  min.          4  min.  5 

14  min.     29  min.        20  min.  30 




Spanish  cream   4  min.       7  min.  6 

Boiled  salad   dressing i  min.       8  min.  3 

Cake     i  min.       9  min.  4 

Prune  whip  I  min.       5  min.  i 

7  min.     29  min.        9  min.  14 


The  points  brought  out  are  that  the  amount  of  time  spent 
in  the  actual  preparation  is  about  the  same  whether  the  tasks 
are  done  together  or  separately.  But  if  the  tasks  are  done 
together,  the  time  spent  in  grouping  materials  is  cut  down 
about  one-half,  from  14  to  7  minutes.  Also,  the  time  spent 
in  cleaning  up  is  cut  down  over  half,  from  20  to  9  minutes. 
The  number  of  utensils  saved  is  appreciable,  and  in  general 
the  amount  of  time  saved  is  greater  the  more  similar  the 
kinds  of  materials  and  tools  used  in  each  case.  That  is, 
briefly,  it  takes  much  more  time  to  clear  up  after  separate 
tasks  or  cooking  than  if  several  dishes  are  made  successively 
and  only  one  "clearing  up"  performed.  Thus  there  is  a 
distinct  saving  by  planning  to  cook  dishes  using  similar 
utensils  and  material  at  one  time. 


Probably  the  usual  method  of  preparing  three  meals  a 
day  is  first  to  cook  breakfast,  then  proceed  to  other  cleaning 


and  housework,  come  back  to  the  kitchen  for  lunch  prepara- 
tion, then  spend  several  hours  for  preparing  the  evening 
meal.  No  wonder  so  many  women  feel  that  most  of  their 
life  is  spent  in  the  kitchen !  The  planning  of  meals  in  ad- 
vance has  this  chief  value — that  it  permits  cooking  and  prep- 
aration in  advance.  Many  women  now  follow  this  plan 
either  consciously  or  by  instinct,  and  practical  tests  prove 
that  it  is  the  one  thing  to  make  cooking  less  complicated. 

If  the  breakfast  dishes  are  washed  in  the  morning  this 
time  will  give  a  half  hour  or  more  in  which  to  start  lunch 
preparation,  either  preparing  a  cup  custard,  starting  a  pot  of 
soup,  or  doing  some  other  "advance"  cooking  so  that  the 
actual  time  needed  to  serve  lunch  will  be  considerably  les- 
sened. Similarly,  while  washing  the  lunch  dishes  and  being 
present  in  the  kitchen  for  an  hour  or  more  after  lunch  is  just 
the  occasion  to  give  the  dinner  an  "advance"  start.  Many 
cases  were  noted  in  which  women  required  an  hour  and  a 
half  previous  to  supper  for  its  preparation  of  vegetables, 
meat,  etc.  Now,  a  great  part  of  this  time  might  be  saved 
by  giving  a  preliminary  cooking  to  some  of  the  supper  foods 
while  the  worker  must  stay  in  the  kitchen  to  clear  up  after 
lunch.  The  writer's  personal  plan  is  to  prepare  vegetables, 
arrange  meat  in  pan,  clean  salad,  and  if  possible  cook  the 
dessert  in  the  hour  following  lunch.  She  has  then  a  house 
dress  on  and  can  wash  up  the  tools  and  utensils  used  for 
dinner  preparation  along  with  the  lunch  dishes.  This  makes 
it  necessary  for  the  worker  to  spend  only  a  minimum  of 
time  in  the  kitchen  at  night  when  she  is  dressed  for  the 
evening,  and  greatly  lessens  the  number  of  pieces  to  be 
washed  at  the  evening  meal.  This  is  the  one  plan  which 
above  all  permits  a  longer,  more  definite  "off  time"  in  the 
afternoon  for  calling,  club  meetings  or  rest. 

That  this  "advance"  cooking  method  is  worth  while  is 
shown  by  the  following  letter : 


"On  receipt  of  your  letter  I  sat  down  and  decided  to  put 
your  good  advice  into  practice.  Since  then  my  husband's 
two  brothers  have  come  to  me,  I  have  had  to  take  three  more 
rooms,  and  yet  despite  this  additional  care  I  get  through  my 
work  more  easily  than  ever.  I  rest  for  an  hour  every  day 
and  take  Sonny  for  a  walk — all  due  to  having  followed  your 
rule.  The  purchasing  sheet  is  a  fine  scheme  and  planning 
a  week's  menu  is  a  great  nerve-saver.  I  do  as  much  cooking 

Dish   warming  closet  below  heated   by   electricity. 

as  possible  in  one  period.  I  am  writing  now  Monday  morn- 
ing, 12  :io.  I  have  my  potatoes  peeled  in  a  pan  of  water, 
my  carrots  are  scraped,  I  have  an  apple  pie  baked  for  to- 
night's dinner,  a  loaf  of  sponge  cake  and  a  chocolate  char- 
lotte for  tomorrow's  six  o'clock  dinner.  Today  I  have  no 
extra  work,  so  I  cook  all  I  can  for  tomorrow.  My  house  is 
in  order  and  I  have  a  whole  rainy  afternoon  in  which  to 
sew."  MARY  F.  S. 

Mrs.  S.  said  in  her  letter  that  at  12  o'clock  one  day  she 


had  cake  and  dessert  ready  for  the  following  day's  night 
meal.  She  had  followed  out  another  practical  plan — that  of 
cooking  for  several  meals  at  once.  It  is  only  custom  which 
keeps  alive  the  idea  that  every  single  article  of  food  needed 
for  a  meal  must  be  cooked  just  previous  to  that  meal.  Many 
desserts,  stewed  fruits,  can  all  be  prepared  hours  in  advance. 
Vegetables  too  can  be  cooked  long  before  they  are  needed 
without  losing  flavor,  if  care  is  taken.  For  instance,  if 
creamed  carrots,  celery  or  cauliflower  is  to  be  used  at  night 
it  could  better  be  given  its  "long"  cooking  during  the  after 
lunch  hour  while  the  worker  is  watching  the  stove  at  the 
same  time  she  is  washing  dishes.  Then  at  night  there  would 
be  needed  only  a  quarter  of  an  hour's  "short"  cooking  stand- 
ing over  the  stove  to  make  the  cream  sauce  and  heat  the 
vegetable  in  it. 

Even  many  roasts  and  similar  pieces  can  be  given  a  two- 
thirds  cooking  during  the  early  part  of  the  day.  A  turkey 
is  improved  in  taste  if  cooked  once  and  given  its  final  cook- 
ing and  heating  just  before  serving.  A  leg  of  lamb  for  a 
night  meal  may  be  given  an  hour-and-a-half  cooking  in  the 
forenoon  when  both  cook  and  kitchen  are  in  working  order 
and  need  only  a  half  hour's  heating  previous  to  its  final 
serving.  The  practice  of  cooking  for  several  meals  at  one 
time  proves  scientifically  to  save  the  constant  recurring, 
trotting  to  and  staying  in  the  kitchen,  and  standing  over  the 
stove  at  every  separate  meal. 

Our  grandmothers  unconsciously  frequently  followed  this 
plan  when  they  had  a  "baking  day"  or  a  "roasting  day"  in 
which  six  or  a  dozen  dishes  were  cooked  which  were  to  be 
distributed  over  two  or  three  days.  The  continental  people 
follow  much  the  same  plan,  especially  with  their  large  ovens 
which  are  heated  and  cook  a  very  large  quantity,  then  served 
in  smaller  containers  at  separate  meals.  This  running  into 
the  kitchen  to  give  an  hour's  boiling  to  every  vegetable,  and 


a  two-hours'  roasting  for  every  separate  meal  is  unnecessary 
and  disastrously  time-taking. 


Another  chief  reason  for  unnecessary  time  spent  over  the 
cook-stove  is  the  quite  general  practice  of  following  two  or 
three  different  cooking  methods  in  the  preparation  of  a 
single  meal.  A  boiled  soup,  a  fried  meat,  a  boiled  vegetable 
and  a  baked  dessert  is  an  example  of  a  dinner  requiring  too 


Fits    inside    any    medium    sized    utensil,    condenses    steam    and    saves    fuel. 
Particularly  useful  with  a  frying  pan. 

many  different  processes.  If  one  article  is  to  be  baked, 
have  several  dishes  baked — or  an  "all  baked"  dinner.  If 
one  vegetable  and  a  soup  are  to  be  boiled  why  not  instead 
make  an  all-boiled  dinner  with  meat,  vegetables,  after  the 
New  England  "boiled  dinner"  or  the  many  delicious  "stews" 
of  foreign  countries,  so  that  the  same  method  is  used? 

To  have  many  cooking  methods  going  at  the  same  time 
makes  it  more  difficult  to  serve  and  much  more  time-taking. 
Again,  even  if  one  vegetable  is  preferred  boiled  and  a  roast 
and  dessert  are  cooked  in  the  oven,  it  is  possible  to  cook 
even  that  boiled  vegetable  inside  the  oven,  if  space  permits. 
With  the  exception  of  cabbage  and  cauliflower,  which  need 


air  to  keep  them  white  in  cooking,  other  vegetables  may  be 
cooked  in  water  in  the  oven  with  an  increase  in  flavor.  This 
does  away  with  the  objection  of  having  too  many  burners 
going,  or  having  so  many  pots  to  watch  on  top  of  the  stove. 
Fuel  is  saved  as  well  as  time.  (See  Dinners  3  and  6,  pages 
188,  189.) 


Another  means  of  enabling  the  worker  to  cook  in  advance 
is  by  the   use   of   earthenware   or   glass  casserole   dishes. 


They  withstand   heat,    permit   foods  to  be   cooked  and  served   in  the  same 
dish  and  are  easily  cleaned. 

Meats,  soups  and  vegetables  can  in  these  earthenware  dishes 
be  cooked  slowly  or  given  a  preliminary  cooking  so  that  only 
a  final  warming  is  needed  just  previous  to  the  meal.  The 
newest  casseroles  are  of  heavy  but  beautiful  glass  which 
stand  the  long  continued  heat  of  any  kind  of  oven.  By  this 
slow  cooking  flavors  are  developed,  meats  are  made  tender 
and  none  of  the  juices  can  escape.  Another  advantage  they 
possess  is  their  sanitary  superiority  over  the  usual  iron  pot 
or  roasting  pan.  Last,  the  casserole  permits  the  food  to  be 
cooked  and  served  in  the  same  dish,  which  greatly  lessens  the 
dishwashing  needed  by  the  usual  method  of  cooking  in  one 
dish  and  then  serving  on  a  table  platter  or  dish. 




In  this  connection  must  be  mentioned  again  the  fireless  and 
the  steam  cooker,  which  are  the  greatest  aids  in  this  method 
of  "advance  preparation"  of  meals.  As  is  well  known,  foods 
can  be  placed  in  the  fireless  at  night  for  use  the  next  morn- 


ing,  or  in  the  morning  for  use  at  night,  etc.  The  steam 
cooker  has  these  advantages — it  operates  over  one  burner, 
it  permits  the  use  of  baking  dishes  which  can  also  be  used 
at  the  table,  and  foods  can  be  placed  in  it  and  cooked  hours 
in  advance  of  the  time  they  are  actually  served.  The  newest 
gas  stove  on  the  market  is  a  combination  gas-fireless.  It  is 
a  complete  gas  stove  with  an  insulated  oven  which  is  also 


operated  by  an  automatic  attachment.  For  instance,  a  roast, 
pot  of  string  beans,  apple  bread  pudding  and  pot  of  soup  can 
all  be  placed  in  this  insulated  oven  at  one  time.  The  gas  is 
then  allowed  to  burn  for  a  short  time,  at  the  end  of  which 
it  turns  off  automatically  and  the  cooking  proceeds  on  the 
fireless  principle.  In  this  stove  probably  the  height  of  mod- 
ern cooking  economy  and  efficiency  is  reached.  The  time 
saved  by  cooking  with  such  a  stove  over  the  usual  cooking 
method  may  amount  to  three  or  four  hours.  (See  Chapter 
II,  Plans  and  Methods  of  Daily  Housework,  page  89.) 


If  there  is  one  method  above  all  others  that  we,  as  a  nation, 
seem  to  be  addicted  to,  it  is  the  use  of  the  frying-pan  and 

Used  on  top  of  stoves.     Drippings  run  into  the  small  pan  as  fast  as  formed. 

"fried"  foods.  An  excess  of  fried  foods  is  most  unwhole- 
some, but  from  our  point  of  view,  the  frying-pan  is, one  of 
the  greatest  labor-makers  in  the  kitchen.  Frying,  as  prac- 
ticed with  a  very  small  quantity  of  grease  in  the  pan,  creates 
smoke,  odor  and  adds  to  kitchen  cleaning.  Many  foods 
ordinarily  fried  can  be  prepared  otherwise.  For  instance, 
bacon  or  ham  taste  better  broiled  or  baked  in  the  oven  over 
a  little  bacon  grid.  There  is  no  smoke  and  far  less  odor 
and  none  of  the  unpleasant  sputtering  attendant  on  the 


frying-pan.    Similarly,  chops  and  other  foods  fried  can  bet- 
ter be  laid  in  a  roasting  pan  and  cooked  in  the  oven. 

A  new  broiler  on  the  market  can  be  used  on  any  stove  and 
is  more  efficient  than  the  usual  wire  type.  It  consists  of  a 
corrugated  iron  plate  with  bail  handle,  which  will  fit  over 
any  burner  or  range  opening.  Broiling  on  this  grid  is  far 
more  satisfactory  than  cooking  with  the  usual  frying  pan. 
All  of  the  baking,  casserole,  and  stewing  methods  and  their 
respective  equipment  result  in  more  wholesome  cookery  and 
in  less  labor  for  the  cook  than  the  frying-pan  way. 


No  food  planning  can  be  economical  and  efficient  which 
is  not  based  upon  a  knowledge  of  weights  and  the  various 
amounts  needed  in  any  particular  family.  Many  housekeep- 
ers naturally  or  by  practice  have  learned  to  judge  how  far  a 
certain  amount  of  food  will  go.  But  it  is  better  to  supplant 
this  haphazard  information  by  tested,  accurate  figures.  For 
instance,  how  much  round  steak  is  needed?  How  long  will 
i  pound  of  coffee  last?  How  many  pounds  of  sugar  are 
used  a  week?  More  exact  knowledge  on  these  and  other 
estimates  will  make  for  better  purchasing  and  easier  cooking. 
For  example,  there  are  seven  medium-sized  meat-balls  in 
i*/2  Ibs.  There  are  50  tablespoonfuls  in  I  Ib.  of  coffee,  and 
possibly  y^  Ibs.  per  week  is  an  average.  These  facts  written 
in  the  housekeeper's  notebook  would  enable  her  to  judge  the 
family's  needs  and  to  buy  more  accurately. 


The  general  way  in  cooking  is  to  buy  a  generous  amount 
and  use  what  you  wish  and  if  there  is  any  left  utilize  it  for 
the  following  day  in  a  "left-over."  The  newer  idea  is  to 
purposely  plan  for  a  left-over  which  will  be  large  enough 
to  be  of  really  practical  use,  as  illustrated  in  the  menus  which 


we  have  considered.  Thus,  mashed  potatoes  might  be  made 
for  one  meal  and  so  few  left  over  that  nothing  could  be 
done  with  them.  Little  scraps  of  meat  might  be  either 
thrown  out  or  merely  tolerated.  But  with  the  "planned- 
over"  method  the  estimate  of  what  the  family  will  eat  at  a 
given  time  is  so  close  that,  say,  a  double  portion  of  mashed 
potatoes  is  made,  one  to  eat  hot  and  the  other  purposely 
sufficiently  to  make  potato  balls  for  a  second  entire  meal. 
Instead  of  a  few  scraps  of  meat  enough  is  bought  so  that 
the  second  portion  will  make  a  thoroughly  satisfactory  and 
adequate  dish.  It  is  not  permitted  to  have  only  a  saucerful 
of  a  vegetable  left,  but  either  none  at  all  or  enough  for  a 
second  helping.  For  instance,  twice  as  much  carrots,  beets, 
peas,  etc.,  are  cooked  so  that  one  serving  can  be  hot  and  the 
other  serving  re-heated  in  a  different  manner  or  used  cold 
as  salad.  In  other  words,  foods  are  so  gauged  in  their 
amounts  that  there  is  no  waste  and  that  the  economical 
"planned-over"  replaces  the  frequently  wasteful  "left-over." 


One  of  the  most  common  wastes  in  cooking  is  to  throw 
away  the  water  in  which  a  vegetable  has  been  cooked.  All 
vegetables  contain — and  some  greatly — valuable  mineral 
salts  which  are  their  chief  value  as  food.  But  the  common 
way  of  boiling  carrots,  spinach,  etc.,  in  large  quantities  of 
water  and  pouring  this  off  merely  throws  away  the  valuable 
dissolved  salts.  The  best  cooking  method  for  vegetables 
(with  the  exception  of  the  cabbage  tribe,  old  turnips  and 
onions)  is  to  steam  in  no  water,  or  to  boil  in  a  very  small 
quantity  and  then  utilize  this  small  amount  of  liquor  in 
serving  the  vegetable  or  as  a  basis  for  a  sauce. 

Frequently  fuel  is  wasted  by  keeping  a  pot  boiling  furi- 
ously. Once  it  is  at  a  boiling  point  the  temperature  cannot 
increase  nor  the  cooking  time  be  lessened,  no  matter  how 



rapidly  the  watter  is  bubbling.  This  is  a  common  mistake, 
especially  on  a  gas  stove,  as  it  is  not  necessary  to  keep  water 
bubbling  (212°  F.)  to 
cook  food.  Inside  a 
double  boiler  the  tem- 
perature is  about 
192°  F.  The  correct 
degree  of  heat  for 
stewing  is  about  106° 
F.  to  180°  F.  Cook- 
ing over  the  "sim- 
merer"  burner  of  a 
gas  stove  can  be  done 
using  only  two  or 
three  feet  of  gas  an 
hour.  Unnecessary 
degrees  of  heat  are 
used  in  cooking  with 
the  result  of  wasted 
fuel,  unnecessarily  hot 
kitchen  and  often 
poorly  cooked  food. 
The  following  table  for  baking  may  be  helpful: 


Saves  time,    matches  and  ga 
Populus,"    Price   25 

as.      "Round  File 



Roast  Meats    480°  F. 

Fish    425°  F. 

Bread     440°  F. 

Popovers  480°  F. 

Cookies,    Spice   or   Raisin 450°  F. 

Muffins  and  Biscuits   450°  F. 

Ginger  Bread  and  Molasses  Mixture.  380°  F. 

Plain    Cake    380°  F. 

Sponge    Cake    350°  F. 

Baked  Custard   350°  F. 


350"  F. 

350°  F. 

400°  F. 

450°  F. 

450°  F. 

450°  F. 

380°  F. 

400°  F. 

380°  F. 
Higher  in  water 


A  good  cooking  thermometer  should  be  in  every  kitchen 
and  may  be  obtained  for  50  cents.  A  satisfactory  oven  ther- 
mometer which  stands  up  in  the  oven  costs  $1.00. 

The  three-meals-a-day  problem  can  be  solved —  some  or 
all  of  the  methods  suggested  in  this  chapter  will  help.  Have 
you  any  other  methods  ?  What  do  you  think  of  the  sugges- 
tions given  here? 




1.  Write  out  a  day's  menu,  giving  well  "balanced"  meals. 

A  day's  menu  with  poor  combination  of  foods. 

2.  Give  a  simple  menu  for  a  week  for  your  own  family, 

based  on  what  your  market  affords  at  the  time  of 
writing.  ,  Include  "planned  over"  or  overlapping 
meals ;  similar  cooking  processes  in  the  same  meal ; 
desserts,  etc.,  cooked  before  the  time  of  serving. 

3.  Make  out  a  "purchase  sheet"  for  these  meals. 

4.  Write  out  a  time  schedule  for  preparing  the  dinners — 

that  is,  when  to  start  cooking  each  dish  and  the  order 
of  cooking,  so  that  the  whole  meal  may  be  ready  to 
serve  at  the  desired  time. 

5.  Prepare  and  serve  these  meals  to  the  family  if  possible. 

Report  mistakes  and  changes  you  would  make  if  the 
menus  were  repeated. 

Does  this  plan  make  the  work  more  interesting?     Is  it 
time,  labor,  money  and  worry  saving? 






IN  many  homes  the  cooking  and  daily  cleaning  have  been 
so  well  planned  that  the  work  proceeds  smoothly  and 
easily,  but  the  task  that  frequently  throws  the  whole 
week  into  confusion  and  upsets  a  careful  daily  plan  is  the 
once-a-week  laundry  day.  "Blue  Monday"  is  not  merely  a 
cartoonist's  joke,  but  the  most  trying  day  in  the  week — the 
most  fatiguing  and  the  one  likely  to  be  the  least  organized. 
But  the  laundry  problem  need  not  be  such  drudgery.  In 
fact,  while  it  is  extremely  difficult  to  set  down  rules  for 
cooking  that  will  apply  to  the  many  different  homes  owing 
to  the  variations  of  taste  even  among  people  of  the  same 
income;  and  while  cleaning  processes  vary  owing  to  dif- 
ferent furnishings  in  homes,  it  is  encouraging  that  laundry 
work  lends  itself  most  easily  to  "standardization." 

Cooking  too  often  depends  on  the  caprice  of  the  family, 
the  season,  varying  hours  of  meals,  etc.,  and  requires  con- 
stant variety  and  adjustment  of  plans.  The  housekeeper 
must  learn  new  dishes  and  adapt  meals  to  the  changing 
needs  of  a  growing  family. 

But  laundry  work  is  the  one  set  of  tasks  which  can  be 
planned  and  followed  year  after  year  after  the  same  iden- 
tical method,  once  that  method  is  established.  Here  the 
housekeeper  can  simplify  her  laundry  work  and  reduce  it 
to  the  easiest  form  of  standard  practice  in  her  particular 



family.  Once  the  technique  of  washing  flannels,  removing 
stains,  ironing,  etc.,  is  understood,  she  knows  it  for  all  time, 
and  should  be  able  to  do  it  week  in  and  week  out  with 
lessening  strain. 

The  origin  of  the  word  "launder"  is  from  the  Latin, 
"lavander,"  "to  wash"  or  "to  bathe  in  water" ;  laundry  work 
can  therefore  best  be  defined  as  the  cleansing  of  fabrics 
by  a  water  method,  in  contradistinction  to  "dry  cleansing," 
which  is  the  cleaning  of  fabrics  by  substances  other  than 
water,  like  gasoline,  benzine,  carbon  tetrachloride  or  other 
solvents  of  grease.  The  first  steps,  therefore,  to  easier, 
more  efficient  work  in  the  home  laundry  are  knowledge  of : 

1.  Various  textiles   from  which  garments  and  furnishings 

are  made. 

2.  The   effect   of   water   and   temperatures   upon   differing 


3.  The  action  of  various  solvents  and  chemicals  like  soap, 

borax,  soda,  etc.,  on  both  water  and  textiles. 

4.  The  effect  on  textiles  of  various  processes  like  rubbing, 

wringing,  pounding,   starching,  ironing,  etc. 

The  two  distinct  classes  of  fibers  from  which  all  textiles 
are  made  are  animal  fibers — wool  and  silk — and  vegetable 
fibers — cotton  and  linen. 

The  animal  fibers  are  more  easily  affected  by  heat  and 
by  alkalies.  Each  wool*  fiber  is  covered  with  small  over- 
lapping scales  lying  all  in  one  direction,  which  when  the 
fiber  is  wet  and  warm,  expand  and  tend  to  interlock.  Rub- 
bing wool  fibers  directly  with  the  hand,  or  with  any  me- 
chanical means  causes  the  scales  to  interlock,  the  fibers  to 
shorten,  and  thus  the  whole  wool  garment  to  shrink.  Silk 
does  not  shrink  but  its  fibers  are  weakened  and  its  lustre  les- 
sened by  either  alkalies  or  too  great  heat. 
.  Vegetable  fibers  of  cotton  and  linen  are  tougher  than  silk 


and  wool  and  resist  friction,  heat  and  alkalies  better.  They 
can  be  treated  with  strong  friction,  high  degree  of  heat  and 
with  dilute  acids,  alkalies  and  bleaching  powder  if  these  are 
thoroughly  rinsed  out  and  neutralised.  Wool  resists  acids 
well,  but  bleaching  powder  harms  it.  In  washing  any 
material  which  is  a  combination  fabric,  it  is  best  to  follow 
the  method  safest  for  the  weaker  of  the  two  fabrics ;  i.  e., 
if  an  undershirt  is  part  wool  and  part  cotton,  it  should  be 
washed  according  to  the  method  for  wool. 

The  degree  of  heat  or  cold  of  the  water  also  greatly 
affects  the  cleansing  process.  Heat  tends  to  expand  the 
threads  of  the  fabric,  and  the  dirt  caught  in  the  threads  is 
then  more  easily  removed.  But  if  the  cloth  is  again  cooled 
during  the  washing,  the  thread  contracts  and  the  dirt  is  still 
retained.  It  is  therefore  best  to  soak  clothing  in  cold  or 
tepid  water,  if  the  soaking  plan  is  followed,  so  as  not  to 
first  heat  the  fibers  and  then  have  them  contract  later,  when 
the  soaking  water  is  cooled.  The  principle  of  temperatures 
to  follow  is,  to  begin  with  warm  water,  and  to  keep  the 
water  the  same,  or  even  a  rising  temperature,  until  the 
clothes  are  clean. 

Wool  fibers,  because  of  their  peculiar  formation,  must  not 
be  soaked,  or  treated  with  temperatures  of  either  extreme, 
but  in  "lukewarm"  water  of  about  100°  F.,  and  likewise 
pressed  with  a  medium  hot  iron.  Silk,  also,  needs  both 
water  and  heat  of  medium  temperature.  Cotton  and  linen 
being  stronger  can  be  treated  with  both  cold  and  very  hot 
water  and  very  hot  irons. 


Water  is  spoken  of  as  "hard"  or  "soft,"  depending  on 
the  amount  of  lime  (calcium)  and  magnesium  salts  it  con- 
tains. Rainwater  is  best  for  laundry  work ;  it  is  "soft" 
because  it  will  quickly  form  a  good  lather  with  common 


forms  of  soap.  "Hard"  water  contains  so  much  lime  or 
magnesium  salts  that  these  combine  with  soap  and  prevent 
it  from  forming  suds  and  doing  its  work;  instead  in  hard 
water,  "lime  soap"  is  formed,  which  is  insoluble  and  which 
appears  as  a  white,  curdy  mass  floating  on  top  and  through 
the  water.  White  clothes  which  have  been  washed  repeat- 
edly in  unsoftened  hard  water  are  apt  to  have  a  gray 
appearance  due  to  the  lime  soap  formed  on  the  fibers  when 
the  clothes,  saturated  with  dirty  soapy  water,  are  rinsed  in 
hard  water.  If  there  is  any  iron  in  the  water,  "iron  soap" 
will  be  formed  which  may  form  iron  rust  stains  on  the 
clothes.  Water  containing  much  iron  will  give  a  red  rust 
stain  on  bowls  or  water  closet  from  a  leaking  valve. 

Experiments  show  that  about  2  ounces  of  soap  is  wasted 
in  softening  one  hundred  gallons  of  water  for  each  "degree" 
(grains  per  gallon)  of  hardness.  Lake  Michigan  water, 
which  is  considered  fairly  soft,  has  a  hardness  of  8  degrees, 
and  as  40  or  50  gallons  is  a  usual  quantity  of  water  for 
an  ordinary  washing,  8  ounces  of  soap  would  be  wasted  in 
softening  the  water. 

Because  of  the  waste  of  soap  and  the  undesirable  effects 
of  lime  soap,  hard  water  should  be  softened  for  all  laundry 
work.  The  most  common  and  cheapest  water  softener  is 
washing  soda.  //  only  the  correct  amount  of  washing  soda 
is  used,  no  washing  soda  is  left  in  the  water.  When  wash- 
ing soda,  borax  or  ammonia  is  added  to  hard  water,  the 
salts  of  lime  and  magnesia  unite  with  it,  forming  carbon- 
ates which  are  not  very  soluble  and  so  come  out  as  a  fine 
white  powder,  giving  the  water  "milky"  appearance.  This 
powder  will  settle  in  time,  but  does  no  harm.  Any  iron 
present  is  precipitated  also.  It  is  using  too  much  washing 
soda  or  throwing  it  in  "by  the  handful"  that  does  damage. 

There  is  no  very  good  household  method  of  telling 
exactly  how  much  washing  soda  to  use.  If  the  degree  of 


hardness  of  the  water  can  be  learned  from  the  local  water 
department,  about  2/z  ounce  of  washing  soda  per  100  gallons 
for  each  degree  of  hardness  is  the  correct  amount.  For  ex- 
ample, if  the  water  has  20  degrees  of  hardness  and  10  gal- 
lons is  used  in  the  tub,  then  I}/?  oz.  of  washing  soda  will 
soften  the  tubfull. 

Always  use  washing  soda  in  solution — two  Ibs.  dissolved 
in  a  gallon  of  hot  water  makes  a  convenient  strength ;  then 
for  each  measuring  cupful  of  the  solution  will  contain  I 
ounce  of  washing  soda.  When  the  degree  of  hardness  of 
the  water  cannot  be  learned,  add  the  soda  solution  J^  cupful 
at  a  time,  mixing  well,  until  a  little  of  the  water  will  give  a 
suds  with  a*  small  amount  of  soap  solution.  If  sufficient 
soda  has  been  used  to  give  the  water  a  soapy  feeling  when 
rubbed  between  the  thumb  and  ringers,  too  much  has  been 
added  for  softening;  then  reduce  the  quantity. 

Borax  as  a  water  softener  has  the  advantage  that  using 
too  great  a  quantity  is  not  so  harmful  as  too  much  washing 
soda.  It  has  less  softening  power  than  washing  soda,  15^ 
oz.  being  equivalent  to  i  oz.  of  soda.  A  safe  proportion  to 
use  is  I  oz.  to  10  gallons  of  water  with  a  hardness  of  i.o 
degrees.  Two  level  tablespoon fuls  make  about  an  ounce — 
or  better,  make  a  solution  of  2  Ibs.  to  the  gallon  (i  oz.  to 
the  cup).  All  softeners  should  be  dissolved  and  well  mixed 
with  the  water  and  the  softening  finished  with  a  little  soap 
solution  before  the  clothes  are  put  in. 

Use  the  correct  proportion  of  washing  soda  or  borax  so- 
lution in  all  soaking,  washing,  boiling  and  rinsing  water; 
bluing  water,  unless  very  hard,  need  not  be  softened. 

Hard  water  cannot  be  made  as  soft  as  rain  water,  for  a 
trace  of  lime  salts  and  an  appreciable  amount  of  magnesium 
salts  cannot  be  removed  by  any  household  methods,  except 
by  adding  soap  solution. 

Lime  soap  will  dissolve  in  gasoline,  kerosene  and  other 


like  solvents,  which  probably  accounts  for  the  whitening 
effect  of  the  "kerosene  boil"  and  similar  methods  of  cleans- 
ing cloths. 


Soap  is  the  resulting  product  of  combining  fats  and  oils 
with  forms  of  alkalies.  Old-fashioned  "soft  soap"  was 
made  from  the  lye  of  wood  ashes  and  melted  fat.  Modern 
"hard"  or  cake  soap  is  made  from  caustic  soda  and  various 
fats ;  in  order  to  be  satisfactory,  the  combining  should  be  so 
perfect  that  there  is  no  "free  alkali,"  which  is  particularly 
harmful  to  wool  and  to  colored  clothing,  or  free  fat  in  the 
soap.  Also  there  should  be  no  adulteration.  Resin  is 
nearly  always  used  in  the  manufacture  of. common  yellow 
soap  because  it  reduces  the  cost ;  but  an  excessive  proportion 
of  resin  soap  will  cause  trouble  in  ironing  if  not  completely 
rinsed  out  or  if  used  with  hard  water.  Naphtha,  kerosene, 
borax,  etc.,  are  sometimes  added  to  laundry  soap  to  aid  in 
cutting  grease  and  cleansing. 

Soaps  are  classed  as  mild,  medium  or  strong,  and  should 
be  used  correspondingly  on  delicate,  durable  and  coarse  fab- 
rics. Only  white  soap  should  be  used  on  wool  and  colored 
clothing ;  yellow  soap  on  very  soiled  pieces  and  rough  work. 

Various  soap  powders  are  also  on  the  market,  which  are 
mixtures  of  soap  and  some  alkali,  as  washing  soda,  borax, 
etc.  It  is  a  better  plan  to  use  a  good  plain  soap  and  the 
additional  material  uncombined,  as  then  one  is  more  sure  of 
the  ingredients  and  the  cost  is  less.  Washing  powders  are 
to  be  avoided,  as  many  of  them  are  dangerous  and  all  of 
them  are  expensive.  A  great  many  defects  in  laundry  work 
can  be  traced  to  their  use.  Soap  chips,  however,  are  merely 
regular  soap  cut  in  small  pieces,  but  this  can  be  done  at 
home,  using  a  lo-cent  grater  such  as  commonly  used  for 
shredding  vegetables. 


Soap  solution  has  the  peculiar  property  of  taking  up  the 
fine  particles  which  make  up  "dirt."  It  also  will  dissolve 
or  emulsify  the  grease  and  oil  which  usually  holds  the  dirt. 
Thus  while  water  is  nearly  a  universal  solvent,  soap  and 
water  will  take  up  many  more  substances.  The  more  grease 
present  in  or  on  clothing,  the  stronger  the  soap  or  the  "cut- 
ting" properties  needed.  Soap  has  antiseptic  qualities  and 
acts  as  a  partial  disinfectant. 


The  removing  of  soil  and  grease  from  fabrics  is  greatly 
facilitated  by  kneading  and  twisting  of  the  fabrics  which 
will  naturally  assist  in  loosening  it  from  the  fabric.  There- 
fore one  of  the  most  important  steps  in  washing  is  the 
application  of  a  mechanical  means  for  moving  the  garment, 
pounding  it,  forcing  water  through  it,  and  thus  loosening 
dirt  from  the  fibers.  This  friction  or  movement  has  been 
accomplished  by  varying  methods  in  all  countries,  from 
the  primitive  rubbing  of  the  garment  on  a  stone  to  the 
modern  washing  machine.  The  time-honored  washboard  on 
which  the  knuckles  were  rubbed  as  well  as  the  clothes  is 
slowly  becoming  obsolete,  and  in  any  truly  efficient  laundry, 
must  give  place  to  a  more  improved  method  of  forcing  the 
soapy  water  through  the  fabric. 

Water  must  also  be  squeezed  or  wrung  out  of  the  cloth- 
ing, and  for  this  purpose  wringing,  preferably  by  a  mechan- 
ical wringer,  is  the  next  step,  as  wringing  both  extracts  the 
water  and  smoothes  the  article  so  that  it  can  be  handled 
more  easily  at  the  next  step,  which  is  starching.  It  is  not 
necessary  that  clothes  be  starched,  but  it  is  done  for  the 
sake  of  appearance,  and  so  that  they  will  keep  clean  longer, 
as  the  starched  surface  does  not  absorb  dirt  as  readily  as 
the  unfinished  material.  Ironing  also  may  be  spoken  of  as 


a  luxury  in  the  cleansing  of  clothes,  but  it  makes  clothes 
appear  better  and  feel  more  smooth  to  the  touch  as  well  as 
making  the  use  of  starch  possible. 


Stains  should  be  treated  before  washing  for  the  reason 
that  they  may  be  spread  or  "set"  during  the  process.  Re- 
move as  follows : 

GREASE  SPOTS  :    Gasoline,  kerosene. 

AXLE  GREASE  AND  OLD  GREASE  SPOTS:  Rub  on  lard,  let  stand  over 

night  and  put  through   the   machine. 
PAINT:    Turpentine  or  lard. 

COFFEE,  FRUIT,  WINE  STAINS  :  Pour  boiling  water  through. 
CHOCOLATE — COCOA:  Borax,  soap  and  cold  water. 
MILDEW:     Lemon   juice    and    sunshine;    bleaching   powder   solution. 

Mildew  is  a  growth  of  mold  and  if  advanced  cannot  be  removed. 
SCORCH  :    Water  and  sunshine,  repeatedly. 
GRASS  STAINS  :     Alcohol ;  or  rub  on  molasses  and  wash. 
IRON  RUST:    Lemon  juice,  salt  and  sunlight  or  dilute  hydrochloric 

acid  for  bad  stains;  rinse  and  neutralize  with  ammonia. 
INK:   Cold  water  before  it  dries,  followed  by  lemon  juice  and  water. 

Small   spots   use   "ink   eradicator"    (25c   at   drug   store).      Large 

stains,  bleaching  powder  solution  (cold)   and  vinegar;  rinse  and 

neutralize  with  ammonia. 


Whether  to  soak  the  clothes  or  not  depends  upon  condi- 
tions ;  it  undoubtedly  loosens  the  dirt  and  saves  time  in  the 
actual  washing,  but  it  takes  time,  soap  and  water.  Soaking 
in  unsoftened  hard  water  gives  unfavorable  results.  Hard 
water  always  should  be  softened  before  the  clothes  are  put 
in  it.  The  method  of  wetting  the  clothes,  rubbing  soap  on 
the  soiled  portions,  then  filling  up  the  tub  with  hard  water 
will  deposit  lime  soap  directly  on  the  goods ;  the  water  will 


not  penetrate  well  and  more  harm  than  good  will  be  done. 
If  very  dirty  clothes  are  soaked  with  clean  ones  the  dirt  may 
become  distributed  on  the  clean  parts  and  a  general  grayness 
result  which  is  hard  to  wash  out. 

When  a  power  washer  is  used  and  the  clothes  are  not  very 
much  soiled,  labor  is  saved  by  omitting  the  soaking ;  or  soak- 
ing for  a  short  time  only  in  warm  water  and  washing  for  a 
longer  time  in  the  machine.  Soaking  for  half  an  hour  in 
warm  water  is  as  effective  as  over  night  in  cold  water.  It  is 
a  good  plan  to  wring  the  clothes  out  of  the  soaking  water, 
to  get  rid  of  as  much  loose  dirt  as  possible,  for  this  saves 
soap  in  the  washing. 

Handkerchiefs  which  are  much  soiled  should  be  soaked  in 
salt  water  (i  cup  of  salt,  2  quarts  of  water)  to  remove 


Even  with  the  washing  machine,  many  clothes  can  be 
boiled  to  advantage,  such  as  face  towels,  bed  linen  and 
underwear.  Boiling  also  sterilizes  the  clothing  and  should 
always  be  done  to  handkerchiefs,  etc.  The  clothes  are 
usually  wrung  out,  and  placed  in  the  boiler  with  cold  water 
(softened)  and  a  quantity  of  soap  solution  or  soap  chip  and 
brought  slowly  to  boiling;  then  the  clothes  may  boil,  not 
more  than  ten  minutes.  Long  boiling  with  soda  or  yellow 
soap  tends  to  yellow  the  clothes.  A  brass  or  copper  wire 
grating  fitted  with  hoop-like  handles  may  be  placed  in  the 
boiler  previous  to  laying  in  the  clothes.  Then  when  it  is 
desired  to  drain  the  clothes,  these  handles  may  be  lifted  up 
and  the  clothes  allowed  to  drain  on  the  rack  before  being 
lifted  out.  Never  pack  the  boiler  too  full. 

Various  substances  like  a  cupful  of  turpentine  or  kerosene, 
a  half-pound  of  shaved  paraffine,  may  be  added  to  the  boiler 
with  the  soap  to  increase  the  cleansing  effect.  The  percolat- 


ing  device  spoken  of  elsewhere  is  excellent  used  in  the  boil- 
ing process.  Except  in  the  "paraffine  boil"  only  clean  clothes 
should  be  boiled,  for  boiling  will  serve  only  to  still  further 
"set"  the  dirt  of  dirty  clothes. 


Much  of  the  poor  quality  of  laundry  work  is  due  to  inad- 
equate rinsing.  One  cannot  rinse  too  much,  and  two,  or  even 
three,  rinsing  waters  are  better  than  one.  The  first  rinsing 
water  should  be  hot  in  order  to  remove  the  soap  and  dirt ; 
and  the  second  may  be  warm  or  cold  so  that  there  is  less 
transition  from  the  rinsing  to  the  bluing  water.  Rinsing 
must  be  well  done  before  bluing ;  otherwise  the  clothes  may 
become  spotted. 


Bluing  is  added  to  cover  up  any  yellowness  of  the  white 
clothes.  When  the  clothes  appear  blue  too  much  bluing  has 
been  used.  Well  washed  and  rinsed  clothes  which  are  dried 
in  the  sunshine  in  clean  surroundings  do  not  need  bluing. 

Practically  all  of  the  liquid  bluing  and  some  of  the  solid 
blues  on  the  market  are  made  of  "Prussian  Blue,"  which  is 
a  compound  of  iron.  Hot  soap  or  alkali  solution  will  decom- 
pose this  compound  and  iron  rust  stain  may  be  deposited  on 
the  fabric.  This  can  be  shown  by  bluing  a  piece  of  cloth  a  deep 
shade,  drying  and  boiling  in  hot  soap  or  soda  solution.  One 
advantage  of  soaking  is  that  most  of  the  bluing  is  removed. 

Indigo  blue  and  ultramarine  blue  contain  no  iron  and  can 
be  obtained  as  "ball  bluing,"  though  with  some  difficulty. 
The  commercial  laundries  use  aniline  blues,  sold  by  laundry 
supply  houses.  A  substitute  is  to  dissolve  one  of  the  loc 
packages  of  blue  aniline  dyes  sold  by  nearly  all  drug  stores, 
in  a  gallon  of  hot  water.  This  will  make  a  strong  blue, 
less  expensive  and  better  than  the  liquid  blues  commonly 


sold.     It  will  not  give  streaks  of  bluing  and  cannot  make 
iron  rust  stains  on  the  clothes. 

If  ball  bluing  is  used,  enclose  it  in  a  small  square  of 
muslin  and  test  the  amount  of  bluing  in  the  water  by  bluing 
a  small  sample.  Some  fabrics,  such  as  loosely  woven  mesh 
underwear,  absorb  more  bluing  than  others.  Clothes  should 
not  be  allowed  to  stand  in  such  bluing  water  but  should  be 
moved  about  either  by  hands  or  wooden  paddles  to  prevent 
the  blue  from  settling  and  the  clothes  from  becoming 


The  consistency  of  the  starch  depends  on  the  thickness 
of  the  fabric  to  be  starched.  Starch  is  known  as  thick, 
medium,  or  thin,  and  garments  requiring  the  thickest  starch, 
such  as  cuffs,  shirt  bosoms,  etc.,  should  be  starched  first,  as 
the  water  squeezed  from  clothing  gradually  thins  the  starch. 
Garments  treated  with  boiled  starch  should  be  most  thor- 
oughly dried  before  being  dampened,  and  dampened  several 
hours  before  being  ironed. 


Drying  clothes,  especially  in  the  sunshine,  serves  also  to 
disinfect  them.  Clothes  must  be  pinned  properly  and  care- 
fully, either  on  the  line  or  dryer,  to  get  them  back  into 
normal  shape;  i.e.,  stockings  must  be  hung  by  the  feet, 
shirtwaists  by  the  collar  with  the  two  sleeves  pinned  up. 
The  better  the  pinning  the  more  satisfactory  the  drying  and 
also  the  ironing.  Great  care  must  be  taken  to  have  the  line 
or  dryer  perfectly  clean  and  the  clothes  so  well  pinned  that 
they  will  not  blow  down.  In  stormy  weather  it  is  a  good 
plan  to  pin  the  small  clothing,  such  as  children's  underwear, 
napkins,  etc.,  on  to  the  line  while  it  is  piled  on  the  laundry 
table,  and  then  carry  it  out  piled  in  a  basket,  which  will 


save  the  worker  standing  and  pinning  so  long  a  time  out- 
doors. All  things  of  a  kind — towels,  napkins,  underwear, 
etc. — should  be  kept  together  in  a  washing  and  drying,  as 
this  saves  time  in  ironing  and  putting  away. 

A  cheap  wheel  tray  of  wood,  homemade,  and  mounted  on 
small  baby  buggy  wheels,  is  useful  for  wheeling  the  basket 
about,  if  the  lawn  is  smooth;  or  even  an  "abandoned"  go- 
cart  will  be  found  useful  for  the  same  purpose,  to  save 
stooping  and  lifting.  A  simple  stand  on  which  to  place  the 
basket  near  the  revolving  "umbrella"  dryer,  if  used,  will 
serve  the  same  purpose. 


After  the  clothes  are  dry,  they  are  taken  from  the  dryer 
or  outdoors,  sprinkled,  rolled  smooth  and  then  made  into 
a  tight  roll  and  allowed  to  stand  several  hours  or  all  night 
before  ironing  begins.  The  longer  they  stand  the  more 
evenly  will  they  be  dampened.  Always  use  tepid  water  for 
sprinkling,  and  either  the  bottle  spray  which  will  fit  any 
bottle  opening  or  a  whisk  broom,  or  a  special  clothes  sprin- 
kler, .  but  never  the  hands,  which  make  the  work  uneven. 
Table  linen  needs  to  be  sprinkled  most;  bedding  requires 
little  dampening;  starched  pieces,  especially  flat  starched 
pieces,  should  be  very  damp. 


The  washing  and  ironing  should  be  done  in  a  room  sepa- 
rate from  the  kitchen  whenever  possible.  This  for  sanitary 
reasons,  and  also  because  nothing  causes  more  confusion 
than  to  try  and  wash  in  the  kitchen  while  carrying  on  the 
work  of  meal  preparation  three  times  a  day.  There  is  much 
to  be  said  in  favor  of  having  the  laundry  situated  on  the  first 
floor  with  sunny  exposure,  avoidance  of  running  up  and 
down,  and  good  ventilation ;  in  many  continental  cities  laun- 
dries are  located  on  the  flat  roofs  which  permit  steam  and 
odors  to  escape  and  clothes  to  dry  in  the  sun,  as  is  done  in 
many  city  apartment  houses  in  our  own  country.  But  in 
most  cases  a  well  planned  section  of  the  basement  is  the 
preferable  location  in  detached  homes. 

If  possible,  the  laundry-room  should  be  considered  before 
building  and  located  as  far  away  as  possible  from  a  heating 
plant,  coal  and  ash  containers.  An  entry  directly  from  the 
laundry  to  the  yard  is  desirable  so  that  no  waste  steps  are 
taken.  The  surface  of  the  walls  may  be  the  original  unfin- 
ished or  smooth  plaster,  painted  or  unpainted,  or  tiles.  The 
floor  should  be  of  cement,  linoleum  or  one  of  the  new  com- 
position materials  that  permit  perfect,  easy  flushing — wood 
is  not  to  be  tolerated.  It  should  have  a  floor  drain  if  possi- 
ble, with  floor  slanting  slightly  to  it. 

The  laundry  needs  very  adequate  light  for  thorough 
washing  and  perfect  ironing.  High-silled  windows  are  pref- 
erable, and  enough  and  large  windows.  Transom  windows, 
especially  if  the  ceiling  be  low,  will  assist  in  letting  out 
steam,  and  keeping  the  worker  cool  without  causing  a  direct 
draught  on  the  worker.  A  small  electric  fan  blowing  air 
out  of  the  highest  windows  will  help  to  get  rid  of  steam  if 
ventilation  is  poor. 




If  artificial  light  is  needed,  it  should  be  so  placed  as  not  to 
be  directly  in  the  eyes  of  the  worker,  but  come  from  the 
side,  in  an  adjustable  "drop."  Set  tubs  are  best  or  washing 




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Washing  group  compact  and  separate   from  the  ironing  group. 

machine  placed  at  right  angles  to  a  window  for  the  same 
reason.  It  is  possible  to  make  the  laundry  attractive  in 
appearance  by  using  color  combinations  like  blue  and  white, 
gray  and  white,  tan  and  green,  etc.  Tables,  stool  and  bench 
of  unfinished  maple  are  neat  and  attractive. 

A  built-in  closet  will  be  helpful  for  keeping  supplies.    One 


side  may  be  narrow,  for  storing  the  ironing  board  and 
bench ;  the  other  side  may  contain  narrow  shelves  for  the 
various  soaps,  bleaches,  irons,  and  needful  holders,  pins,  etc., 
as  well  as  the  utensils  which  should  be  kept  especially  for 
laundry  use  (see  list). 

The  steps  of  different  processes  of  laundry  work  are: 

1.  Sorting,  mending,  and  removing  of  stains. 

2.  Soaking. 

3.  Actual  washing. 

4.  Rinsing. 

5.  Bluing. 

6.  Starching. 

7.  Hanging  up  and  drying. 

8.  Ironing  and  laying  away. 

Naturally,  each  of  the  steps  depends  on  the  other,  and  the 
efficiency  of  the  whole  laundry  work  depends  on  the  high 
quality  and  skill  with  which  each  part  is  done.  For  instance, 
good  ironing  cannot  be  done  on  clothes  that  are  either  poorly 
washed  or  improperly  starched  or  proper  bluing  on  clothes 
poorly  rinsed. 

Just  as  we  found  in  the  labor-saving  kitchen  that  the 
stove,  sink  and  table  must  be  arranged  according  to  the 
order  in  which  food  preparation  and  clearing  away  were 
done,  so  we  find  that  laundry  equipment  must  be  arranged 
as  nearly  as  possible  according  to  the  way  that  the  laundry 
processes  follow  each  other.  Although  the  mending  is  gen- 
erally done  in  some  room  other  than  the  laundry,  it  is  in  the 
laundry  that  the  first  step — sorting — begins.  For  greater 
convenience,  a  laundry  chute,  built  in  the  studding,  will 
permit  soiled  clothes  to  be  conveyed  from  any  story  of  the 
house  direct  to  the  laundry.  This  saves  carrying  a  bundle 


of  wash  or  throwing  it  downstairs.  A  sanitary  basket  may 
be  placed  in  the  base  of  the  chute  and  the  chute  itself  should 
be  well  made  and  preferably  lined  with  zinc,  at  least  in  the 
base,  for  sanitary  reasons. 

The  next  step  after  sorting  will  be  the  soaking,  which  can 
be  accomplished  best  in  a  permanent  set  tub.  Since  a  large 
washing  cannot  all  be  soaked  in  one  tub,  it  is  best  to  have 
two  or  even  three  set  tubs  so  that  time  may  be  saved  in 
washing  and  rinsing  without  the  effort  of  stopping  to  empty 
and  re-fill.  The  actual  washing  may  be  done  either  in  the 
set  tub  or  in  some  kind  of  a  washing  machine.  For  ease  of 
cleaning  and  convenience,  the  washing  machine  should  be 
movable  or  at  least  placed  in  such  relation  to  the  set  tubs 
that  the  worker  can  walk  all  around  it.  Boiling  enters  into 
the  washing  process,  and  so  the  stove  on  which  the  boiling 
is  done  must  be  considered,  and  must  be  so  placed  as  to  be 
in  a  step-saving  relation  to  both  the  washer  and  the  set  tubs. 
When  the  clothes  are  wrung,  they  pass  from  the  washer  to 
a  basket  or  container  and  here  the  washing  process  actually 

From  the  time  the  clothes  are  dried,  through  the  various 
steps  of  sprinkling  and  ironing,  they  do  not  need  any  of  the 
washing  equipment.  Therefore  it  is  preferable  to  plan  the 
laundry  so  that  these  two  processes  can  be  carried  on  inde- 
pendently and  yet  make  use  of  commonly  used  equipment. 
Briefly,  then,  any  laundry  should  be  arranged  so  that  these 
two  processes  and  the  special  equipment  of  each  be  kept 
separate,  i.  e., 

(1)  Washing — sorting,   soaking,   washing,   rinsing,   bluing, 

wringing,  starching,  hanging  up. 

(2)  Drying — sprinkling,  folding,  ironing  or  mangling,  air- 

ing and  laying  away. 



A  study  of  Diagram  A  will  show  that  by  the  proper  plac- 
ing of  laundry  equipment  it  is  just  as  possible  to  route  laun- 
dry work  along  a  connected  chain  of  steps  and  to  keep  the 
two  divisions  of  work  separate.  This  will  prevent  double 
handling,  cross-tracking  and  retracing  of  steps.  Even 
though  the  equipment  of  many  homes  be  simpler  than  given 
in  the  diagram,  the  same  idea  holds  true  in  laundry  as  in 
kitchen : 

(a)  Group  related  equipment  together. 

(b)  Divide  the  room  so  that  the  two  different  processes  has 

each  its  separate  chain  of  steps. 


No  one  other  household  task  can  be  so  easily  affected  by 
equipment  and  installation  as  can  laundry  work.  In  fact,  it 
might  be  said  that  50  per  cent  of  the  drudgery  of  laundry 
work  vanishes  when  permanent  plumbing  connections  and 
tubs  are  installed  in  place.  That  is,  much  of  the  so-called 
drudgery  of  washing  has  nothing  whatever  to  do  with  the 
actual  washing  of  the  garments  and  the  removal  of  dirt,  but 
is  concerned  entirely  with  lifting  and  emptying  pails  of 
water,  lifting  tubs,  emptying  the  boiler,  etc.  Permanent 
plumbing  at  once  removes  the  need  for  this  effort  and  strain. 
Also  a  worker  often  condemns  a  good  washing  machine 
solely  because  of  the  trouble  she  has  carrying  and  emptying 
the  machine.  As  one  prominent  dealer  said  the  other  day : 
"Fully  one-half  the  time  is  required  for  work  which  is  un- 
necessary when  hot  and  cold  water  and  drain  connections 
are  provided." 

The  most  efficient  installation  is  that  in  which  there  is  one 
or  more  permanent  set  tubs  connected  with  hot  and  cold 
water,  and  a  washing  machine  properly  placed  and  sim- 


ilarly  connected.  But  even  when  there  is  no  hot  and  cold 
water  supply,  it  is  easy  to  install  the  simplest  set  tub  of 
slate  or  composition  to  take  the  place  of  the  frequently  seen 
(portable)  tubs,  which  usually  means  emptying  and  filling 
with  a  pail  by  hand. 

In  country  sections,  cistern  water  can  be  stored  in  a  high 
tank,  connected  with  plumbing  or  forced  through  these 
pipes  by  a  compressed  air  tank.  There  is  no  excuse  for 
the  back-breaking  work  attendant  on  washing  due  to  the 
mere  lifting  of  tubs  and  heavy  buckets  of  water  when  tubs 
can  be  installed  permanently  at  so  little  cost.  Even  if  there 
is  no  running  water,  stationary  tubs  are  better  because  an 
easy  way  of  draining  them  other  than  by  hand  can  be 
arranged.  They  can  be  filled  with  water  for  rinsing  and 
bluing  directly  from  a  pump,  connected  with  hose  or  chute. 

When  no  running  water  is  present,  very  careful  arrange- 
ment must  eliminate  every  extra  step  and  effort.  In  the 
diagram  shown,  a  hand  pump  is  mounted  on  a  concrete  base, 
with  a  trap  drain  underneath,  the  floor  gently  sloping  to  this 
drain.  A  2-inch  pipe  with  elbow  carries  the  waste  water 
from  the  tubs  to  the  drain,  and  another  similar  pipe  is 
attached  to  the  washer  outlet,  and  similarly  carried  to  the 
drain  to  avoid  lifting  heavy  pails  of  dirty  water.  Cold 
water  is  pumped  directly  into  the  boiler  for  heating  and 
into  the  tubs  for  soaking  and  rinsing  through  a  short  length 
of  hose.  Only  the  heated  water  need  be  carried  by  hand 
from  boiler  to  washer  and  tubs.  A  boiler  with  a  faucet 
outlet  saves  dangerous  bailing  of  hot  water. 

The  tubs  shown  are  of  the  "portable"  galvanized  iron 
kind,  mounted  on  a  washbench  26  inches  high,  to  avoid 
stooping.  They  are  fitted  with  "basin  plugs"  and  rubber 
stoppers  which  cost  about  25c  each.  It  will  be  seen  from 
the  arrangement  that  pump,  tubs,  washer  and  boiler  are  so 
placed  as  to  avoid  every  extra  step  in  the  work.  In  a  sep- 



arate  group  is  a  "pullman"  ironing  board  which  fits  back 
into  a  shallow  closet  when  not  in  use,  a  table  for  sorting  and 
for  ironing  large  pieces,  and  a  closet  for  laundry  supplies. 
A  hand  mangle  could  easily  be  mounted  on  this  table.  Iron- 
ing board  is  33  inches  high,  table  same  height.  A  high  stool 
is  used  for  work.  Light  is  given  from  two  sides,  and  exit 
directly  on  drying  yard. 

(See  page  256.     "Standard  Practice  for  Washing,  No.  1,"  for  method  of  use.) 

It  cannot  be  urged  too  strongly  that  the  country  laundry 
be  fitted  with  running  water  as  well  as  a  drainage  system. 
In  many  country  homes  some  form  of  high  tank  or  com- 
pressed air  system  supplies  water  to  barn  and  kitchen  and 
it  means  only  a  slight  additional  expense  to  supply  the  laun- 
dry. Even  the  simplest  kind  of  a  high  tank  filled  with  a 
force  pump  operated  by  "man"  power,  with  drainage  system 


will  do  away  with  carrying  buckets  and  hand  filling  and 
emptying  which  will  reduce  the  labor  at  least  one-half. 

When  the  laundry  work  is  heavy,  as  is  often  the  case  in 
the  country,  a  power  washer  and  wringer,  operated  with  a 
small  gasoline  engine,  will  reduce  the  work  still  more.  A 
reliable  1^2  horse-power  gasoline  engine  can  be  purchased  as 
low  as  $30.00  and  will  have  many  other  uses  in  the  country 
home.  A  power  operated  washer  and  wringer  costs  about 
$25.00,  or  there  is  now  on  the  market  a  washing  machine 
and  wringer  with  a  small  y2  horse-power  gasoline  engine 
geared  directly  to  it,  which  is  easily  started  and  operated; 
price  $65.00.  No  investment  will  pay  better  dividends  in 
the  saving  of  health  and  strength. 


Composition  granite  set  tub,  48x24x16,  2  compartment $5-5o 

Composition  granite  set  tub,  60x24x16,  2  compartment 7.00 

Composition  granite  set  tub,   60x24x16,  2  compartment,  with 

back    10.00 

Composition  granite   set   tub,   72x24x16,   3   compartment,   with 

back    12.00 

Composition  granite   set  tub,  90x24x16,   3   compartment,   with 

back 15.00 

Enameled,  2  section  tubs,  back  in  one  piece,  with  pedestal 45.00 

Enameled,  3  section  tubs,  back  in  one  piece,  with  pedestal ....  65.00 
Enameled,  2  section  tubs,  no  back,  iron  legs 20.00 

The  height  at  which  the  tub  is  placed  is  most  important. 
Fully  as  much  backbreaking  is  done  over  the  laundry  tub 
as  over  the  kitchen  sink.  A  convenient  height  for  a  woman 
5  feet  6  is  to  place  the  tubs  so  that  their  bottoms  are  about 
22  inches  from  the  floor,  or  the  edge  of  the  tub  38  inches 
from  the  floor  in  a  straight  line.  The  regulation  iron  legs 
are  generally  three  or  four  inches  lower  than  this,  but  they 
can  easily  be  placed  on  wooden  blocks  so  that  the  tub  can  be 
used  by  the  worker  without  stooping,  but  as  she  is  standing 



Unless  an  unlimited  amount  of  water  is  heated  by  means 
of  a  coil  in  the  furnace,  or  by  a  separate  gas  heater,  some 
kind  of  laundry  stove  will  be  needed  to  heat  water  for  wash- 
ing for  the  boiler  and  possibly  for  the  irons.  The  best  type 
is  the  so-called  "drum"  stove  of  iron,  with  depressions 
around  the  drum  in  which  to  heat  the  sad-irons.  Such  a 
stove  will  heat  water  in  the  pipes,  heat  the  boiler  and  irons 



at  the  same  time.  But  if  gas  is  available,  the  laundry  stove 
may  be  dispensed  with  entirely  and  its  place  taken  by  a 
simple,  two-burner  hot  plate.  A  piece  of  clean  sheet  iron- 
should  be  used  under  the  irons  used  on  a  gasplate  to 
keep  them  clean.  This  may  be  mounted  on  a  table  or  stand ; 
one  burner  will  do  for  heating  the  boiler  and  the  other  for 
heating  the  irons  and  making  starch. 

But  probably  the  most  efficient  arrangement  of  all  is  the 
combination  clothes  dryer  and  gas-operated  heater.     Here 


we  have  a  portion  of  the  laundry  room  fitted  with  drying- 
racks  which  come  specially  made  and  can  be  fitted  to  any 
size  corner  or  room.  These  racks,  or  more  properly,  the 
enclosed  drying  room,  are  heated  with  an  individual  gas 
stove,  and  this  in  turn  can  be  used  for  the  boiler,  starch  and 


iron  so  that  the  heat  of  one  stove  will  dry  the  clothes,  boil 
them  and  heat  the  irons.  In  a  permanent  house  of  any  pre- 
tensions such  a  dryer  should  be  installed  because  it  permits 
a  very  even  quality  of  drying  without  danger  of  wind- 
whipping  and  freezing,  especially  in  winter  and  rainy 
weather.  When  yard  space  is  scarce,  this  is  by  far  the  best 
permanent  plan.  The  objection  that  this  indoor  method 
does  not  keep  the  clothes  white  is  not  true,  if  the  drier  is 
sufficiently  ventilated,  and  the  clothes  adequately  rinsed. 


In  small  homes  where  such  a  built-in  dryer  is  not  pos- 
sible, another  plan  is  to  use  the  combination  outdoor-indoor 
"umbrella"  drier.  This  consists  of  a  pole  fitted  with  eight 
or  twelve  radiating  arms  which  can  be  used  as  an  outdoor 
fixture,  especially  suited  for  sunny  days.  It  is  so  made  that 
the  arms  can  be  detached  and  fastened  into  sockets  prepared 
for  them  along  the  laundry  wall  so  that  they  can  also  be 
used  for  indoor  drying. 


Still  another  dryer  is  one  especially  suited  for  very  small 
homes  and  apartments.  This  consists  of  a  light,  wooden 
rack  fitted  with  pulleys  so  that  it  can  be  raised  and  lowered 
from  the  ceiling,  bearing  the  clothes  to  be  dried  out  of  the 
way.  Smaller  racks  on  the  umbrella  type  are  excellent  for 
use  in  the  laundry,  on  which  to  lay  the  freshly  ironed  clothes, 
and  are  much  better  than  the  old-time  "horse"  which  was 
so  easily  knocked  down. 

A  few  special  drying  devices  will  make  the  care  of  clothes 


easier.  One  of  these  is  the  wooden  or  metal  stocking 
stretchers  which  keep  the  socks  in  shape  and  prevent  them 
from  shrinking;  another  is  the  wire  garment  stretcher  on 
which  shirts  and  bodies  may  be  kept  shapely.  These  cost 
only  5c  each,  and  a  half  dozen  will  save  much  mussing  and 

O.    K.    CLOTHES    DRYER 
Lowered  for  hanging  on  clothes,  then  raised  for  drying. 

crumpling.    A  clothes  reel  which  can  be  stretched  across  the 
room,  will  assist  in  indoor  drying. 


A  table  is  as  necessary  in  the  laundry  as  in  the  kitchen 
because  on  it  clothes  are  sprinkled  and  sorted  and  its  broad 
surface  offers  the  most  excellent  space  for  ironing  doilies 
and  other  large  pieces  too  wide  for  the  board.  A  hard 
maple  table  is  best,  with  a  separate  fitted  ironing  quilt.  There 



is  also  an  excellent  new  combination  table  board  on  the 
market.    This  is  a  table  whose  top  lifts  up  and  discloses  an 
ironing-board  which  can  then  be  lifted  out  and  put  in  place; 
and  kept  there  when  not  in  use  so  that  it  will  stay  clean. 
The  one  point  to  increase  the  efficiency  of  an  ironing- 


*tD£  VIEW- 



From  Housekeepers  Conference  Report,  University  of  Missouri. 

board  is  that  it  must  be  steady  and  of  the  right  height  to 
allow  the  worker  to  exert  pressure  with  comfort.  Far  too 
many  ironing-boards  are  wobbly,  are  even  dangerously  in- 
clined to  slip,  and  nothing  is  more  inefficient  than  to  rest  the 
board  on  the  back  of  a  chair. 

If  the  laundry  room  is  permanent,  the  ironing-board  can 
also  be  made  permanent  by  being  fitted  to  a  heavy  iron  leg 
screwed  into  the  floor.  This  is  the  type  of  board  seen  in 


commercial  laundries  and  institutions  and  will  give  far  bet- 
ter service  than  the  common,  collapsible  wooden  board  and 
stand.  If  the  board  cannot  be  clamped  to  a  leg,  it  can,  at 
least,  be  put  on  hinges  and  fastened  permanently  to  a  wall. 
It  can  then  be  laid  up  against  the  wall  or  in  a  shallow  board 
closet  when  not  in  use,  and  let  down  at  a  moment's  notice, 
and  will  be  much  steadier  than  the  board  mounted  on  a 
stand.  This  is  called  the  "pullman"  board. 

Broad,  blunt  boards  give  wider  ironing  surface  than  the 
frequently  too  narrow  board  used  in  the  home.  A  perma- 
nent attachable  metal  ironing  stand  can  be  fastened  to  the 


board  to  take  the  place  of  the  awkward  ready-to-f ail-off 
"stand"  of  wrought  iron  commonly  used. 

Then  comes  the  question  of  the  cover  or  pad  for  the 
board.  Another  poor  method  followed  in  the  home  is  to 
tack  the  cover  on  each  week.  This  causes  tearing  and  is  a 
great  deal  of  trouble.  There  can  be  bought  several  kinds 
of  ironing  cover  fasteners.  One  is  a  set  of  strong,  steel 
hooks  to  clasp  the  under  side  of  the  cover  together.  An- 
other is  a  set  of  pins  and  tape  which  permits  the  cover  to 
be  laced  up  and  fastened  securely.  Even  the  simple  plan 
of  sets  of  tape  at  intervals  is  preferable  to  the  untidy  habit 
of  using  tacks. 

The  ironing  cover  may  be  of  table  padding  or  felt  and 
the  cover  should  be  hemmed  and  neatly  finished.  A  special 
felt  pad  and  cover  come  fitted  with  a  fastening  device ;  the 
whole  pad  can  be  removed  easily  and  laid  away  in  a 


The  height  of  an  ironing  board  for  a  woman  5  feet  6  with 
the  usual  arm  length  is  preferably  34  inches.  If  a  table  is 
used  for  ironing,  it  can  be  from  32  to  34  inches.  The  point 
of  height  must  be  kept  in  mind  fully  as  much  in  laundry 
equipment  as  in  kitchen  equipment. 


With  either  coal  or  gas  as  fuel,  the  usual  type  sad  iron 
can  be  used.  For  the  sake  of  economy,  three  of  the  irons 
may  be  covered  with  an  inverted  pan  or  a  cover  made  for 
the  purpose  to  prevent  radiation  of  heat.  The  point  against 


all  irons  not  self -heating  is  that  the  worker  must  make 
frequent  trips  to  and  fro  for  fresh  irons,  thus  wasting  time 
and  steps.  This  waste  can  be  cut  considerably  by  placing 
the  worker  near  to  the  stove  and  its  iron.  If  electricity  is 
available,  by  far  the  most  individual  labor-saving  piece  of 
laundry  equipment  is  the  electrically  heated  iron.  Here  the 
heating  unit  is  in  the  base  of  the  iron  so  that  it  is  possible 
for  the  worker  to  take  and  use  it  anywhere,  even  on  a  porch, 
or  wherever  a  connecting  'cord  will  permit ;  also,  as  in  all 
electric  equipment,  the  heat  of  the  electric  iron  is  under 
direct  control,  and  it  is  also  possible  to  regulate  it  in  some 


irons  to  low,  medium  or  high.  There  is  little  radiation,  no 
excessive  heat  around  the  worker,  and  clothes  are  uniformly 
pressed.  The  working  surface  of  the  iron  can  be  kept  in 
perfect  condition  with  no  trouble. 

The  heat  unit  in  any  electric  iron  should  be  so  constructed 
that  the  heat  is  evenly  distributed,  and  not  concentrated  at 

Electric  Gasoline  Gas 

the  tip  only.  There  should  be  a  "cut-off,"  and  preferably 
a  "swinging  crane"  connection  to  keep  the  cord  taut  and  up 
out  of  the  way  of  the  worker,  to  permit  more  rapid  work 
and  prevent  sagging.  A  less  expensive  arrangement,  though 
less  effective,  is  to  suspend  the  cord  with  a  stout  string  and 
flexible  spring  (like  a  bird  cage  spring). 

The  gas  irons  are  a  little  more  clumsy  to  operate  than 
electric  irons,  though  with  the  new  metal  flexible  gas  tubing, 
the  difference  is  not  great.  They  have  all  the  advantages 
of  the  electric  irons  and  cost  much  less  to  run — less  than 
heating  sad  irons  on  a  gas  stove.  The  tubing  should  be 
suspended  by  a  spring  as  suggested. 

Following  are  the  proper  weights  of  irons  for  different 
kinds  of  work: 

2  to    3  Ibs Baby  clothes 

4  to     5  Ibs Lingerie  and  shirt  waists 

6  to    8  Ibs General  ironing 

8  to  10  Ibs Flat  work,  tablecloth,  etc. 

10  to  12  Ibs Pressing  men's  suits 

3-lb.  flounce  iron Petticoats  and  ruffles 

Troy  irons  Polishing  shirt  bosoms 



Another  type  of  iron  especially  practical  in  the  country 
where  no  current  is  available  is  the  portable  iron  using 
gasoline  or  alcohol.  This  type  of  iron  contains  a  small  reser- 
voir for  the  heating  fluid.  In  the  base  of  the  iron  is  a  small 
burner  or  generator  which  is  pre-heated  before  the  outer 
iron  itself  becomes  hot.  This  generating  is  done  by  pouring 
a  few  tablespoons  of  alcohol  or  gasoline  under  the  generator, 
lighting  it  and  then  turning  on  the  air  valve  which  permits 
the  mixture  of  air  with  the  gasoline,  thus  securing  a  hotter 
flame.  Such  irons  are  perfectly  safe,  come  in  several  sizes 
and  are  as  satisfactory  as  any  electric  iron,  except  that  they 
are  a  little  more  difficult  to  operate.  They  are  far  preferable, 
however,  to  the  ordinary  sad  iron  in  every  case  where  the 
worker  wants  to  avoid  a  roaring  stove  and  the  need  of 
standing  near  it  in  order  to  get  hot  irons.  By  regulating  the 
valve  on  such  an  iron,  a  very  intense  degree  of  heat  can  be 


Electric  (light)  household  iron,  weight  5  Ibs.  with  6-foot  cord  and 
lamp-socket  plug ;  operating  cost,  less  than  2c  per  hour. 

Electric  (heavy)  laundry  iron,  7  Ibs.  with  cord  and  plug;  operating 
cost,  2c  per  hour. 

Specially  heavy  electric  laundry  iron,   9   Ibs.   with   cord  and   plug; 
operating  cost  3c  per  hour. 

Self-heating  gasoline  iron,  weight  sl/2  Ibs.;  operating  cost,  Vsc  per 

Gas  iron,  weight  6  Ibs.  with  6  feet  of  flexible  steel  tubing;  operating 
cost,  Vsc  per  hour. 


Mangles,  or  ironing  machines,  are  of  two  types ;  one,  the 
cold  mangle,  the  other  the  heated  ironer.  The  cold  mangle 



resembles  a  wringer  and  has  rolls  of  hard  wood  with  springs 
which  control  the  pressure.  Clothes  are  slightly  dampened 
and  folded,  and  put  through  the  mangle.  They  are  pressed 
without  gloss,  but  not  dried.  Some  cold  mangles  clamp 


readily  to  the  table;  others  come  with  a  bass  or  frame  of 
their  own.  The  heated  ironer  may  be  run  by  hand,  or  by 
power.  In  either  case,  the  "shoe"  (which  is  a  steel  cylin- 
der and  which  corresponds  to  the  ironing  surface  of  a  hand 
iron)  must  be  heated  either  by  gas,  gasoline  or  electricity. 
This  steel  "shoe"  is  outside  an  inner  cloth-covered  cylinder 
which  corresponds  to  the  ironing-board.  Pieces  are  laid  over 
the  padded  roll,  and  pressed  against  the  hot  "shoe,"  thus 






both  smoothing  and  drying  the  article  at  the  same  time. 
These  ironers  come  in  several  types,  as: 

(1)  Gas-heated,  hand  operated,  price  $20  to  $35. 

(2)  Gas-heated,  electrically  operated;  price  $60  to  $125. 

(3)  Electrically  heated  and  electrically  operated;  price  $200 


(4)  Gasoline  heated  and  operated;  price  $35  to  $45. 

(5)  Cold  roll  mangle,  hand  operated;  price  $6  to  $20. 

Ironers  can  be  used  for  "flat"  pieces  or  garments,  i.  e., 
table  and  bed  linen  and  towels,  and  also  on  many  ordinary 
garments,  as  night  gowns,  rompers,  aprons,  etc.,  by  prac- 
ticing how  to  avoid  buttons  or  hooks.  The  ironer  saves  a 
great  deal  of  time,  since  the  larger  surface  is  equal  to  a 
surface  of  6  or  8  hand  irons.  Ironers  can  be  fitted  for  a 
power  drive,  and  operated  by  the  gas  engine  which  is  used 
to  pump  water,  run  the  washing  machine,  etc.  In  order  to 
heat  an  ironer  thus  driven,  it  is  necessary  to  use  the  type 
that  has  a  small  gasoline  tank  and  generator  attached  to  it. 
While  such  a  tank  is  fairly  safe  it  should  be  used  with  cau- 
tion. There  is  also  another  method,  that  of  storing  or  bury- 
ing a  tank  of  gasoline  in  the  ground  and  making  the  neces- 
sary connections.  This  removes  considerable  of  the  fire 
risk.  Such  a  power  operated  laundry  is  most  successful  in 
rural  homes,  especially  where  there  is  a  man  to  take  the 
responsibility  of  cranking  and  operating  the  gas  engine,  as 
in  general  a  gas  engine  is  too  much  of  a  strain  for  a  woman. 
An  exception  is  the  washing  machine  made  by  the  Maytag 
Company,  which  has  a  very  small  engine  directly  geared  to 
the  machine.  It  will  also  operate  an  ironer. 

Wherever  there  is  a  large  family,  and  artificial  gas,  the 
value  of  the  ironer  is  very  considerable,  and  its  first  cost 
would  easily  be  covered  by  a  few  months'  use.  The  hand 
power  ironing  machines  usually  require  two  persons  to 


operate  them  well ;  the  motor  or  power  machines  are  easily 
operated  by  one  person. 

Other  advantages  of  an  ironer  are  the  uniform  heat,  the 
saving  in  trotting  back  and  forth  with  the  usual  method  of 
heating  irons,  and  the  great  amount  of  time  saved  over  the 


A  dolly   type    washer   with   small   engine    direct   connected.      Will   run   with 

gasoline,  gas  or  alcohol.     The  engine  is  started  by  pressing  the 

foot  on   the  flanged   wheel. 

method  of  using  an  individual  iron.  A  good  family  size  is 
a  48-inch  machine  that  will  iron  a  tablecloth  once  folded. 
The  hourly  output  of  ironers  varies  according  to  their  size, 
but  the  capacity  of  gas-heated  models  per  hour  is  about: 
25-30  bedsheets,  tablecloths  or  centerpieces  per  hour.  (De- 
pends on  size  and  thickness.)  (20  inches  by  40  inches  size) 
150-180  towels  per  hour.  (These  estimates  do  not  include 
folding  which  must  be  done  by  hand.) 






Probably  the  one  most  important  piece  of  equipment  in 
the  modern  laundry  is  the  mechanical  washer.  As  was 
pointed  out,  the  chief  cause  of  fatigue  in  the  hand  method 
of  washing  clothes  is  due  solely  to  the  physical  effort  of 
rubbing  and  pounding  the  clothes  by  hand  on  some  type  of 
washboard.  The  washboard  is  the  extreme  example  of  a 




household  device  which  causes  waste  motions  and  physical 
drudgery.  No  one  has  had  the  courage  to  count  the  number 
of  rubs  done  by  the  hands  of  a  woman  in  the  usual  family 
wash!  The  mechanical  washer  is  the  greatest  of  labor- 
savers  because  it  truly  replaces  entirely  hand  labor.  No 
matter  in  what  other  direction  one  must  economize,  money 
should  be  expended  for  some  type  of  washing  machine.  No 


other  process  is  so  mechanical  as  the  actual  rubbing  of 
clothes,  which  requires  no  attention  from  the  mind.  There- 
fore it  is  the  one  process  that  should  be  given  over  entirely 
to  a  mechanical  servant,  and  thus  relieve  the  woman  of  what 
is  only  pure  manual  labor. 

An  inquiry  recently  showed  that  there  were  125  different 
manufacturers  of  washing  machines  in  the  United  States, 
but  these  machines  with  few  exceptions  fall  clearly  into  one 
of  four  types.  Before  purchasing,  the  principles  of  each  of 
these  types  and  its  method  of  operation  should  be  under- 
stood. The  various  types  are  as  follows : 

1.  The  "Dolly,"  or  agitator  type,  frequently  called  the  "ro- 

tary." Here  a  "wooden  milkstool"  or  dasher  revolves 
and  reverses  in  the  center  of  the  tub  while  churning 
the  clothes.  This  type  has  many  modifications,  such 
as  corrugated  boards  around  the  side  of  the  tub ;  or 
the  lid  and  tub  both  may  be  grooved,  thus  adding  to 
the  friction  exerted  on  the  clothes. 

2.  The  Cylinder  type.     This  consists  of  inner  and  outer 

drums  either  of  metal  or  of  wood.  The  inner  drum  is 
perforated  and  has  shelves  which  lift  the  clothes  and 
drop  them  back  into  the  water  as  this  inner  drum 
revolves.  The  action  is  then  reversed,  after  a  few 
revolutions,  thus  forcing  the  water  through  the  clothes 
with  a  strong  force. 

3.  The  rocking  or  oscillating  type.    This  consists  of  a  metal 

or  wooden  box-like  tub  which  rocks  back  and  forth, 
cleaning  the  clothes  by  throwing  them  rapidly  from 
side  to  side.  Sometimes  this  box  is  corrugated,  which 
adds  friction  to  the  process. 

4.  The  vacuum  type.     Here  both  pressure  and  suction  is 

exerted  directly  on  the  clothes  by  means  of  one  or 
several  metal  cones,  which  alternately  press  and  re- 
lease the  clothing. 



Any  one  of  these  types  may  be  operated  by  hand,  by- 
power  (gasoline),  or  by  motor  (electric).  The  mistake 
should  not  be  made  of  choosing  the  washer  on  the  basis  of 
the  power  used  to  operate  it,  but  choice  should  be  based  on 
the  principle  of  the  washer,  and  its  action  and  effect  on  the 
clothes; — that  is,  not  whether  it  is  an  "electric"  washer  or 
a  "hand"  washer ;  but  how  it  washes. . 

Cover  of  the  machine   tipped   back  showing  the  agitator   or   "dolly." 

In  the  "dolly"  type,  the  clothes  are  rubbed  somewhat,  so 
that  this  type  is  most  suitable  for  heavy  coarse  clothing,  as 
on  the  farm  where  overalls,  aprons  and  heavy  bedding 
form  a  large  part  of  the  wash. 

In  the  "cylinder"  washer,  the  clothes  are  not  touched  by 
any  rubbing  device,  but  are  cleansed  entirely  by  the  water 
being  forced  through  them,  and  by  the  clothes  themselves 
being  rapidly  moved.  This  type  is  used  in  commercial  laun- 
dries. The  load  drains  well  and  can  be  rinsed  and  even 
blued  in  such  a  machine. 


In  the  "rocking"  type  there  is  also  no  direct  friction,  as 
the  clothes  are  cleaned  by  being  thrown  rapidly  from  one 
side  of  the  washer  to  the  other,  thus  forcing  the  soapy 
water  through  and  through  the  clothes. 

Both  of  these  types  are  good  for  all  general  family  use, 
except  that  in  these  types  operated  by  motor,  the  action  is  too 
strong  to  safely  wash  in  them  lingerie,  fine  baby  clothes  or 


other  very  dainty  garments,  which  should  not  be  placed  in 
the  washer,  or  should  be  enclosed  in  cheese  cloth  bags, 
which  will  take  the  strain  but  not  interfere  with  the 

In  the  "vacuum"  type  there  is  considerable  pressure  di- 
rectly on  the  clothes  as  well  as  suction  produced  by  the 
various  bells.  It  is  probable  that  the  vacuum  type  is  easier 
on  fine  clothing  than  any  other  type,  especially  if  it  is  a 
hand  model. 

The  following  representative  washing  machines  are  ar- 
ranged according  to  type: 



The  Maytag  Co.,  Newton,  Iowa  trie),  118  Sidney  St.,  St.  Louis, 

(hand,  electric,  gasoline  or  gas  Mo. 

engine).  The  Grinnell  Washing  Machine 

Horton  Manfg.  Co.,  Ft.  Wayne,  Co.,  Grinnell,  Iowa  (hand  and 

Ind.  (hand,  water,  motor,  elec-  power). 

trie).  Voss  Bros.  Manfg.  Co.,  Daven- 

The      American      Washer      Co.  port,  Iowa  (hand  and  power). 

(hand,    water,    gasoline,    elec- 


Hurley    Machine    Co.,    Chicago  Pittsburgh  Gauge  &  Supply  Co., 

(electric).  Pittsburgh,     Pa.,     "Gainaday" 

Gilespie-Eden   Mfg.   Co.,   Pater-  (electric). 

son,  N.  J.  (electric).  Apex  Electric   Distributing   Co., 

Western    Electric    Co.,    Chicago  Cleveland,  O.  (electric). 


The  Judd  Laundry  Machine  Co.       Apex    Appliance    Co.,    Chicago, 

(electric),  Chicago,  111.  111.  (electric). 

Boss     Washing     Machine     Co.       1900  Washer   Co.,  Birmingham, 

(hand,  etc.),  Cincinnati,  Ohio.  N.  Y.    (electric). 


Syracuse  Washing  Machine  Co.,       Almetal  Mfg.  Co.,  St.  Louis,  Mo. 
Syracuse,    N.    Y.    (hand    and  (hand   and   electric), 


Vacuum  and  Centrifugal  Dryer 
Klymax  Mfg.  Co.,  115  N.  Des-       Laundry-ette    Mfg.    Co.,    Cleve- 

plaines  St.,  Chicago,  111.  (elec-  land,  Ohio  (electric). 


Note. — For  fuller  list,  see  "Laundering  at  Home,"  bulletin  of  Am. 
Washing  Machine  Mfgs.  Assn.,  10  S.  LaSalle  St.,  Chicago. 

The  kind  of  power  available  in  the  home  will  also  partly 
determine  the  machine  purchased.  Without  doubt,  the 
electrically  operated  machine  of  any  type  does  quicker, 
more  thorough  work  than  the  best  type  of  hand  machine 
possibly  can  do.  In  choosing  an  electric  type  see  that  the 


motor  is  located  in  a  position  where  there  is  little  danger 
of  the  motor  becoming  wet.  Washers  with  enclosed  gearing 
and  simplicity  of  construction  are  to  be  preferred  to  those 
with  belts  which  must  be  tightened ;  open  gearing,  however, 
is  dangerous  to  the  operator.  Although  the  best  tubs  of 
cedar  give  excellent  service,  the  preference  may  be  given 
to  the  tub  of  copper  or  nickel  alloy,  which  is  the  most  sani- 
tary and  will  give  the  longest  service. 

Further,  in  choosing  an  electric  washer,  that  style  should 
be  selected  that  has  a  reversible  wringer  and  drain  chutes. 
This  makes  it  possible  to  wring  the  first  load  of  clothes 
into  a  basket  while  the  second  load  is  being  washed  inde- 
pendently in  the  washer.  There  should  be  a  "cut-off"  on 
the  wringer  so  that  it  can  be  stopped  quickly  if  clothes  are 
caught.  Before  purchasing  an  electric  machine,  the  woman 
should  be  sure  that  she  understands  the  operation  of  the 
motor,  the  care  of  the  parts,  and  if  possible,  should  use  the 
machine  under  the  guidance  of  a  demonstrator  before  she 
purchases  it. 

The  water-motor  operated  machines  are  usually  of  the 
dolly  type  and  require  at  least  20  Ibs.  of  water  pressure  at 
the  faucet.  The  wringer  cannot  be  run  by  water  power. 
Such  machines  use  200  to  300  gallons  of  water  an  hour. 

"In  selecting  a  hand-power  type,  the  following  points 
should  be  noted.  Convenient  height  of  washer,  as  machines 
are  frequently  placed  too  low  and  thus  cause  unnecessary 
stooping.  Legs  should  be  fitted  with  castors  to  permit  easy 
moving  from  place  to  place  and  the  washer  should  never 
be  too  heavy  to  move  easily.  Lever,  wheel  or  handle  should 
be  long  enough,  and  so  placed  as  to  allow  work  without 
strain  or  back  bending.  A  satisfactory  outlet  for  waste 
water  should  be  provided  other  than  the  common  "bung," 
which  empties  badly. 

It  is  much  better  to  have  even  a  hand  power  machine 



connected  with  a  permanent  drain,  and  with  pipe  and  cock 
of  its  own  so  that  the  draining  and  filling  will  be  easy. 
Hand  washers,  unconnected  with  drain  or  water  pipes,  re- 
quire so  much  "pailing"  that  their  efficiency  is  greatly  low- 
ered. A  hose  connection  (at  least  i  inch)  from  the  water 
outlet  to  floor  drain  is  almost  always  possible,  as  well  as  a 
hose  from  hot  and  cold  water.  A  piece  of  brass  or  gal- 
vanized iron  pipe  with  elbow  and  nipple  in  the  end  of  the 
hose  will  hold  the  hose  in  place  and  direct  the  water  where 
desired.  There  is  no  excuse  for  lifting  any  water  in  a 
laundry  having  running  water. 

In  addition  to  the  four  types  given  above  there  are  many 
imall  washing  appliances.  The  vacuum  principle  is  ap- 
plied to  a  cone  mounted  on  a  broom  han- 
dle, which  is  useful  for  cleaning  small  rugs 
and  sanitary  cloths  and  baby  napkins.  An- 
other cone  with  perforations  is  made  to  set 
in  the  middle  of  the  boiler  and  sprays  the 
clothes  after  the  manner  of  a  coffee  perco- 
lator. Several  other  modifications  of  the 
funnel  type  are  fitted  to  set  tubs  or  to  be 
attached  to  the  ordinary  galvanized  tub,  but 
the  writer  is  frank  to  say  that  any  of  these 
is  useful  only  for  washing  a  few  small 
pieces  at  a  time  and  cannot  take  the  place 
of  a  regular,  full-sized  washing  machine.  There  is  also 
a  cylinder  washer  which  fits  inside  an  ordinary  set  tub, 
but  the  capacity  is  less  than  that  of  a  good  machine. 



Even  with  a  good  washing  machine,  a  boiler  is  necessary 
for  the  boiling  of  certain  pieces,  such  as  very  soiled  under- 
garments, children's  diapers,  etc.  A  boiler  should  be  made 
with  a  copper  bottom  which  will  give  longer  wear  and  con- 

Ingram  Vacuum 


duct  heat  more  quickly.  The  ordinary  lifting  of  a  boiler 
to  empty  its  contents  can  be  entirely  avoided  by  having  a 
regular  faucet  soldered  in  the  end  of  the  boiler.  (A  faucet 
costs  75c,  work  about  5oc.)  Then  the  water  can  easily 
be  run  off  without  danger  and  labor.  Arrangements  should 
be  made  for  filling  the  boiler  from  a  hose  pipe  or  faucet. 


The  boiler  should  always  be  well  dried  and  aired  after  use. 


As  laundry  equipment  represents  often  a  very  consid- 
erable money  outlay,  it  should  be  given  good  care,  that  it 
may  not  deteriorate  and  its  value  lessen.  Such  pieces  as 
mangle,  washer  and  table  should  have  specially  made  covers 
of  ticking  to  keep  them  clean  and  dry.  Irons  also  should 
be  put  into  a  closed  closet  or  covered  with  vaseline  if  used 
but  occasionally.  Great  care  should  be  taken  with  electric 
irons  and  connecting  cords  for  all  devices,  as  if  the  cord  is 
bent  the  insulation  is  impaired.  A  special  clothes-pin  bag 
and  ironing-board  cover  bag  made  of  ticking  should  be  used 
to  keep  them  clean.  Washing  tubs  should  be  kept  perfectly 
clean  and  left  dried  to  avoid  rotting.  The  motor  should 
never  be  allowed  to  get  damp.  Care  must  be  taken  that 
the  oil  used  on  various  parts  is  sufficiently  wiped  off  so  as 


not  to  soil  the  clothes.  Wringer  rolls  must  be  unscrewed 
when  not  in  use  to  avoid  flattening  them.  All  minor  equip- 
ment, starch-pot,  etc.,  should  be  left  clean  and  laid  away 
and  not  allowed  to  become  rusty,  as  rust  is  one  of  the 
worst  foes  of  the  laundry. 


A  good  laundry  should  contain  its  own  necessary  small 
tools,  like  starch  pot  and  spoon,  quart  measure,  etc.  Never 
use  tin  articles,  as  they  rust.  As  described  in  the  efficient 
laundry  plan,  these  articles  should  be  kept  in  a  closed  cup- 
board out  of  the  way  of  dust  and  soil.  Although  the  needs 
of  each  family  vary  owing  to  size,  climate  and  standards  of 
clothing,  the  following  list  of  small  laundry  equipment  will 
be  found  helpful  in  purchasing: 



Set   tubs    $  5.50  to  $  15.00 

Washing  machines : 

Dolly,  hand     8.00  to       14.00 

Dolly,  motor   35.00  to       75.00 

Cylinder,  electric    85.00  to     150.00 

Cylinder,  hand 8.00  to       15.00 

Oscillating,  hand   12.00  to      20.00 

Oscillating,  motor    95.oo  to     150.00 

Vacuum,  hand    i.oo  to      10.00 

Vacuum,  motor     85.00  to     150.00 

Boiler,    copper   bottom % 2.00  to        5.00 

Boiler,  copper  bottom,  with  faucet i.oo  extra 

Wringer,    hand    3.00  to        6.00 

Wringer,    power    14.00 

Clothes  basket 1.50  up 

Small  scrubbing  brush  for  rubbing  soiled  spots 15 

4  to  6-quart  agate  Berlin  kettle  for  starchmaking. .  .40 



Long-handled  agate  spoon  for  starch $      .15 

Agate   quart   measure .25 

White  soap,  yellow  soap 


Lump  and  pulverized  starch 

Oxalic  acid   (2  ounces) 

Concentrated  ammonia,  i  pt 

Washing  soda,   salt 

Wax  or  paraffine,  turpentine ... 

Javelle  water  (made  from  chloride  of  lime,  receipt 

on  package) 

Glass  medicine  dropper 05 

Small   agate   funnel , 10 

Wire    strainer    for    starch .10 

Galvanized   iron  pail 25 


Clothespins,  per  box  of  200 .30 

Clothesline,  white  braided  fiber,  per  100  feet .40 

Umbrella  clothes  dryers,  outdoor 8.00  to      2O.oc 

Folding  umbrella  clothes  rack  for  ironing 1.50 

Built-to-order  drying  closet 50.00  up 

Overhead  moveable  clothes  dryer 5.00 

Bottle  stopper,  aluminum  sprinkler ;.         .10 


Mangle     20.00  to    200.00 

Irons     50  to        4.50 

Iron  holder  .05 

Folding  ironing  stand  and  board 2.50  up 

Permanent  metal  standard  and  board 12.00 

Sleeve  board    .75 

Ironing  board  cover  (home-made) 

Ironing  board  clamps  or  fasteners 25 

"BOILER-ROLLER" — Very  useful,  especially  in  a  country  laundry; 
easily  made  from  a  stout  box  a  little  larger  than  a  boiler  bottom. 
Turn  box  upside  down  and  nail  legs,  about  3x3  inches,  securely  in 
each  corner;  put  on  heavy  castors.  The  table  when  completed 
should  be  just  the  height  of  the  laundry  stove.  To  use  put  end  of 
roller  close  to  stove  and  pull  on  the  boiler,  push  to  laundry  tubs 
or  washing  machine.  Also  useful  for  holding  basket  of  wet  clothes 
and  moving  same  to  dry-room  or  elsewhere.  Saves  much  lifting 



The  work  of  washday  will  be  greatly  simplified  by  care- 
ful planning  and  preparation.  On  no  other  day  is  it  so  easy 
to  get  the  house  in  confusion,  to  serve  poor  and  hasty 
meals,  and  for  the  worker  herself  to  become  thoroughly 
tired  out.  In  most  homes  the  plan  of  a  weekly  washday  must 
be  followed.  But  if  the  supply  of  clothes  is  large  enough, 
there  is  a  great  gain  in  having  the  washing  done  only  on 
alternate  weeks,  as  this  gives  one  free  week  for  sewing, 
special  cleaning,  etc. 

Let  us  suppose  that  all  the  washing  of  a  family  of  four 
is  to  be  done  by  the  worker  herself;  only  shirts  and  collars 
being  sent  to  the  commercial  laundry.  Plan  the  other  days 
of  the  week  so  that  the  washing  is  done  on  Tuesday,  con- 
trary to  the  time-honored  custom.  This  permits  the  house 
to  be  given  a  good  brushing-up  after  Sunday's  confusion 
and  the  cooking  of  practically  all  of  Tuesday's  meals  on 
Monday.  It  also  gives  opportunity  for  the  thorough  sort- 
ing and  soaking  of  clothes  and  removing  stains  the  day 
before,  which  is  most  inconvenient  when  done  on  Sunday. 
When  the  clothes  are  sorted  they  should  (except  stockings) 
be  mended  so  that  the  washing  will  not  make  the  rents 
larger,  and  to  obviate  the  more  common  plan  of  mending 
the  garment  after  it  is  freshly  laundered,  which  has  the  dis- 
advantage of  crushing  the  newly  ironed  article.  Also  it 
gives  more  time  for  the  treatment  of  stains  which,  if  left 
to  the  regular  washday,  are  likely  to  be  overlooked  and 

The  standard  practice  for  any  washday  will  differ  some- 
what owing  to  whether  a  washing  machine  is  present,  the 
method  of  heating  the  water,  etc.,  etc. 

Here  follow  five  different  "standard  practices"  for  vari- 
ous conditions  and  methods.  They  may  be  modified  or 


combined  to  suit  your  conditions.  When  you  have  deter- 
mined your  "standard  practice"  it  should  be  written  down, 
with  its  "time  schedule.'' 

STANDARD   PRACTICE   FOR  WASHING,   No.    i.     (Without 
Set  Tubs.     See  Diagram,  page  229.) 

Conditions:  Two  portable  galvanized  iron  tubs  with  basin  plugs 
and  rubber  stoppers  on  wash  bench;  hand  washer;  pump;  washer 
mounted  on  stand  higher  than  tubs,  and  connected  with  them  by 
double  galvanized  iron  drainboard.  Wringer  on  washer  between 
tubs  and  washer;  lever  of  washer  to  extreme  right.  Stove  and 
boiler  used  for  heating  washer. 

1.  White  clothes  soaked  in  Tubs  I  and  2  over  night  (or  for  half 

an  hour  in  warm  water). 

2.  Fill  boiler  from  pump. 

3.  Fill    washer    with    boiling    water    from    boiler,    and    add    soap 


4.  Drain  Tub  i  and  place  Load  i  in  washer;  operate  washer  by 

hand  ten  minutes. 

5.  Remove  Load  i  and  run  through  wringer  back  on  to  drainboard. 

6.  Add  more  soap  and  boiling  water  to  washer,  refill  boiler  from 


7.  Drain  Tub  2,  and  place  Load  2  in  washer;  operate  by  hand  ten 


8.  Remove  Load  2  and  run  through  wringer  back  on  to  drainboard. 

9.  Drain   soiled   water   from   washer;    refill   with   clean   hot   rinse 

10.  Fill  Tubs  i  and  2  with  cold  blue  water;  start  starch  preparation 

at  stove, 
n.  Fill  washer  with  as  much  of  Load  i  and  Load  2  as  possible; 

rinse  in  washer  (by  lever)  about  six  minutes. 

12.  Wring  back  on  to  drain,  then  put  into  blue  water. 

13.  Repeat  Steps  n  and  12  with  remaining  clothes. 

14.  Finish  starch  preparation  and  lay  pot  on  drainboard. 

15.  Wring   clothes   loosely   from   blue   water  by   hand,   and   starch 

necessary  ones  on  the  drainboard  (basket  underneath). 

16.  Hang  up  all  white  clothing. 

17.  Repeat  above  steps  for  colored  clothing,  of  which  there  will  be 

probably  only  one  load,  hence  shorter  time.  Do  stockings  sep- 
arately by  hand  in  last  soap  water,  and  rinse  in  clear  (never 
blue)  water. 








CONDITIONS  :  Three  stationary  tubs ;  motor  operated  washer  with 
reversible  power  wringer  and  drain  chutes;  permanently  installed 
hot  and  cold  water  and  waste  connections. 

1.  Separate  all  white  linen  and  clothing  into  two  groups,  Load  A 

requiring  boiling  (sheets,  cases,  towels,  etc.),  and  Load  B 
requiring  no  boiling  (tablecloth  and  napkins,  centerpieces, 
scarfs,  etc.). 

2.  Cold  soak  over  night,  Load  A  in  Tub  i,  Load  B  in  Tub  2. 

3.  Drain  both  loads  from  soiled  water;  place  Load  A  in  washer 

with  hot  water  (softened)  and  soap  solution;  wash  by  motor 
15  minutes. 


4.  Wring  and   deliver  Load   A        5.  Add  more  soap  solution  and 

directly   into   boiler.      Boil  hot   water   to   washer;    fill 

not   over   5    minutes   after  with    Load    B;     wash    15 

water  comes  to  a  boil.  minutes. 

Use  this  time  to  prepare  clear  warm  water  in  Tub  3,  blue  water 
in  Tubs  2  and  i,  and  attend  to  boiler. 




10.  Refill  washer  with  clean  hot 

water  (softened). 

11.  Remove  Load  A  from  boiler 

and  place  directly  into 
washer  of  clean  hot  water. 
Rinse  ip  minutes  by  motor. 


6.  Wring  and   deliver  Load    B 

on  to  drain  chute.     Empty 

7.  Refill  washer  with  clean  hot 

water  (softened). 

8.  Refill  washer  with  Load   B. 

Rinse  10  minutes  by  motor. 

9.  Wring  and   deliver  Load   B 

into  Tub  3.  Empty  washer. 

14.  Wring  and   deliver  Load  A 

into  Tub  3;  rinse  by  hand. 

15.  Run  through  blue  water. 

16.  Run  through  power  wringer 

into  basket.    Starch.    Hang 

12.  Rinse   (by  hand)   Load  B  in 

Tub  3;  then  run  through 
blue  water  in  Tub  2. 

13.  Reverse  Load  B  from  Tub  i 

through  power  wringer  into 
basket.  Starch  on  Table 
T;  process  ended.  (Hang 
put  Load  B  before  finish- 
ing with  A.) 

Repeat  steps  with  colored  clothing  according  to  practice  for 
Load  B ;  no  boiling.  Add  hot  water  and  soap  to  rinse  water  in 
Step  II.  If  only  one  load,  drain  the  washing  water  off  with 
the  clothes  in  the  machine ;  run  in  warm  rinsing  water ;  run 
the  machine;  drain  and  rinse  in  the  machine  with  cold  water 
twice ;  wring  and  hang  out. 

For  Standard  Practice  No.  3. 



CONDITIONS:  Three  tubs  in  line  with  power  washer,  drain  chutes, 
reversible  wringer,  Judd  Rinsing  Tray;  machine  next  to  Soaking 
Tub  i ;  Bluing  Tub  2  in  center ;  Rinsing  Tub  3  on  the  end ; 
boiler  at  same  height  with  side  close  to  end  of  Tub  3 ;  Load  A  to 
be  boiled,  Loads  B  and  C  not  boiled,  Load  D  colored  clothes. 

1.  Soak  Load  A  in  Tub  i,  %  to  */2  hour,  in  softened  warm  water 

with  half  a  bar  of  dissolved  soap. 

2.  While  soaking  Load  A,  oil  machine,  fill  with  hot  water,  soften; 

add  il/2  bars  of  shaved  soap  or  equivalent  of  chip  soap 

3.  Wring  Load  A  from  soaking  water  through  power  wringer  into 

machine ;  run  10  minutes  to  half  an  hour,  till  dean, 

4.  While  Load  A  is  being  washed,  soak  Load  B  in  Tub   i.     Fill 

boiler,  soften,  start  heating. 

5.  Wring  Load  A  out  of  machine  on  to  Judd  Rinsing  Trav  and 

slide  into  boiler  of  boiling  water  (no  soap  added).     Bcii  5  to 
10  minutes. 

6.  Wring  Load  B  from  soaking  water  into  the  machine ;  add  a  little 

more  soap  if  necessary  and  start  washing. 
>".  Start  Load  C  soaking  in  Tub  i. 

8.  Take  Load  A  from  boiler  to  rinsing  tray,  let  drain;  slide  load 
into  warm  (softened)  rinsing  water,  Tub  3;  rinse  well;  toss 
on  to  tray  placed  on  Tub  2;  swing  tray  and  slide  load  into 
warm  bluing  water;  take  load  over  tray,  placed  on  Soaking 
Tub  i,  through  machine  wringer  into  basket;  hang, 
g.  Run  Load  B,  now  washed,  through  power  wringer  on  to  Judd 
Rinsing  Tray;  slide  tray  to  one  side. 

10.  Wring  Load  C  from  soaking  water  into  machine ;  add  more  soaj. 
and  hot  water  and  start  washing. 

IT.  Put  Load  D  (colored  clothes)  into  soaking  water  (fresh,  if 

12.  Rinse  Load  B  from  tray  in  Tub  3,  a  piece  at  a  time,  throwing 
on  to  unoccupied  part  of  tray  as  fast  as  rinsed;  slide  into 
bluing  water,  Tub  2 ;  wring  over  tray  .through  power  wringer 
into  basket;  starch;  hang. 

Repeat  process  No.  12  with  Loads  C  and  D,  give  second  rinsing 
to  Load  D  in  place  of  bluing.  With  only  two  tubs,  rinse  and 
blue  in  the  same  tub.  Rinsing  is  more  thorough  if  done  a 
piece  or  two  at  a  time  in  the  whole  tub  of  water  as  directed. 
With  the  Judd  Rinsing  Tray,  wringing  between  rinsing  and 
bluing  water  is  not  necessary. 

The  Judd  Rinsing  Tray  can  be  used  to  advantage  in  any  type  of 
laundry;  price  $3.00,  Judd  Laundry  Machine  Co.,  Chicago. 




CONDITIONS  :  Two  portable  or  stationary  tubs ;  hand  power  washer 
wringer;  boiler  (white  clothes  only). 

1.  Soak  clothing  over  night  in  cold    (softened)    water  in   Tubs   l 

and  2  or  for  l/2  hour  in  hot  water. 

2.  Fill  boiler  with  cold  soft  water  and  bring  to  boiling  point. 

3.  Add  to  boiler  Y-Z  of  the  following  mixture  made  previously : 

i  Ib.  bar  yellow  soap,  shaved  fine. 

i  cup  best  quality  white  paraffine,  shaved  fine. 

i  qt.  boiling  water. 

Melt   together    thoroughly. 

4.  Drain  clothes ;  wring,  and  place  Load  A  in  boiler. 

5.  Boil  Load  A  Y2  hour. 

6.  Deliver  Load  A  into  washer  of  clear,  very  hot  (softened)  water. 

7.  Refill  boiler  with  Load  B,  adding  another  cup  of  paraffine  mix- 

ture and  boil   y2   hour. 

8.  Rinse  Load  A  in  washer,  by  lever,  about  ten  minutes. 

9.  Fill  Tub  I  with  clear  cold  water,  Tub  2  with  blue  water. 

10.  Wring  Load  A  into  Tub  i,  then  place  into  Tub  2;  starch  and 


11.  Repeat  steps  Nos.  8,  9  and  10  with  Load  B  or  Loads  C,  D,  etc., 

as  there  are  about  5  boilerfuls  in  a  large  family  wash  of  white 
clothing.  Clothes  which  are  not  much  soiled  need  not  be 
soaked  but  may  be  put  directly. 


CONDITIONS  :  Two  stationary  set  tubs  and  water  motor  washer,  with 
permanent  drain  and  hot  and  cold  water  connections.  No  boiler ; 
hand  wringer. 

1.  Soak   clothes    (white)    over   night   in   softened   cold    water    and 

naphtha  soap  solution. 

2.  Fill    washer    with    tepid    water    (softened)    and    naphtha    soap 


3.  Drain  clothes  from  Tub  I ;  wring  and  fill  Load  A  into  washer ; 

operate  washer  20  minutes. 


4.  Empty  washer;  refill  with  clean  tepid  water;  operate  washer  10 


5.  Empty  washer;   refill  with  clean  cold  water,  and  operate  for  a 

second  rinse  of  8  to  10  minutes. 

6.  Fill  Tub  i  with  blue  water. 

7.  Wring  and  deliver  Load  A  into  blue  water  of  Tub  i.    Starch  and 


8.  Repeat  above    steps  with  all   following  loads,   including  colored 


(This  cold  water  and  naphtha  soap  method  needs  no  boiling  if 
a  motor  washer  is  used  which  will  give  the  long-time  and 
strong  friction  and  rinsing.  This  is  the  easiest  of  all  methods 
for  only  moderately  dirty  clothes.) 


There  are  two  naphtha  soaps,  the  "white"  and  Fels- 
Naptha.  The  latter  is  much  the  stronger.  Slice  4  bars  of 
soap  and  place  in  a  two-gallon  jar  of  water.  Allow  to  stand 
over  night.  Then  beat  up  the  soap  with  a  strong  egg  beater 
to  thoroughly  dissolve.  Add  about  2  cups  of  this  jelly  to 
each  washer  of  clothes.  (Naphtha  soap  cannot  be  used 
with  boiling  water,  hence  the  plan  of  beating  the  jelly  until 
it  is  perfectly  dissolved.) 


1.  Avoid    change    in    temperature    either    of    water    or    drying    or 


2.  Wash  and  rinse  in  water  of  the  same  temperature,  about  110°  F. 

3.  Use  rain   water,   if   possible.      Soften  both  washing   and   rinsing 

water,  if  hard,  with  correct  quantity  of  borax  or  ammonia 
and  finish  softening  with  a  little  soap  solution  before  the 
goods  are  put  in  the  water.  Leave  a  little  soap  in  the  last 
rinsing  water  to  give  a  soft  finish,  or  add  glycerine. 

4.  Never  rub  soap  directly  on,  but  use  soap  solution  of  mild  white 


5.  "Squeeze"  rather  than  rub,  and  avoid  all  possible  twisting  and 

stretching  and  rubbing. 

6.  Handle  quickly,  "pat"  into  shape,  and  dry  in  warm  room  or  out 

of  doors  in  warm  weather;   freezing  is  harmful. 
Woolens  may  be  washed  in  a  washing  machine  but  should  be 
kept  separate. 



Colors  in  fabrics  may  be  either  "heavy,"  as  deep  brown, 
blue,  red,  etc.,  or  "delicate,"  as  pale  pink,  lavender,  green, 
blue,  etc.  The  latter  wash  better  than  the  former,  which 
have  more  tendency  to  "bleed"  or  run;  but  all  colored  or 
parti-colored  materials  need  to  be  washed  with  great  care 
as  even  the  best  dyes  are  not  always  to  be  trusted.  It  is 
best  to  test  a  sample  of  the  fabric  with  hot  water  and  soap 
to  see  if  it  will  "bleed."  If  the  soapy  water  shows  color, 
"set"  the  dye  by  soaking  in  salt  solution,  il/2  cups  to  a  quart 
of  water,  for  an  hour  or  two,  then  dry. 

Again,  articles  are  not  generally  made  all  of  the  same 
colored  material  but  are  composed  of  two  or  more  materials 
and  colors,  i.e.,  a  pink  striped  chambray  dress  with  solid 
pink  collar  and  cuff  of  linen ;  or,  overalls  of  blue  denim 
with  red  straps,  or  a  centerpiece  of  white  linen  embroidered 
in  colored  silk.  Each  kind  of  material  absorbs  the  same 
color  differently,  hence  the  extreme  care  needed  in  wash- 
ing and  also  in  the  later  drying  and  pressing  under  heat. 
Colors  are  affected  by  all  the  conditions  of  alkalis,  acids, 
sunlight,  soap  and  heat. 

But  all  colored  materials  can  be  washed  under  the  same 
general  rules,  as  follows: 


1.  Set  the  color,  if  necessary,  by  soaking  in  salt  solution. 

2.  Avoid  soaking  usually. 

3.  Wash  in  water  about  110°  F. ;  never  hot. 

4.  Use  mild  white  soap  in  solution,  but  avoid  rubbing  soap  directly 

on  material. 

5.  Wash,   rinse   and   dry  quickly. 

6.  Never  boil;  generally  avoid  bluing. 

7.  Hang  wrong  side  out  away  from  sunlight,  as  shaded  by  a  sheet  or 

trees,  etc.    Sunshine  and  moisture  fade  nearly  all  colors. 

8.  Iron  on  wrong  side  with  cool  iron,  using  muslin  or  where  neces- 

sary to  press  on  right  side  to  avoid  "shine". 



In  many  homes  the  washing  of  baby  garments  is  a  daily 
and  time-taking  task.  A  few  words  about  it  will  not  be 
amiss.  First,  a  baby's  clothes  should  never,  for  hygienic 
reasons,  be  mixed  and  washed  with  the  family  clothes. 
The  bands,  sox,  shirts  and  petticoats  of  flannel  can  be 
washed  as  for  above  directions  of  woolens.  The  white 
dresses,  unless  very  elaborate,  need  no  starching,  and  only 
a  good  boiling  each  time.  The  diapers  need  especial  care. 
The  faeces  should  be  at  once  removed,  and  the  diaper  placed 
in  a  metal  covered  pail,  like  a  new  garbage  pail  painted 
white,  or  a  white  enameled  pail,  until  time  for  washing.  If 
a  few  drops  of  Lysol  solution  are  sprinkled  in  the  pail  it 
will  remove  odors.  It  has  not  been  found  a  good  plan,  in 
the  writer's  experience,  to  soak  the  napkins  that  are  washed 
every  day  as  this  makes  the  work  more  unpleasant. 

A  small,  stiff  scrubbing  brush  should  be  used  for  further 
cleansing;  then  they  may  be  placed  in  cold  water,  rubbed 
slightly,  and  then  put  on  to  boil  in  cold  water  without  any 
chemical,  merely  white  soap  chips.  Reserve  for  this  use 
solely  a  galvanized  or  white  enamel  bucket  holding  2  or  3 
gallons.  Boil  ten  minutes  after  the  water  boils.  Rinse 
in  clear  hot  water  and  hang  out.  Never  use  bluing,  as  this 
yellows  them  and  causes  dangerous  chafing  on  the  tender 
skin.  Although  many  small  devices  and  washers  are  sold 
exclusively  for  baby  use,  none  have  proved  practical  or  as 
simple  as  the  boiling  in  the  pail,  as  even  with  a  washer 
they  must  be  boiled  in  order  to  be  strictly  sanitary.  Wash 
hands  in  alcohol  after  handling  such  articles. 


i  Ib.  soap  chips  to  6  gals,  water  added  directly  to  the  water  in  the 
machine,  or  i  large  cake  soap  to  2,l/2  qts.  water.  Cut  soap  fine  and 
melt  over  slow  fire;  do  not  cook  after  it  is  dissolved. 

Soften  the  water  by  adding  the  correct  proportion  of  washing 
soda  solution  before  adding  soap. 



i  large  bar  (i-lb.,  2-oz.  size)  Ivory  soap. 

4  qts.  cold  water. 

Cut  soap  fine,  add  to  water  and  heat  and  dissolve.  One-half  cup 
wood  alcohol  can  be  also  added  to  very  soiled  woolens.  Use  half 
of  this  in  each  of  the  two  wash  waters.  Add  i  tablespoon  glycerine 
to  2  qts.  of  the  tepid  rinse  water  to  give  a  soft  finish. 


i  qt.  water. 

3  tblsp.  starch  (corn). 

Yt  tsp.  each  borax  and  paraffine  or  clean  lard. 

Make  a  paste  of  some  of  the  cold  water  and  the  starch  to  sep- 
arate the  starch  grains.  Have  the  right  amount  of  water  boiling, 
and  stir  in  the  starch  paste  slowly,  stirring  well  to  avoid  all  lumping. 
Boil  gently  for  about  fifteen  minutes,  using  an  asbestos  pad  under 
to  prevent  scorching.  This  is  a  "heavy"  starch;  thinner  quality  is 
made  by  using  less  of  the  starch  powder. 



i.  Make  a  sketch  of  your  present  laundry.  What  changes 
would  make  it  more  step-  and  labor-saving?  Is  your 
present  equipment  "grouped"  so  that  work  can  be 
easily  "routed"? 

2  Make  out  a  "standard  practice"  of  your  laundry  work, 
stating  what  conditions  you  have  to  work  with,  i.  e., 
washer,  tubs,  installation,  etc.  Do  you  consciously 
follow  such  a  "practice"  on  wash  days  ? 

3.  What  is  the  chief  reason  why  your  present  laundry  work 

is  hard?  Please  compare  your  experience  in  hand 
(washboard)  rubbing  and  any  washing  machine  you 
may  have  used. 

4.  How  large  is  your  family  washing  (number  of  persons), 

and  how  many  hours  does  it  take  to  do  it,  both  the 
washing  and  the  ironing? 

5.  Have  you  used  motor-operated  laundry  equipment,  and 

do  you  like  to  use  machinery,  or  are  you  somewhat 
afraid  of  it  ?  Is  it  the  first  cost  that  prevents  you  from 
using  more  machinery? 



Showing   rack   for   knives   and   shelf  with    holes   over  garbase    can.    where 
dishes  are  "scrapped,"  vegetables  prepared,  etc. 




"TV  \  Y  HUSBAND  earns  $200  a  month ;  we  are  five 
in  the  family.  My  husband  pays  the  rent,  the 
coal  and  his  lodge,  and  I  have  a  weekly  allow- 
ance to  run  the  house.  I  do  all  my  own  work,  and  yet 
have  nothing  saved.  Do  you  think  keeping  accounts  would 
help  me?  What  do  you  mean  by  the  'budget'  plan?  Will 
you  please  help  me  get  this  money  problem  straightened  out, 
and  tell  me  how  to  manage  better  ?" 

This  letter  is  typical  of  hundreds  which  have  come  to 
the  author's  desk,  all  asking  some  questions  about  the 
handling  and  disbursement  of  money  in  the  home.  "Effi- 
ciency" means  not  only  prevention  of  waste  energy  in  steps 
and  labor,  but  prevention  of  waste  in  money  and  materials 
as  well.  Therefore  no  discussion  of  new  methods  in  home 
management  would  be  complete  without  seeing  how  they 
apply  to  that  most  important  part  of  homebuilding — the 
plans  for  income  spending  and  saving,  and  the  means  of 
making  those  plans  easy  to  follow. 

In  former  days  there  was  less  need  for  care  in  spending 
or  accounting  of  money  first  because  less  actual  money 
was  handled.  Even  as  late  as  1890,  63.9%  of  the  popula- 



tion  was  rural,  and  only  36.1%  was  urban.  Today  53.7% 
is  rural  and  46.3%  lives  in  cities.  That  is,  twenty- five 
years  ago  64%  of  all  the  families  of  the  nation  lived  in  the 
country  and  raised  and  manufactured  the  bulk  of  its  prod- 
ucts, for  which  no  money  was  paid.  But  today  almost  half, 
or  over  46%  of  all  families  live  in  cities,  and  hence  are  not 
producers,  but  consumers  who  must  buy  and  pay  with 
money  for  the  countless  articles  and  foods  that  each  home 

Therefore  it  was  then  not  so  important  for  the  woman, 
or  the  wife  and  husband  together,  to  follow  some  definite 
plan  of  expenditure.  In  this  present  age,  too,  there  are 
also  other  urgent  reasons  why  a  family  must  have  a  con- 
scious plan  of  spending  and  saving.  These  reasons  may 
be  grouped  as  follows: 

1.  Greater    social    demands    and    higher    standards    of 
taste  and  living  generally. 

2.  Longer  periods  before  children  become  self-support- 
ing, due  to  modern  insistence  for  education  and  child  labor 

3.  Each  individual  today  adds  a  definite  cash  amount  to 
family  expense  without  so  much  chance  to  render  back 
value  as  in  the  past. 

4.  Men  are  considered  economically  "unfit"   for  work 
and  are  forced  to  "retire"   from   occupations  at  a  much 
earlier  age  than  formerly  (i.  e.,  the  man  of  fifty  today  finds 
his  place  usurped  by  the  young  man,  and  many  employers 
refuse  to  hire  men  over  a  certain  age  limit). 

5.  Therefore  parents  have  to  provide  more  savings  with 
which  to  support  themselves  during  this  lengthened  period 
without  work  opportunity ;  whereas  in  the  past,  when  living 
was  simple  and  rural,  there  were  more  kinds  of  unskilled 
labor  at  which  even  a  very  old  person  could  "earn  his 


6.  Increased  cost  of  maintenance  in  "the  rainy  days" 
and  the  higher  cost  of  medical  attendance  and  nursing  in 

The  health  of  the  family,  its  education,  its  pleasures,  its 
savings,  are  determined,  not  by  the  amount  of  that  income, 
but  by  the  distribution,  or  the  spending  of  that  income. 
Many  families  who  today  may  complain  of  their  low  income 
are  suffering  frequently,  not  from  a  low  income,  but  from 
mis-spending  of  that  income.  The  whole  standard  of  family 
living  depends  only  on  the  apportionment  or  spending  of 
what  the  family  earns.  Two  families  may,  as  often  hap- 
pens, have  identical  incomes;  yet  one  manages  to  own  its 
own  home  and  send  its  children  to  college,  while  the  other 
will  be  always  on  the  brink  of  debt  and  unable  to  afford 
its  children  advantages.  To  save,  to  diminish  the  expendi- 
ture, is  just  the  same  as  having  an  increase  in  income. 


For  the  18,000,000  families  in  the  country  today  over 
nine  billion  dollars  is  spent  annually,  mainly  by  women. 
Women  alone  buy  48.4%  of  all  merchandise  for  family  use, 
and  have  an  important  voice  in  buying  23%  more — buying 
a  total  of  71%  of  all  products  used  in  the  home.  Further, 
women  buy: 

48%  of  all  drugs, 

96%  of  all  dry  goods, 

87%  of  all  raw  and  market  foods, 

48.5%  of  all  hardware  and  house  furnishings.* 

As  most  of  this  sum  is  spent  without  keeping  records, 
the  proved  experience  of  business,  men  shows  that  there 

*  Figures  from  Investigation  by  Prof.  H.  Hollingworth,  of  Columbia 
University,  N.  Y.  City. 


must  be  an  attendant  waste  of  of  least  3%,  probably  much 
more,  which  means  that  each  year  American  women  by 
slipshod  spending  waste  at  least  one  hundred  million  dollars ! 
How  important  it  is,  then,  not  only  to  each  family,  but  to 
the  nation,  that  some  efficient  plan  of  family  spending  and 
record  keeping  be  followed.  All  too  often  homemakers  com- 
plain that  their  work  inside  the  walls  of  the  home  is  "uninter- 
esting," and  that  it  has  not  such  "opportunities"  as  outside 
"business"  affords.  Young  women  who  maintain  this  atti- 
tude of  disparaging  the  possibilities  in  homemaking  are  fre- 
quently the  very  ones  to  devote  their  best  intellect  to  keeping 
in  order  the  accounts  and  books  of  a  business  firm.  Why 
should  not  the  same  intelligence  and  care  be  given  to  the 
accounts  and  expenditures  of  the  home — which  is  the  center 
for  which  all  other  businesses  exist  ? 


No  other  question  is  so  important  to  the  happiness  of  the 
home  as  the  mutual  understanding  of  finances  by  all  mem- 
bers of  the  family.  If  only  the  wife  makes  the  plans,  it  is 
difficult  for  her  to  impose  them  on  the  other  members  of 
the  family.  If  the  husband  handles  the  money,  doling  out 
a  niggardly  sum  to  the  wife,  no  large  general  plan  of  all 
expenditures  and  savings  can  be  made.  The  ideals,  stand- 
ards and  plans  must  be  shared  equally  by  both  husband 
and  wife,  and  understood  by  the  children,  in  order  to  have 
happy  united  "pulling"  toward  a  definite  aim.  Again,  if 
all  are  equally  informed,  and  agree  to  the  same  plan,  each 
will  feel  a  responsibility  in  seeing  that  the  "plan"  is  lived 
up  to  and  carried  out.  Nothing  draws  a  husband  and  wife 
closer  together  than  a  frank,  businesslike  cooperation  about 
their  finances — to  have  a  mutual  aim  to  buy  a  piece  of 
property,  pay  for  a  house,  put  away  an  educational  savings 
fund,  etc. 



\Vhile  the  plan  of  a  personal  or  household  "allowance" 
to  the  wife  is  often  followed,  the  author  is  frank  to  say 
that  it  is,  in  her  opinion,  a  relic  of  some  past  time  when 
women  were  supposed  to  be  too  inexperienced  to  handle 
money,  and  to  whom  therefore  it  was  "doled"  out  by  the 
husband,  who  was  always  the  financial  support.  These 
are  the  strong  objections  to  the  "allowance"  plan  as  we  see 
them :  FIRST,  it  prevents  the  woman  from  seeing  and  under- 
standing more  than  her  own  petty  allowance  expenditures. 
In  handling  and  having  a  voice  only  in  this  part  of  the 
income,  she  is  bound  to  be  inexperienced  and  fail  to  grasp 
the  broad  view  of  all  the  family  finances  which  it  is  most 
important  she  should  take.  SECOND,  it  sometimes  results 
in  extravagance  and  onesided  expenditure;  because,  satis- 
fied with  her  personal  allowance  and  spending  it  all,  per- 
haps selfishly,  the  woman  loses  sight  of  the  other  family 
needs,  or  does  not  realize  that  the  personal  allowance  is  an 
unfair  proportion  compared  to  all  other  items  of  family 
expense.  THIRD,  this  plan  seems  to  force  a  woman  into  the 
undignified  necessity  for  begging  or  skimping  for  every 
penny  she  should  have  by  right.  FOURTH,  the  greatest  criti- 
cism of  all,  the  allozvance  scheme*  is  unbusinesslike,  and 
makes  impossible  the  satisfactory  carrying  out  of  any  uni- 
form "budget"  plan  of  expenditures  for  the  whole  family. 

Housekeeping  is  a  business ;  husband  and  wife  are  equal 
partners.  The  entire  income  (from  whatever  sources) 
should  be  mutually  shared  and  directed  by  both  partners. 
Any  other  plan  fails  of  self-respect,  and  cannot  be  called 
true  business  management.  The  allowance  scheme,  either 
for  husband  or  wife,  can  only  be  compared  to  two  partners 
in  a  commercial  business  (having  a  joint  income  of  $200 
per  month),  one  of  whom  gave  to  the  other  a  small  sum, 


say  $20,  and  said  to  him,  "Here,  Brown,  is  an  allowance 
for  your  cigars  and  neckties;  don't  worry  your  head  over 
any  other  money  matters,  leave  the  management  of  the  other 
$180  a  month  to  me."  We  cannot  imagine  any  two  actual 
partners  doing  such  an  absurdity;  nor  can  we  imagine 
modern  progressive  husbands  and  wives  dividing  the  re- 
sponsibility of  their  joint  income  in  any  similar  silly  way. 
"But  don't  you  believe  in  a  'household'  allowance?"  many 
women  will  ask.  If  by  "household  allowance"  is  meant 
all  items  of  family  expense,  we  do;  but  as  generally  used 
by  those  who  write  the  author  for  advice,  and  by  other 
persons,  "household"  seems  to  refer  only  to  food,  clothing, 
and  a  few  extra  expenses,  and  is  not  used  to  include  rent, 
savings,  investments,  education,  and  the  really  larger  items 
of  expense.  For  instance,  one  woman  writes:  "I  have 
a  household  allowance  of  $20  a  week  to  run  the  house  on ; 
my  husband  pays  the  coal,  rent  and  insurance.  I  buy  my 
own  and  baby's  clothes  out  of  the  house  money,"  etc.  This 
kind  of  "household  allowance"  plan  lets  the  woman  share 
in  the  spending  of  only  a  few  items — while  the  husband  is 
entirely  responsible  for  others.  Such  "household  allow- 
ance" does  not  permit  any  carefully  thought  proportioning 
of  expenses,  one  item  to  the  other.  Neither  does  it  require 
both  to  share  the  responsibility  for  the  spending  of  the 
whole  income.  The  wife  should  share  the  responsibility 
for  the  financial  success  or  failure  of  the  family.  And  that 
is  why  such  an  "allowance"  does  not  make  for  good  man- 
agement or  efficiency  in  family  spending,  for  if  she  does  not 
feel  responsible  she  will  not  keep  the  accounts  on  which  the 
"budget  system"  of  spending  depends. 


"I  get  $20  a  week  to  run  the  house  on,"  again  repeats 
my  friend  of  the  above  letter,  "and  I  keep  track  of  every 


penny  I  spend.  My  husband  is  economical,  too,  and  yet 
we  never  know  where  we  are  at  from  one  month  to  the 
other.  Some  months  we  save ;  but  the  next  month  it  seems 
as  if  we  had  to  meet  a  big  bill  which  leaves  us  'in  the  hole/ 
And  there  always  seems  to  be  something  unexpected  turn- 
ing up  to  use  up  the  little  we  do  get  ahead.  I  can  show 
where  every  penny  went,  but  I  still  don't  seem  to  be  able 
to  manage — " 

An  inquiry  into  the  details  of  the  spending  in  this 
family,  and  a  look  at  their  "account  book"  showed  this 
fact — that  they  were  economical  to  the  extreme — they 
noted  every  single  penny  and  wrote  down  a  record  of  it 
afterward;  but  they  didn't  in  the  least  have  any  general 
planned-in-advance  scheme  of  spending.  They  knew  what 
they  had  spent;  but  they  didn't  know  what  they  would 
spend.  And  so,  while  they  were  "careful"  they  just  met 
bills  as  they  came  along,  took  out  this  sum  or  that  as  the 
need  seemed  to  arise,  and  let  their  expenses  master  them, 
instead  of  mastering  those  expenses!  When  I  wrote  and 
asked  this  correspondent  to  tell  me  what  her  income  was, 
what  per  cent  of  it  she  spent  annually  on  food,  on  clothes, 
on  amusements,  on  savings,  on  running  her  home, — she 
didn't  know,  even  with  that  carefully  written  account  book 
before  her!  From  all  the  hundred  details,  she  had  no 
large  general  percentages  which  would  give  the  amount 
spent  for  one  group  of  needs  as  contrasted  with  another,  or 
which  would  be  a  guide  to  future  spending.  Thus,  unfor- 
tunately, she  had  been  "keeping  accounts"  largely  to  no 


The  old-fashioned  "accounts"  is  to  keep  track  of  what 
has  been  spent;  the  new-fashioned  "accounts"  is  to  plan 
what  will  be  spent.  That  is,  instead  of  one  partner  having 


an  "allowance"  for  two  or  three  items,  or  instead  of  either 
spending  hit  or  miss,  just  as  the  need  seems  to  arise,  the 
new  way  is  to  make  a  spending  plan  in  advance,  to  be  car- 
ried out  equally  by  both  partners. 

This  definite,  well-thought-out  plan  of  spending  money 
in  advance  is  called  a  "budget."  This  term  is  taken  from 
the  bag,  or  "budget,"  of  financial  estimates  for  the  com- 
ing year  laid  before  the  British  House  of  Commons  by 
the  Chancellor  or  Exchequer.  It  may  be  said  that  a 
"budget"  is  "spending  on  paper."  Instead  of  taking  an 
income,  say  $100  a  month,  and  spending  it  just  as  each 
need  seems  to  arise — $30  for  food  one  month,  $20  the  next, 
"squeezing"  down  the  food  some  other  month  because  the 
entire  family  needs  winter  clothing,  etc.,  etc., — the  "budget" 
way  is  to  plan,  and  particularly  to  apportion  in  advance  how 
much  can  be  spent  for  food,  for  clothing,  and  for  all  other 
needs  throughout  the  entire  year.  Its  view  is  annual,  not 
monthly  or  daily.  Its  object  is  not  so  much  skimping, 
economy  or  saving,  as  it  is  proportionate,  balanced  spending. 

City  and  national  governments,  every  business  worthy 
of  the  name,  estimate  their  divisions  of  expenses  for  the 
coming  year.  "The  annual  budget,"  reads  the  daily  news- 
paper, "for  improvement  this  year  in  this  state  will  be 

dollars,  to  be  divided  as  follows  between  the 

counties,"  and  then  follows  a  detailed  estimate 

of  the  exact  proportion  of  money  which  can  be  spent  on 
roads,  bridges,  harbors,  etc.,  in  that  state  for  one  year.  The 
"budget"  plan  can  be  followed  just  as  satisfactorily  in  the 
equally  important  spending  of  home  finances — how  much 
shall  we  spend  for  food,  how  much  for  rent,  how  much  for 
every  need  and  want  during  the  coming  year? 

Although  the  needs  and  wants  of  any  two  families  may 
differ  widely,  it  has  been  found  that  the  following  general 
divisions  cover  those  of  all  families : 



1.  Shelter.— Rent,  or  its  equivalent  in  interest  on  investment  if  prop- 

erty is  owned ;  property  taxes,  fire  and  burglar  insurance ;  water 
tax;  repair  and  upkeep  of  the  house;  railroad  or  carfare  inci- 
dental to  situaton  of  house,  etc. 

2.  Food. — All  meats,  groceries,  vegetables,  dairy  products,  husband's 

or  children's  lunch,  meals  taken  away  from  home. 

3.  Clothing. — All  materials  and  articles  of  clothing,  mending  sup- 

plies, dressmaker  or  tailor,  clothing  repairs,  pressing,  etc. 

4.  Operating. — Light,  heat,  ice,  telephone,  wages  of  maid,  laundress 

and  service  of  all  kinds ;  house-furnishings,  labor-saving  devices. 

5.  Savings. — Payment    on    property,    endowment    or    life    insurance, 

bonds,  savings  account,  etc.,  beneficiary  society  or  lodge,' etc. 

6.  Luxuries. — Cigars,  barber,  hairdresser  and  similar  personal  lux- 

uries. All  extra  food,  clothing,  candy  and  other  indulgences  and 
amusements  which  are  neither  necessities  nor  advancement. 

7.  Advancement. — Education,    music,    books    and    periodicals;    club 

dues,  church,  charity,  gifts,  recreation,  vacations,  health  (phy- 
sician, dentist,  medicine),  postage,  toilet  articles,  telegrams,  etc. 


What  per  cent  of  any  given  income  shall  be  spent  on  each 
of  these  seven  divisions?  There  is  no  one  universal  answer, 
because  the  percentage  to  be  spent  in  each  case  and  for 
each  family  is  determined  by  a  number  of  different  causes 
or  conditions.  Just  as  each  state  cannot  blindly  follow 
another  state  in  making  an  annual  ' 'budget"  for  improve- 
ment, but  must  base  the  per  cent  to  be  spent  on  the  number, 
location  and  peculiar  needs  of  its  own  roads,  harbors,  etc., 
so  the  "budget"  for  each  family  is  influenced  by  many  fac- 
tors, chief  of  them  being  the  following  six : 

I.  The  temperament,  taste,  and  especially  the  "goal"  or  aim  to  which 
the  family  is  striving. 


2.  The  climate  and  place  where  the  family  is  located  (city,  country, 

temperate,  cold,  etc.). 

3.  The  social  or  professional  standing  of  the  group  to  which  the 

family  belongs  or  with  which  it  wishes  to  be  classed  (artisan, 
doctor,  farmer,  clerk,  etc.). 

4.  The  proximity  or  remoteness  to  markets  and  other  sources  of 


5.  The  number  of  persons  in  the  family,  and  their  age. 

6.  The  amount  of  the  annual  income    (this  includes  not  only  the 

sum  earned  by  the  father,  but  money  earned  by  the  children 
and  mother,  or  received  from  investments,  or  the  equivalent  of 
a  garden,  stock,  gifts,  fees  and  other  sources  of  revenue). 


What  is  called  a  "statistical  family"  consist  of  two  adults 
and  three  children  under  fourteen  years  of  age  (actually, 
4.6  persons).  For  greater  convenience  and  uniformity,  all 
theoretical  budgets  prepared  by  experts,  or  those  budgets 
based  on  actual  concrete  family  experience,  are  estimated 
on  the  basis  of  this  theoretical  family.  But  if  your  family 
is  not  the  "statistical"  one,  but  contains  besides  a  grand- 
mother, or  has  three  children  over  fourteen  instead  of 
under  that  age,  allowances  for  increased  expenditures  will 
have  to  be  made  in  modeling  your  budget  after  the  "typical" 
one  from  which  you  are  trying  to  get  help. 

Now,  as  said  before,  no  one  family  can  adopt  and  follow 
the  "budget"  worked  out  by  another  family  in  exact  detail ;, 
because  no  two  families  are  identical,  owing  to  the  variations 
made  by  the  six  main  causes  of  difference  listed  above — 
goal,  climate,  number,  income,  etc.  All  that  a  "typical"  or 
"model"  budget  can  do  is  to  act  as  a  guide  or  pattern  which 
you  may  follow  in  outlining  your  own  budget.  It  is  as  if 
you  were  going  to  make  a  new  dress  from  a  pattern  as 


nearly  fitting  as  possible,  but  in  which  you  would  have  to 
allow  extra  fullness  at  the  hips,  or  more  pleats  in  the  back, 
or  take  in  a  few  darts  at  the  waist — to  suit  your  particular 

Again,  it  is  a  serious  mistake  for  persons  about  to  make 
out  a  "budget"  to  base  it  chiefly  on  income.  No  budget 
can  be  determined  by  your  income,  but  by  what  you  want 
your  family  to  get  out  of  that  income.  Before  you  plan 
any  budget  at  all,  you  must  think  what  objects  and  aims 
your  family  wishes  to  realize,  what  values  you  count  high- 
est, and  therefore  put  first.  Because  the  Smiths  have  $200 
a  month,  and  your  income  is  also  $200  a  month,  is  no  reason 
you  must  spend  the  same  percentage  for  each  item  that  the 
Smiths  do.  This  point  is  emphasized  because  the  author 
has  all  too  frequently  found  correspondents  blindly  copying 
the  per  cent  spent  by  some  other  family  with  the  same 
income.  Each  "budget"  must  be  a  law  unto  its  own  family. 


You  recall  that  the  first  "efficiency  principle"  given  and 
discusssed  in  the  first  chapter  of  Household  Engineering 
was  the  point  of  "ideals."  "What  are  we  running  the 
home  for?  What  is  the  goal  of  this  business  of  home- 
making?  What  do  we  wish  most  to  secure  from  life  for 
ourselves  and  our  family?  This  question  of  "ideals"  or 
goal  must  be  definitely  ansvvered  before  any  budget  can  be 
satisfactorily  worked  out.  The  aim,  and  taste,  and  striving, 
of  a  given  family  must  determine  the  working  budget  which 
tbey  are  going  to  follow.  Otherwise  it  would  be  just  as 
if  a  ship  were  to  start  on  a  voyage  without  a  port  toward 
which  to  sail.  The  budget  is  to  the  family  what  a  charted 
course  is  to  the  navigator  with  a  settled  harbor  in  view  and 
definite  sailing  directions  to  guide. 


Where  do  you  wish  to  sail  ?  What  port  does  your  family 
wish  to  make  ?  Is  it  saving  to  send  the  children  to  college, 
or  money  spent  to  increase  your  husband's  business,  or 
more  aesthetic  richness  in  your  life,  or  opportunity  to  do 
more  good  to  the  community?  Let  us  repeat  that  a  clear 
idea  of  the  goal  (or  there  may  be  several)  toward  which  a» 
particular  family  strives,  is  the  first  essential  of  budget 
'making.  On  this  choice  depends  the  apportionment  of  all 
the  seven  divisions  given  above. 

Before  discussing  several  "typical"  budgets,  and  how  we 
can  get  help  from  them  in  developing  our  own,  let  us  see 
exactly  why  it  is  not  safe  or  wise  to  blindly  follow  the 
budgets  of  other  people,  or  those  regarded  as  "typical." 
Suppose  two  families  have  the  same  income  of  $100  a 
month.  One,  Wheeler,  lives  in  California,  where  the  climate 
is  warm  and  food  prices  low.  The  other,  Mr.  Morehouse, 
lives  in  an  eastern  suburb,  with  a  rigorous  winter,  at  a  long 
haul  from  the  metropolis  to  which  it  is  a  satellite.  In  one 
family  the  three  children  are  aged  2,  4  and  6,  and  the  mother 
has  a  helper  in  the  home ;  in  the  other  family  the  children 
are  8,  il  and  13,  and  the  mother  and  children  do  all  the 
housework.  The  father  of  the  California  family  is  a  skilled 
employe  of  a  railroad;  the  father  in  the  eastern  family  is 
a  teacher  in  the  high  school,  anxious  to  attain  a  better  posi- 

Although  both  of  these  families  are  the  "statistical" 
family  of  two  adults  and  three  children  under  14  years  of 
age,  it  will  be  seen  instantly  how  different  the  per  cent 
each  must  spend  for  the  seven  divisions  of  their  income. 
In  the  first  case,  we  will  suppose  that  Wheeler,  of  Cali- 
fornia, has  no  great  ambition  or  chance  to  ever  earn  much 
more  in  his  occupation  than  $100  a  month.  On  the  other 
hand,  Mr.  Morehouse  is  willing  to  spend  his  evenings  on 
study  and  courses  which  will  enable  him  a  few  years  later 


to  take  a  small  college  position.  He  wants  his  children, 
too,  to  have  the  best  education.  This  goal  alone  possibly 
determines  that  a  large  per  cent  of  Mr.  Morehouse's  $100 
monthly  shall  go  to  his  children's  educational  fund,  to 
books  and  expenses  while  he  attends  courses  at  a  nearby 

Again,  food  in  the  locality  being  cheap,  and  the  Wheeler 
children  being  small,  a  less  per  cent  will  need^to  be  spent 
for  food  in  that  family  than  in  Mr.  Morehouse's,  where 
he  has  to  feed  three  older  children,  and  pay  the  long  haul 
plus  the  city  price  for  all  his  food  supplies.  Further,  Mrs. 
Wheeler  feels  she  cannot  get  along  without  help  when  her 
children  are  so  small,  so  she  has  a  helper  who  costs  about 
$4  a  week,  while  the  Morehouse  children  are  themselves  old 
enough  to  assist  their  mother  in  the  housework  before  and 
after  school.  In  addition,  Mr.  Morehouse,  being  a  school 
teacher,  has  to  dress  fairly  well  and  live  in  a  good  district, 
while  Wheeler,  who  is  working  in  a  railroad  office,  can 
wear  less  expensive  or  work  clothes,  and  lives  in  a  section 
where  rents  are  low.  Also,  Mr.  Morehouse  is  expected  and 
wishes  to  assist  certain  "causes" — he  has  the  dues  from 
various  societies  to  which  he  must  belong,  certain  school 
and  social  expenses  which,  being  a  teacher,  he  must  meet. 
Mr.  Wheeler's  reading  comprises  the  daily  newspapers  and 
his  obligations  are  optional. 

The  "budgets"  of  these  two  families  would  therefore 
differ  widely,  even  though  they  had  the  same  income  and 
the  same  number  of  children,  principally  because  they 
wanted  to  do  different  things  and  achieve  different  results. 
The  author  has  given  these  two  opposing  cases  in  this 
detail  to  illustrate  the  point  that  a  budget  must  not  be 
based  blindly  on  "typical"  budgets  or  the  experiences  of 
others,  no  matter  how  excellent  or  helpful  they  may  be. 
The  budget  of  each  family,  as  said  before,  must  stand  or 


fall  alone,  and  be  based  exactly  on  what  that  particular 
family  wants  to  achieve  most  out  of  its  life. 

All  that  other  budgets  can  do  is  to  suggest  the  appor- 
tionment of  a  given  income  for  a  given  number  of  persons. 
It  has  always  been  a  source  of  disagreement  for  the  author 
to  hear  other  authorities  say,  "Given  $100  a  month,  then 
$25  a  month  must  be  spent  for  food;"  or,  "If  the  annual 
income  is  $^,000,  then  20%  must  be  spent  for  clothes," 
etc.,  etc.  From  the  two  contrasts  given  above,  it  will  be 
readily  seen  that  differing  families  have  different  needs. 


From  thousands  of  actual  budgets  studied  by  experts 
a  number  of  helpful  generalizations  have  been  deduced. 
For  instance: 

1.  The  lower  the  annual  income,  the  higher  the  per  cent 

that  will  have  to  be  spent  on  food.     Conversely — 

2.  The  higher  the  annual  income,  the  lower  the  per  cent 

necessary  to  be  spent  on  food.  (Example — on  an 
income  of  $1,200,  40  per  cent  must  be  spent  to  main- 
tain family  in  health,  while  on  an  income  of  $6,000 
only  16  per  cent  will  need  to  be  spent  on  food.) 

3.  The  lower  the  income,  the  less  per  cent  that  can  be 

spent  for  savings,  luxuries  and  advancement.  Con- 

4.  The  higher  the  income,  the  greater  the  per  cent  that 

can  be  spent  on  these  three  divisions. 


5.  The  per  cent  to  be  spent  on  the  four  divisions,  food, 

advancement,  luxuries  and  savings  varies  with  the 
size  of  the  income. 

6.  The  per  cent  to  be  spent 'On  the  three  divisions,  rent, 

operating  and  clothing  remains  more  nearly  fixed, 
whatever  the  income. 


The  amount  spent  for  shelter  should  be  determined  by 
convenience  of  the  house,  its  nearness  to  business  or  school, 
and  its  sanitary  and  healthful  situation.  Too  frequently 
rent  is  based  on  a  mistaken  social  pride.  Many  families 
spend  on  rent  a  sum  out  of  proportion  to  the  other  divisions 
in  their  budget.  A  family  may  rent  an  elaborate  house  for 
their  children's  sake — an  expense  which  may  not  be  justi- 
fied, as  the  children  might  be  just  as  well  and  happy  in  a 
smaller,  less  pretentious  house.  Or  a  young  couple  want  to 
"keep  up  appearances"  by  living  in  a  fashionable  neigh- 
borhood, when  they  should  be  putting  more  in  their  own 
pockets  and  less  in  the  landlord's. 

If  "shelter"  includes  heat,  this  extra  sum  will  be  balanced 
by  lower  operating  expense.  Distance  from  school  or  busi- 
ness must  be  figured,  as  rightly  all  transportation  costs  must 
be  considered  a  part  of  "shelter."  If  the  house  has  a  yard 
and  there  are  children,  the  additional  expense  of  the  yard 
may  be  offset  by  decreased  need  for  a  nursemaid,  as  the 
yard  will  enable  children  to  take  care  of  themselves.  Again, 
the  size  and  style  of  a  house  greatly  affect  the  item  of 
"operating,"  a  point  too  little  considered.  The  number  of 
windows,  the  amount  of  service  time  and  labor  needed  to 
clean  the  rooms,  the  fuel  to  heat  it,  the  upkeep  of  lawn, 
etc.,  will  either  increase  or  keep  normal  the  "operating" 
item.  Even  a  supposedly  "low"  rent  for  a  roomy  old- 
fashioned  house  may  be  "high"  if  the  fuel  and  additional 


upkeep  are  considered.  Shelter,  then,  must  not  be  con- 
sidered without  "operating,"  and  even  some  of  the  other 
divisions;  for  instance,  if  too  large  a  per  cent  is  spent  on 
"shelter,"  certainly  less  can  be  spent  on  advancement, 
savings,  etc.,  which  would  be  of  more  permanent  value. 

Whether  to  rent  or  own  is  a  big  question  to  be  only  de- 
termined by  the  individual  family,  the  location  and  the 
profession  and  permanency  of  the  work  of  the  father.  If 
the  home  is  owned,  the  amount  of  investment  that  it  repre- 
sents should  be  divided  monthly,  and  entered  under  "shel- 
ter" in  the  budget.  For  instance,  if  house  and  land  repre- 
sent an  outlay  of  $5,000,  then  6%  of  this  sum  annually  will 
be  $300,  the  amount  that  $5,000  would  bring  at  normal  inter- 
est. To  this  $300  should  be  added  taxes,  insurance  and 
repairs.  The  sum  divided  by  12  will  give  about  $30,  or  the 
monthly  rent  of  which  the  house  is  the  equivalent.  This 
amount  of  $30  a  month  should  be  entered  in  the  budget. 
Many  times  a  family,  such  as  minister  or  supervisor  of  a 
farm,  has  the  rent  or  parsonage  free.  This  approximate 
value  must  be  set  down  in  the  budget,  otherwise  there  will 
be  wrong  estimating,  such  as  has  been  found  in  many  budgets 
handed  the  author  for  inspection.  That  is,  if  the  income  of 
a  country  minister  is  $1,200,  and  "parsonage  free,"  his  ac- 
tual income  is  equivalent  to  $1,500,  basing  rent  of  parson- 
age at  $25  a  month.  The  budget  would  then  be  made  out, 
not  on  a  $1,200,  but  on  a  $1,500  income. 


The  per  cent  necessary  to  keep  the  statistical  family  in 
good  health  has  been  approximately  figured  for  average  city 
prices  as  at  least  $587  per  year,  or  about  35  cents  per  day 
per  person.  If  there  is  a  garden,  the  equivalent  of  this 
should  be  credited  in  the  budget  as  added  to  the  regular 
income.  A  large  garden  will  represent  about  $100  to  $150 


a  year,  especially  if  canned  products  raised  in  it  is  included. 
If  there  is  one  place  where  good  management  shows,  it 
is  in  this  item  of  food.  The  skill  and  training  of  the 
homemaker  in  nutritive  values  and  cooking  will  bear  greatly 
on  this  point,  and  one  woman  may  feed  her  family  for  two- 
thirds  or  even  one-half  of  another.  However,  the  amount 
of  food  should  never  be  stinted,  especially  with  growing 
children.  But  the  amount  of  money  spent  gives  little  indi- 
cation of  the  nutritive  value  obtained.  Low  doctor's  fees 
are  an  indication  of  right  nourishment  and  if  there  is  no 
sickness,  one  may  be  sure  the  food  supply  is  being  cared 
for  properly. 


The  percentage  spent  here  will  depend  on  size  and  style  of 
house,  the  standards  and  taste  of  the  family.  The  cost  of  a 
maid  or  other  service  by  the  day,  plus  the  cost  of  the  maid's 
food,  must  be  charged  in  "operating."  Some  make  a  mis- 
take when  they  write  "We  have  three  in  family,  and  a 
maid,"  and  then  estimate  the  percentage  of  food  on  three, 
and  leave  the  maid  out  of  calculation.  The  kind  of  heat, 
its  control,  the  kind  of  furnishings,  etc.,  will  all  affect  this 
item.  Many  "skimp"  on  this  division,  and  put  an  excess 
on  clothes  or  other  item.  As  much  labor-saving  equipment 
should  be  bought  and  counted  here  as  possible.  Laundry, 
or  laundry  equipment,  linens,  furnishings  and  their  repair, 
and  all  upkeep  are  included  in  this  item.  Simple  furnish- 
ings, modest  houses  and  good  equipment  can  do  a  great 
deal  to  reduce  expenses  in  this  group. 


While  under  this  heading  have  been  given  payments  on 
property,  etc.,  there  are  other  kinds  of  savings  which  may 
be  entered  as  such  by  some  families.  Vacations,  travel, 


continued  expense  at  one's  profession  may  be  a  kind  of 
potential  savings  which  will  be  realized  later  in  increased 
strength  or  efficiency.  Many  families  make  the  error  of 
thinking  that  "savings"  must  always  be  concrete  cash.  The 
line  between  savings  and  advancement  is  slight,  and  many 
items  under  both  divisions  may  be  interchangeable.  In- 
stead of  putting  money  in  the  bank,  one  young  doctor  ex- 
pended it  on  further  training  so  that  he  would  become  a 
specialist — a  personal  savings  for  the  future  when  his  in- 
vestment in  himself  would  be  justified  by  the  returns  in  a 
larger  income. 

In  a  similar  sense,  children  can  be  looked  on  as  "savings" 
or  investment,  and  not  as  an  expense.  Healthy,  efficient 
children  represent  a  sentimental  investment  to  their  indi- 
vidual families ;  they  are  also  the  greatest  social  investment 
which  can  be  made  by  the  state  and  nation.  We  are  just 
beginning  to  take  this  view  as  a  community,  that  better 
babies,  more  sturdy  and  intelligent  children,  are  investments 
to  society.  We  are  rinding  out  that  a  state  can  "save"  in 
no  better  way  than  by  encouraging  such  conditions  and 
investing  money  in  such  work  as  will  produce  the  highest 
types  of  children. 

In  other  words,  some  families  fail  to  invest  in  them- 
selves, so.  that  they  will  be  able  to  do  more  important  work, 
be  more  socially  valuable,  etc.,  but  instead  concentrate 
wrongfully  on  the  kind  of  savings  which  are  only  repre- 
sented by  a  bank  book  and  which  are  often  mistakenly 
made  at  the  expense  of  present  comforts,  or  even  necessi- 
ties— sufficient  food  and  adequate  standards. 

The  immigrant,  who  on  his  farm  at  a  pitiable  wage,  went 
back  to  the  old  country  with  $2,000  in  his  pocket  after  four 
years,  may  have  saved — but  at  the  price  of  personal  growth 
and  value  to  the  community. 

The  couple  without  children,  that  has  never  given  equiva- 


lent  in  service  to  the  community,  but  that  has  instead 
amassed  commercial  savings,  has  certainly  lived  by  the 
letter  and  not  the  spirit  of  this  meaning. 


The  list  of  these  items  is  long,  and  the  decision  as  to 
which  are  luxury  and  which  are  not,  must  be  determined 
honestly  by  the  individuals.  Autos  may  be  advancement,  or 
the  equivalent  of  transportation,  but  frequently  are  pure 
luxuries.  Personal  services  like  those  pertaining  to  the 
toilet,  flowers,  gifts  and  numbers  of  expenses  can  be  justi- 
fied on  no  other  ground  than  the  head  of  "luxury." 


This  division  seems  clear  enough,  except  that  many  cor- 
respondents and  others  fail  to  see  the  connection  between 
health  and  this  division.  The  care  bestowed  upon  the  fam- 
ily's teeth,  eyes  and  health,  all  items  for  sanitary  use,  mark 
the  difference  between  the  family  with  a  low  standard  and 
one  with  a  higher  view.  All  spiritual  needs,  all  educational 
expense,  or  the  means  of  increasing  knowledge,  training, 
development  or  the  making  of  the  members  more  efficient 
to  themselves  and  to  society,  must  be  classed  here. 


"How  shall  we  class  the  expenses  of  our  children  ?"  write 
some.  It  is  just  as  easy  to  estimate  their  food,  clothing  and 
education  as  that  of  the  adult.  Roughly,  the  following  have 
been  estimated  as  the  cost  of  children  for  different  ages, 
omitting  the  birth  expenses,  which  vary  most  widely : 

Child    3-  6  years  $150  annual  cost,  without  nurse  or  attendant 

6-8  "  175 
"  10-12  "  225 
"  14-16  "  $300 — $500  in  school,  not  at  work. 



But  two  children  do  not  double  the  cost  of  one.  The 
same  equipment  will  do  for  two  or  several,  and  the  same 
fuel  and  time  to  cook  for  two  as  one.  Also,  older  children 
can  be  taught  to  help  the  younger,  and  thus  lessen  any 
"operating"  expense  of  the  first  child,  which  might  have 
needed  a  nurse. 

The  coming  of  children  is  often  used  as  the  occasion  to 
raise  the  whole  standard  of  living,  moving  to  a  larger  house 
and  employing  extra  help,  when,  by  applying  more  efficient 
household  plans,  and  reducing  the  elaborateness  of  the  home, 
this  expense  could  be  easily  avoided.  Fuel,  laundry  and 
doctor's  fees  usually  increase  the  budget  when  there  are 
small  children. 


Standard  or  ideal  budgets  are  of  little  value  except  in 
giving  averages  from  which  to  vary  according  to  circum- 
stances, as  already  suggested.  In  this  big  country  with 
widely  different  conditions  and  prices,  it  is  difficult  in  ordi- 
nary times  to  give  average  figures  and  percentages,  but  with 

COST   OF  LIVING,   WAGE   WORKERS'   FAMILIES,   1914-1922. 
From  Report  No.  54,  National   Industrial  Conference  Board,  New  York. 


such  violent  fluctuations  of  prices  as  the  past  few  years 
have  shown,  this  becomes  increasingly  difficult. 

The  diagram  gives  some  idea  of  the  rise  and  drop  in 
prices  from  July,  1914,  to  July,  1922.  The  price  levels  of 
July,  1913,  are  taken  as  the  pre-war  standard — there  was 
little  change  in  1914.  These  standard  prices  are  higher 
than  those  of  former  years.  For  example,  the  average  cost 
of  food  in  1897,  tne  l°w  point  f°r  some  years  previous, 
was  about  65  on  the  1913  basis  of  100;  by  1907  food  prices 
had  gone  up  to  82  and  in  1911  to  92.  In  general,  prices  and 
the  cost  of  living  are  now  2/5  to  2/3  higher  than  pre-war 
levels.  It  is  probable  that  succeeding  years  will  show  a 
downward  trend,  although  it  may  be  many  years  before 
pre-war  price  levels  are  reached,  if  ever. 

The  diagram  is  based  on  average  expenditures  in  city  wage  earners' 
families,  pre-war  standards,  as  follows:  Food,  43.1%;  Shelter, 
17.7% ;  Clothing,  13.2% ;  Fuel  and  Light,  5.6% ;  Sundries  (Advance- 
ment and  Luxuries),  20.4%.  These  percentages  are  quite  different 
from  the  suggested  budgets  following  and  consequently  the  diagram 
only  in  a  general  way  represents  the  increased  cost  of  living  for 
families  with  other  standards. 

(Statistical   family   of  two  adults    and  three   children   under    14  years). 

Monthly  ment  and 
Income  Food  Shelter  Operating  Clothing  Savings  Luxuries 

$100 40%-$40       23%-$23        10%-$10        14%-$14          5%-$  5          8%-$  8 

150 30%-  45       23%-  35        13%-  19        14%-  21        10%-   15        10%-   15 

200.:. 25%-  50       22%-  44        13%-  26        15%-  30        12%-  24        12%-  24 

300 20%-  60       22%-  66        14%-  42        15%-  45        15%-  45        15%-  45 

400 18%-  72        20%-  80        15%-  60        15%-  60        12%-  48       20%-  80 

500 16%-  80       20%-100        15%-  75        18%-  90        11%-  55        20%-100 

The  above  figures  represent  averages  for  small  cities  and  towns,  family 
living  in  a  house  or  cottage.  In  large  cities  in  heated  apartments,  the  rent 
would  be  more,  operating  less.  The  food  allowances  are  low,  and,  to  be  safe, 
would  require  knowledge  of  food  values,  with  expert  purchasing  and  man- 
agement. Monthly  allowances  are  4  1/3  times  weekly  allowances. 

As  indicated  in  the  text,  few  families  are  "statistical"  and  for  figuring 
actual  family  budgets  the  best  procedure  is  to  subtract  the  fixed  expenses 
from  total  income  and  apportion  the  balance  according  to  experience.  See 
tables  in  "The  Art  of  Spending"  (lOc)  and  "How  the  Budget  Families  Save 
and  Have"  (5c).  Am.  School  of  Home  Economics,  Chicago. 



Once  this  "budget"  or  estimate  is  made,  it  must  be  fol- 
lowed, and  some  system  kept  which  will  keep  record  of  the 
expenses  and  see  if  the  actual  budget  conforms  to  the 
theoretical  budget.  The  author's  chief  objection  to  most 
"systems"  of  keeping  household  expenses,  is  their  elaborate- 
ness, which  would  prevent  the  busy  housemother  from 
having  time  to  keep  them  correct  and  up-to-date. 

In  order  to  follow  out  the  budget  plan,  we  will  have  to 
use  some  of  the  knowledge  and  terms  of  regular  bookkeep- 
ing. But  the  system  should  be  as  simple  as  possible,  the 
idea  being  not  to  make  a  bookkeeper  out  of  the  homemaker, 
but  to  permit  her  to  have  the  most  accurate  record  and 
also  the  best  "short-cut"  method  to  serve  her  purpose. 

There  are  two  separate  methods  of  keeping  a  budget  or 
any  other  form  of  household  account.  One  is  by  means  of 
a  book,  or  set  of  books,  and  the  other  by  means  of  a  set  of 
cards.  The  book  plan  is  the  simplest  for  a  beginner.  It 
is  a  proved  fact  that  American  women,  as  opposed  to  those 
in  England  and  France,  know  little  about  keeping  accounts, 
or  records  of  money.  In  those  and  other  foreign  countries 
this  is  made  a  part  of  the  education  of  girls — an  ideal  to  be 
striven  for  here. 

All  transactions  have  two  sides ;  each  person  is  always  in 
the  joint  position  of  debtor  and  creditor.  This  makes 
every  account  of  expense  have  two  sides, — the  debit  and 
the  credit ;  we  are  debtor  to  the  cash  account  for  all  the 
money  or  income  received.  This  cash  account  must  include 
not  only  salary  of  father,  but  money  earned  by  other  mem- 
bers of  family,  or  through  investment  and  the  equivalent 
of  garden,  free  rent,  etc.  The  credit  account  will  include 
all  sums  paid  out  for  every  item  of  the  budget. 

Now,  to  make  this  very  easy  to  keep  track  of,  let  us  rule 


a  large  blank  book  about  10x8  in.  Let  us  use  two  pages  for 
each  month,  and  divide  both  pages  into  similar  columns, 
about  twenty  in  number.  Write  days  of  the  month  in  the 
first  column,  and  in  the  second  write  all  the  cash  receipts, 
or  amount  to  our  deposit  in  the  bank.  Continue  to  the  right, 
and  label  each  column  for  each  item  of  the  budget  (see 
illustration),  keeping  items  of  one  group,  as  "food"  (gro- 
ceries, meats,  vegetables,  etc.)  together  and  connecting  them 
over  the  top  with  a  bracket  labeled  with  the  main  division 
of  the  budget.  That  is,  there  will  be  seven  main  divisions 
divided  into  about  twenty  columns  straight  across  both 

The  extreme  right  column  is  for  "total  daily  balance." 
At  the  foot  of  each  column  is  ample  space  for  the  total  of 
each  column  and  also  for  other  figures.  We  will  suppose 
that  we  are  paying  bills  both  by  check  and  by  cash.  We 
will  have  a  check  book,  and  draw  on  it  from  the  monthly 
sum  deposited  there  to  our  credit  which  we  think  will  be 
enough  to  pay  the  bills  we  desire  to  pay  by  check,  as  monthly 
butcher  and  grocer,  light,  etc.  We  will  keep  all  sales  checks 
or  slips,  and  use  them  as  a  basis  of  the  sum  entered  in  its 
proper  credit  column.  In  this  account  book  only  the  gen- 
eral total  sum  spent  is  entered  to  save  space  and  time, 
i.  e.,  instead  of  writing  under  "Vegetables — cabbage,  .10; 
carrots,  .20,  apples  .40,"  we  will  write  the  total,  "Vege- 
tables .70,"  as  that  is  sufficient  for  accuracy  and  too  much 
detail  is  complicating.  If  there  are  details  that  we  do  wish 
to  preserve  a  record  of,  they  may  be  kept  separate  in  a  small 
book  which  corresponds  to  the  "day-book"  in  business.  It 
may  be  said  in  passing,  that  the  household  account  book 
now  being  described  for  use  with  the  budget  plan  of  ex- 
pense, is  what  in  bookkeeping  or  business  would  be  called 
a  "journal-ledger,"  in  which  both  receipts  and  expenditures 
can  be  seen  at  a  glance. 























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T*aoE>                   Jt>^aif 




Now  let  us  begin  to  keep  the  accounts  of  January  or  the 
new  year  accounts.  Let  us  suppose  that  we  had  a  bank  bal- 
ance of  $50,  and  $7.50  in  cash  from  December.  The  first 
column  would  be  as  per  illustration.  Now  as  we  pay  cash 
for  meat,  groceries  or  what  not,  we  merely  enter  the  total 
sum  in  its  proper  column.  We  also  pay  other  weekly  bills 
by  check.  If  so,  we  will  write  the  sum  under  its  proper 
column,  and  note  on  our  check  stub  the  firm  to  whom  paid, 
the  date  and  number  of  check.  Every  week  it  will 
take  us  perhaps  forty-five  minutes  or  less  to  "balance  the 
book."  To  do  this  we  add  the  figures  of  the  daily  expense 
and  place  in  total  weekly  expense  column.  Supposing  the 
total  amount  spent,  according  to  your  account  book,  is  $27. 
Your  check  book  shows  a  total  of  $24  paid  by  check.  That 
would  mean  you  had  paid  out  the  difference  between  $27 
and  $24  in  cash,  or  $3.  You  began  the  week  with  $7.50  in 
cash  and  spent  $3  in  cash.  Therefore  your  purse  should 
contain  $4.50.  It  takes  longer  to  explain  this  than  to  actually 




























OPEEAT1M<3      $  


-SAVINGS       .$  

LUXUBTtS            -f  




do  it.  In  many  cases  a  monthly  balancing  would  be  suffi- 
cient. At  the  end  of  the  month  total  each  of  the  20  columns 
under  the  seven  large  divisions  given  above.  We  may  find 
that  the  total  sum  spent  in  some  one  division  is  beyond  our 
budget  allowance.  For  example,  "operating"  in  January 
may  run  away  beyond  the  $14  per  month  limited  by  our 
budget.  But  if  we  look  over  the  operating  column  carefully 
we  may  find  that  the  bill  for  the  winter's  coal  has  been  paid 
in  January  and  thus  brought  up  operating  expenses.  But 
as  this  is  a  cost  to  be  distributed  over  several  months,  we 
will  find  that  we  have  really  not  exceeded  our  appropriation. 

Perhaps,  however,  we  find  that  our  food  bills  have  been 
exceedingly  large,  and  upon  close  scrutiny  we  see  that  we 
really  have  been  extravagant  in  supplies.  So  we  promise 
ourselves  to  "hold  down"  food  expenses  in  February  and 
keep  within  our  budget. 

In  the  back  of  the  account  book  should  be  a  record  of 
the  budget  as  planned  for  the  first  of  the  year.  At  the  end 
of  the  year  the  totals  of  each  of  the  seven  divisions  should 
be  copied  in  the  back  alongside  of  the  estimated  totals  for 






Published   by   Am.    School   of   Home   Economics,   64  pages,   cloth   bound, 
Price  $1.00,  postpaid. 

quick  comparison.  This  will  be  a  simple  kind  of  "balance 
sheet"  and  the  failure  or  success  in  living  up  to  the  budget 
can  be  seen.  The  budget  of  this  year  will  be  nothing  more 
or  less  than  information  for  future  spending  next  year.  In- 
deed, no  budget  is  perfect  the  first  year.  It  takes  some 
time  to  make  one  which  will  be  smooth  running  and  adjust 
automatically  to  the  increased  demands  on  it  of  constantly 
growing  older  children,  etc.,  etc.  But  it  is  only  by  having 
some  basis,  some  first  budget,  that  future  ones  can  be  made 
more  nearly  perfect. 


This  plan  is  a  little  more  complex,  or  at  least  more  diffi- 
cult for  the  beginner  to  handle.  Instead  of  a  book  we  use 
4x6-inch  ruled  cards,  which  can  be  bought  at  stationer's  or 
of  office  supply  stores  for  about  75c  or  $1.00  per  thousand. 
In  addition,  there  will  be  needed  about  20  cards  with  a 
special  tab  on  the  top  called  "guide  cards."  In  this  plan 
one  card  will  take  the  place  of  one  column  in  the  book.  The 
number  of  cards  to  be  used  will  vary  with  the  subdivisions 
or  needs  of  each  particular  family.  The  author  has  found 
the  following  plan  with  twenty  cards  satisfactory  for  an 
average  family: 



MATERIALS  NEEDED  :  Guide  cards  with  tabs,  of  stiff  cardboard,  size 
4x6  inches ;  250  plain  ruled  4x6  inch  cards ;  small  cloth  or  wooden 
box  with  cover  to  fit  cards.  (These  can  be  bought  for  about  5oc.) 

Rule  twenty  of  the  plain  cards,  like  the  "Groceries"  card 
illustrated.  Write  in  the  upper  left-hand  corner  of  each 
card  the  subject,  or  division  of  the  budget,  as  follows  (from 
i  to  20)  : 

I.  SHELTER.  . 







,,,   r  fi8. 

VI.  LUXURIES....  | 



Rent,  railroad  and  carfare 
Taxes,  fire  and  burglar  insurance 

Dairy  products 
Fruit  and  vegetables 
Meat  and  fish 
Meals  outside 

Bought  garments 

Dress  materials  and  supplies 

Tailor  and  dressmaker 

Fuel  and  light 
Furnishing  and  repairs 
Service  and  laundry 
Telephone  and  ice 

Life   insurance,   real   estate,   beneficiary  so- 
cieties, bonds,  etc. 
Cash  in  bank 

Gifts,    candy,    toilet    articles,    vacation    and 

Education  and  periodicals 
Church,  music,  theatre 
Physicians,  dentist,  medicines 

These  twenty  divisions  or  cards  seem  to  cover  the  needs 
of  an  average  family,  but  special  cards  can  be  made  out  for 
Garden,  Automobile  or  Buggy,  Chickens,  or  for  each  mem- 


her  of  the  family  if  it  is  desired  to  keep  separate  records 
for  each  of  the  children. 

Arrange  all  twenty  cards  under  their  proper  guide  card, 
as  from  I  to  5  under  Food,  1 1  to  14  under  Operating,  etc., 
and  place  upright  in  their  box.  As  a  purchase  is  made 
simply  write  the  total  amount,  on  its  proper  date,  on  its 
proper  card.  Each  of  the  cards  contains  room  to  enter 
the  total  spent  on  any  one  item  for  every  day  in  the  month, 
with  a  space  at  the  bottom  to  write  the  monthly  total — 
"Groceries,  $12.46,"  or  "Fuel  and  Light,  $4.60." 

In  addition,  prepare  a  recapitulation  card  (see  illustra- 
tion), on  which  to  enter  the  sum  total  spent  on  each  division 
of  the  budget  for  the  entire  year. 

This  one  card  alone,  then,  will  at  a  glance  show  exactly 
the  total  spent  on  all  the  divisions  of  the  budget,  and  can 
be  compared  and  used  as  a  basis  for  succeeding  budgets, 
just  as  the  simple  "balance  sheet"  was  used  with  the  book 


It  is  surprising  how  few  housekeepers  use  a  checking  sys- 
tem to  pay  household  bills.  A  checking  account  will  be 
helpful  in  either  the  book  or  the  card  plan.  It  is  much  the 
best  to  pay  as  few  bills  by  cash  as  possible,  and  to  keep 
little  cash  around  the  house.  The  monthly  sum  which  it  is 
estimated  will  cover  all  bills  payable  by  check  can  be  de- 
posited in  a  local  bank,  where  it  is  safe,  and  where  it  may 
even  get  a  low  interest.  Every  check  stub  is  a  receipt  in 
itself,  and  thus  is  one  good  means  of  "keeping  track"  of 
what  has  been  spent.  In  business,  the  word  "voucher"  is 
used  to  mean  "any  document  which  bears  witness  to  the 
truth  of  a  statement  made  in  the  credit  side"  (of  the  ac- 
count book)  ;  now,  either  a  receipted  bill  or  sale  slip  is  a 
voucher  when  signed  by  the  person  to  whom  the  money  is 






Carried  fwd. 



Carried  fwd» 


















































Month's  Total 







Expenses,    Income  &  Savings 

























paid;  or  the  endorsed  check  paid  to  a  person  is  also  a 
voucher.  These  endorsed  checks  come  back  from  the  bank 
the  first  of  the  month,  and  should  be  kept  as  receipts  that 
bills  have  been  paid.  It  is  a  good  plan  to  keep  receipts  of 
every  kind  at  least  one  year,  and  important  ones  even 

Mr.MTH  OF  OA-r  WON, 






1  i'.O  t 

.01  \^-|t 






TO  £. 

3s  « 

ro«  £AM.<^.rv^\  ^..^A 




TO  C 

.  £eJR. 



3-  SO 





The  end  of  October  record  and  beginning  of  November  record  shown: 
column  at  left  'gives  total  spent,  the  seven  columns  at  the  right,  "where 
the  money  goes."  The  (2)  in  the  first  item  indicates  Wife's  Clothing 
according  to  the  "Key";  the  (4)  in  the  last  item  Child  B  Clothing.  Note 
distribution  of  this  cash  item. 

It  is  a  much  better  business  to  pay  a  four  weeks'  bill  to 
the  home  office  by  one  check  than  to  have  the  interruption 
of  paying  a  collector  at  the  door  four  times  a  week.  The 
less  money  handled,  the  fewer  mistakes  and  the  more  busi- 
ness-like the  account  can  be.  Efficiency  in  keeping  money 
is  judged  by  the  small  amount  of  cash  carried  in  the  home- 
maker's  own  purse.  Indeed,  the  simplest  and  surest  method 
of  keeping  a  record  of  family  expenditures  is  to  deposit  in 
the  bank  all  money  received  and  check  it  out  for  all  ex- 
penses— even  for  "petty  cash." 



Recently  this  bank  accounting  system  has  been  perfected 
by  the  invention  of  the  "Self-Accounting  Check  Books" 
which  have  been  adopted  by  many  progressive  banks. 

In  the  new  check  book  are  bound  special  interleaves  hav- 
ing classified  columns  as  shown  in  the  illustration.  The 
same  classification  as  recommended  in  Household  Engineer- 
ing is  used,  with  an  additional  column  headed  Personal — 
Personal  Allowances.  When  writing  the  checks  the  amount 
is  entered  in  the  column  at  the  left  and  in  the  proper  classi- 
fied column  or  columns.  Simple  addition  at  the  end  of  the 
month  gives  the  total  expenditures  for  the  month  and  the 
total  in  each  division.  No  other  accounts  need  be  kept, 
though  if  desired  the  small  "Weekly  Allowance  Book"  may 
be  carried  in  the  pocket  book  for  recording  personal 

The  reverse  side  of  the  interleaves  provide  for  a  classi- 
fied record  of  receipts.  A  table  at  the  bottom  of  this  page 
is  intended  for  sub-division  of  expenditures  under  the  main 
divisions.  The  "key"  in  the  "Directions"  suggests  sub-divi- 
sions which  may  be  kept ;  for  example,  under  Clothing:  (i) 
Man's  Clothing,  (2)  Wife's  Clothing,  (3)  Child  A  Cloth- 
ing, etc.;  under  Food:  (i)  Groceries,  (2)  Meats,  etc.,  (3) 
Fruits  and  Vegetables,  (4)  Milk,  Cream,  Butter;  (5)  Out- 
side Meals.  These  sub-divisions  may  be  varied  at  will  and 
kept  or  not  as  desired. 

When  the  small  sized  checks  are  used,  the  new  check 
book  is  of  very  convenient  size,  7  inches  wide  by  8^/2  inches 
long.  It  contains  300  checks  as  usually  made  up,  sufficient 
to  last  most  families  for  about  a  year.  If  your  bank  has 
not  adopted  this  system,  for  a  small  sum  you  can  obtain 
a  set  of  the  special  interleaves  with  Directions,  table  for 
Yearly  Summary  and  table  for  drawing  up  the  family  bud- 
get. Your  local  bank  can  then  have  the  new  check  book 


made  up  for  you,  or  may  obtain  the  record  sheets  bound 
together  and  use  checks  from  pocket  check  book  "fillers," 
keeping  the  records  in  the  bound  "Check  Record."  * 

This  new  system  overcomes  the  bug-bear  of  household 
accounts  which,  it  must  be  confessed,  are  somewhat  diffi- 
cult, and  require  much  persistence.  The  Self -Accounting 
Check  Book  is  really  no  more  difficult  to  keep  correctly  than 
an  ordinary  check. book.  Best  of  all  it  can  be  kept  easily 
from  month  to  month  and  year  to  year  so  that  it  makes 
the  family  budget  a  thoroughly  practical  program. 

Further  description  and  suggestions  on  division  of  in- 
come, etc.,  are  given  in  the  booklet,  The  Art  of  Spending, 
How  to  Live  Better  and  Save  More. 

Frequently  letters  come  from  those  who  say  that  the 
budget  plan  is  practical  for  those  with  steady  incomes,  but 
not  for  the  doctor,  lawyer,  or  others  who  receive  irregular 
incomes.  A  plan  for  such  families  is  to  establish  at  once 
a  "reserve  fund"  or  "pool"  in  the  bank  which  will  carry 
them  and  run  current  expenses.  For  instance,  a  dentist 
may  receive  $150  in  fees  one  month,  $300  the  following, 
and  so  on,  or  $2,400  the  whole  year.  The  way  to  make  up 
a  budget  in  such  a  case  is  to  make  a  monthly  average  of  the 
total  income  for  the  previous  year  and  base  the  budget  on 
that.  Another  method  is  to  use  an  "Office  Accounting 
Check  Book"  for  the  business  and  send  a  "salary,"  say  $200 
a  month,  to  the  "Household  Accounting  Check  Book" 
account  for  detailed  budget  recording. 


But  records  of  family  expenditures  are  not  the  only  facts 
or  data  which  every  homemaker  should  be  able  to  put  her 

*  "Self- Accounting  Check  Record" — Household  or  Office,  76  pp.  $1.00; 
"Weekly  Allowance  Book,"  10  cents;  "The  Art  of  Spending,"  10  cents. 
Am.  School  of  Home  Economics.  Drexel  Ave.  at  58th  St.,  Chicago. 


fingers  on  instantly.  Is  there  any  other  "business"  outside 
the  home  which  has  more  different  kinds  of  information, 
papers  and  bills  to  keep  track  of  ?  While  many  women  are 
orderly  and  most  careful  in  this  regard,  it  is  true  that 
countless  other  women  managing  homes  spend  untold  hours 
of  energy  hunting,  pulling  out  and  searching  for  this  or 
that  paper  or  information  when  it  is  suddenly  needed. 

Now,  it  is  just  as  inefficient  to  waste  energy  looking  for 
a  recipe  to  give  a  friend,  or  for  the  month-be  fore's  gas 
bill,  or  for  a  set  of  heavy  underwear,  as  it  is  to  allow 
"waste  motion"  in  the  kitchen  or  in  cleaning  tasks.  Just 
as  we  have  shown  the  need  of  a  definite  system  or  routing 
of  cooking  and  other  tasks  to  save  time  and  effort,  so  there 
is  equal  need  of  a  definite  system  or  plan  of  keeping  in  one 
easily  accessible  place  the  different  information  which  the 
housekeeper  is  constantly  using.  Some  woman  may  say, 
"Oh,  but  I  do  keep  addresses  in  a  book  and  have  recipes 
pasted  in  my  cook  book,  and  put  clippings  into  envelopes." 
The  fault  with  these  plans  is  their  lack  of  uniformity,  and 
the  fact  that  separate  books  and  envelopes  are  just  as  likely 
to  be  "lost"  or  mislaid  as  the  important  facts  they  contain ! 

Another  thing  is  that  the  quantity  of  information  is  con- 
stantly growing  in  proportion  to  the  family's  expansion ; 
therefore  some  plan  must  be  followed  which  will  not  only 
keep  all  information  together,  but  allow  for  future  increase 
for  a  number  of  years. 

Now,  after  several  years'  struggle  with  separate  books, 
"pigeonholes"  in  a  desk,  and  other  common  means  of  keep- 
ing household  records  convenient,  the  author  has,  for  a 
number  of  years,  successfully  followed  an  adaptation  of 
the  "filing  system"  used  in  every  modern  library  and  office, 
and  which  is  only  a  step  beyond  the  method  of  keeping 
accounts  described  above. 



The  basis  of  this  plan  is  again  the  4x6-inch  filing  and 
guide  cards  spoken  of  in  connection  with  the  system  of 
keeping  household  accounts  above.  It  is  so  simple,  inex- 
pensive and  satisfactory  that  it  is  worth  a  six  months'  trial 
by  every  housekeeper.  Its  advantages  are: 


1.  It  keeps  all  records  and  data  in  one  readily  accessible 

2.  It  is  expansive,  so  it  can  grow  with  the  family's  needs. 

3.  It  is  uniform,  thus  doing  away  with  separate  books 
and  papers. 

4.  Changes  or  mistakes  can  be  rectified  with  a  minimum 
of  trouble. 

5.  It  cannot  be  "lost,"  but  is  easily  available  to  every 
member  of  the  family. 



MATERIALS  NEEDED:  6x4  filing  cards  (about  500);  guide  cards 
with  tabs,  about  60;  small  cloth  or  wooden  box;  2  sets  "alphabet" 
guide  cards.  (The  5x3  in.  cards  may  be  used  and  are  cheaper,  but  tht 
larger  cards  are  somewhat  better.) 


First,  decide  what  are  the  subjects  or  "heads"  under 
which  you  need  or  which  you  want  to  keep  information. 
These  will  naturally  differ  with  each  person  or  family,  some 
having  certain  interests  on  which  they  want  to  keep  infor- 
mation, others  different  ones.  The  following  outline  is 
given  only  as  suggestion  which  will  apply  to  all  average 
families,  and  additional  headings  can  easily  be  added.  In 
the  writer's  own  plan  the  twenty-eight  cards  for  household 
accounts  are  kept  in  the  same  box  with  the  household  file 
and  is  therefore  included  here : 




i. — HOUSEHOLD  ACCOUNTS  (as  given  and  subdivided  above) 


(a)  Social 

(b)  Commercial 

(c)  Special 




(a)  Physician 

(b)  Dentist 

(c)  Oculist 

(a)  Family    sizes 

(b)  Clothes  storage 

(c)  Sheets,  bedding,  linen 

(d)  Supplies  and  pantry 

(e)  Gift  and  occasion 

(f)  Housefurnishings  costs 

(g)  Repair  dates 

(h)  Special  supply  firm  addresses  (stove 
dealers,  home  equipment,  manufac- 
turers, etc.) 

(a)  Fiction 

(b)  Poetry 

(c)  Reference 

(d)  Books  to  read  or  buy 

(e)  Music  list  (sheet,  pianola,  victrola) 

(f)  Music  to  buy 


(a)  Taxes,  real  estate 

(b)  Document  record 

(c)  Bank  records 

(d)  Income 

(e)  Bills  receivable 

(f)  Bills  payable 

(g)  Personal  financial  accounts 
(h)  Organization  dues,  etc. 


7. — HOUSE  HINTS — 

(a)  Baby  care  and  hygiene 

(b)  Garden  and  plant  care 

(c)  Toilet  suggestions 

(d)  Entertainment,    games,   party,   etc. 

(e)  Jokes,  stories,  etc. 


(a)  Silver  and  jewelry 

(b)  Furniture 

(c)  Clothing 

(d)  Furnishings   and   miscellaneous 


Arrange  the  two  sets  of  "alphabet"  guide  cards  in  their 
proper  order.  Use  one  card  for  each  name,  writing  the 
surname  first  and  given  name  last,  and  the  address  on  a 
lower  separate  line ;  use  balance  of  space  to  write  other 
points  to  be  remembered,  as : 

Walker,   Mrs.   Susan  J. 

1409  Emery  Av., 
Springfield,  111. 

(Pres.  Club  for  Business  Girls) 
Mem.  Gen'l  Fed.  Women's  Clubs 
(Interested  in  hotels  for  working  women) 

J.  J.  Boch  &  Co., 
10  Barclay  St., 
New  York  City. 

Cut  glass,  imported  china  and  novelties 
(Repair  broken  china,  ivory  and  shell  articles — reason- 
able price) 



Use  a  separate  card  for  each  member  of  the  family.  This 
is  an  especially  helpful  division  where  there  are  children, 
and  where  the  schools  require  specific  information ;  it  also 
assists  physicians  by  giving  them  a  statement  of  the  child's 
past  health,  as: 

David,  born  Sept.  i8th,  1908 

Adenoids  removed  Feb.,  1912 
Vaccinated  Sept.,  1914  (see  certificate,  V-receipts) 
Chickenpox,    March,    1915;    eyes    examined   May, 
1915;  very  farsighted  glasses  for  close  work. 

The  "Dentist"  card  may  contain  the  date  and  cost  of 
fillings,  etc.  The  "Oculist"  card  should  give  date  of  eye 
examination,  and  prescription  of  glasses  if  they  be  used. 


The  first  group  here  is  that  of  family  sizes  (a)  ;  this 
means  a  card  for  each  member  of  the  family,  giving  all 
sizes,  so  that  the  cards  may  be  slipped  into  the  shopping 
bag  and  used  as  a  guide.  How  many  times  one  has  seen  a 
"bargain"  in  men's  shirts  which  could  not  be  bought  be- 
cause we  did  not  "remember"  whether  the  neck  size  was 
14  or  15^2  !  The  card  for  one  child  gives  sizes  of  under- 
wear, suspender  waist,  stockings,  shoes,  neck  measure. 


While  many  women  carefully  wrap  and'  tag  articles  of 
clothing  to  be  laid  away,  not  always  is  there  a  written  de- 
scription of  the  place  where  they  can  be  found.  Useless 
"rummaging"  and  energy  follow  a  vain  search  to  locate  a 



sweater,  etc.,  when  the  need  comes  unexpectedly.  After 
tying  and  labeling  each  bundle,  any  plan  may  be  used  of 
writing  on  the  card,  as  "Full  dress  shirts  and  mufflers — hall 
window  seat ;"  "children's  summer  nighties — right  lower  of 

cedar  chest." 


While  marking  linen  in  embroidered  initials  is  decorative, 
there  should  be  some  plan  of  more  practical  use  to  assist 
the  housekeeper  to  know  how  many  and  how  long  her  linen 
lasts.  A  simple  plan  is  to  write  the  date  of  purchase  on 
the  sheet,  together  with  some  distinguishing  letter,  and  the 
sheet  number.  For  instance,  if  there  are  three  sizes  of 
sheets  used,  let  A  be  used  on  wide  sheets,  B  on  narrow 
ones,  and  C  on  crib  or  baby  sheets.  Letter  each  sheet  of 
its  class,  A- 1,  A-2,  B-2,  B-3,  etc.  The  following  written 
carefully  on  the  lower  hem  of  a  sheet  with  indelible  ink, 
C-5,  1913,  means  that  this  is  one  of  the  crib  sheets  bought 
in  1913.  The  date  of  purchase  is  valuable  because  it  gives 
a  basis  on  which  to  figure  how  long  that  quality  at  a  given 
price  wore.  The  letter  is  a  means  of  accuracy  in  making 
out  the  laundry  list.  On  the  card  itself  should  be  written 
the  cost,  size  and  firm  from  which  bought,  if  a  really  accu- 
rate account  is  desired.  If  a  sheet  has  worn  badly,  why 
purchase  the  same  grade  and  price  of  the  same  concern? 
Only  a  card  record  of  this  kind  will  give  the  facts  for 
future  purchasing. 


The  card  with  pantry  supplies  gives  a  list  of  the  stock 
articles  used  in  a  particular  home,  the  sizes  of  the  cans, 
and  the  cost.  For  instance,  one  of  the  items  reads,  "Pine- 
apple, No.  2.y2  can,  contains  eight  slices,  cost  .16;"  it  is 
used  as  a  basis  in  quick  ordering,  because  it  contains  the 
exact  kinds  and  styles  of  products  used.  It  has  saved  time 


over  and  over  again  in  making  out  orders  of  quantity 
grocery  supplies.  A  duplicate  card  of  canned  goods  par- 
ticularly can  be  made  out  and  hung  in  the  kitchen.  Then, 
as  a  can  of  peas  or  peaches  is  used,  it  should  be  crossed 
off  the  list,  so  that  at  a  glance  the  number  of  cans  on  hand 
of  any  particular  product  can  be  seen  without  poking  around 
the  storage  and  actually  counting  the  cans. 

A  card  stating  the  article  received  or  given  as  gift  is 
often  a  help  at  holidays  or  occasions.  The  card  of  house 
furnishing  costs  contains  such  items  as  the  cost  of  painting 
the  porch  and  entry;  the  price  of  bed  pillows  for  a  given 
size  and  weight;  the  cost  of  garden  tools,  etc.,  or  any  cost 
which  will  in  future  be  a  guide  in  buying.  This  point  is 
emphasized  over  and  over,  because  it  has  been  noted  that 
much  unnecessary  time  is  wasted  making  new  estimates  and 
measures  because  no  one  can  "lay  hands  on'*  the  ones  made 
previously.  Too  much  time  is  devoted  to  shopping,  in  the 
writer's  opinion,  because  there  is  no  accurate  record  of  pre- 
vious costs.  This  is  one  of  the  places  where  industrial 
efficiency  is  most  marked,  as  all  costs  are  most  carefully 
kept  for  instant  reference. 

The  other  subdivisions  of  the  file  can  be  understood 
easily.  The  object  of  financial  records  (6)  is  to  give,  in 
concise  form,  a  statement  of  all  money,  property  and  val- 
uables which  the  family  possesses.  Then,  in  case  of  unex- 
pected death,  say  of  the  head  of  the  family,  a  record  would 
be  had  at  home  of  the  various  investments  and  matters,  the 
valuable  papers  of  which  should  be  in  a  safety  vault  out  of 
the  house.  Too  many  times  a  suddenly  bereaved  family 
has  not  the  least  idea  of  the  condition  of  affairs  in  which 
the  father  has  left  it,  and  only  long  legal  search  discovers 
it.  The  inventory  (8)  is  necessary  so  that  in  case  of  fire, 
or  burglary,  a  record  can  be  had  of  the  actual  belongings 
and  furnishings.  Such  a  permanent  inventory  is  the  basis 


of  house,  fire  and  burglar  insurance.  Other  divisions  can 
be  made  at  will.  The  best  point  about  this  household 
filing  plan  is  that  it.  expands  exactly  as  one  wishes.  One 
small  box  may  do  to  begin ;  a  larger  one  can  easily  be  added 
when  necessary.  If  desired,  a  more  permanent  wooden 
drawer  can  be  used,  with  a  wire  rod  down  its  center,  on 
which  to  fasten  the  cards,  so  they  cannot  be  lost  or  taken 
away.  The  writer,  who  began  five  years  ago  with  a  small 
box,  has  now  four  drawers  of  cards  for  household  and 
professional  use. 

If  a  card  should  be  incorrect,  or  when  new  facts  need  to 
be  added,  all  that  is  necessary  is  to  write  a  new  card  to 
replace  the  old  one.  The  card  plan  becomes  an  easy 
"habit,"  and  anyone  who  has  tried  it  long  enough  has  be- 
come enthusiastic  over  its  ease,  compactness  and  quality  of 
being  in  one  place.  As  laid  out  by  Mr.  Harrington  Emer- 
son, it  will  be  remembered  that  "immmediate,  reliable  and 
accurate  records"  is  one  of  the  chief  principles  of  efficiency. 
Even  many  a  housekeeper  who  now  keeps  "accurate"  rec- 
ords has  not  them  so  arranged  that  they  are  "immediate" 
to  get  at  or  read;  the  system  of  household  filing  suggested 
above  will,  more  than  anything  else  we  know,  or  have  seen 
tried,  help  the  housekeeper  to  keep  all  her  important  house- 
hold information  "immediate,  reliable  and  accurate." 


One  more  department  of  housewifely  knowledge  was 
omitted  from  the  above  discussion,  and  that  was,  all  infor- 
mation relating  to  cooking,  recipes  and  household  practice, 
because  it  seems  better  to  discuss  it  separately.  But  here 
again  is  another  great  interest  of  the  housekeeper — recipes 
and  cooking  methods.  How  shall  she  arrange  it  all?  The 
usual  cookbook  contains  much  that  is  only  reference ;  again, 
the  interested  cook  is  always  clipping  new  recipes  from 


periodicals,  and  exchanging  them  with  her  friends.  What 
shall  she  do  with  this  new  material  which  is  supplementary 
to  the  regular  cookbook?  Again,  the  usual  way  of  laying 
a  cookbook  on  the  table  and  following  the  recipe  results  in 
spattered  and  soiled  pages,  as  well  as  being  difficult  to 
follow,  as  it  lies  below  the  eye  level.  All  these  faults  are 
remedied  by  making  a  cardfile  recipe  cabinet,  as  follows : 

Card  File  Recipe  Cabinet 

MATERIALS  :     6x4  cards  (about  500)  ;  20-30  guide  cards. 
Write  on  each  guide  card  the  divisions  into  which  you 

prefer  to  classify  your  recipes.     Following  is  a  practical 

arrangement,  arranged  alphabetically: 

1.  Beverages  15.  Game,  poultry 

2.  Breads,  yeast  16.  Jelly,   preserves,   canning 

3.  Breads,   quick   raising  17.  Lunchbox 

4.  Cocktails,  fruit,  shellfish,  etc.   18.  Macaroni,  rice,  curries 

5.  Beans,  peas,  lentils  19.  Meats — 

6.  Cakes  and  icings  (a)  Beef 

7.  Candies  (b)  Brains,  sweetbreads 

8.  Cheese,  rarebits  (c)  Mutton,   lamb 

9.  Desserts—  (d)  Pork 

(a)  Without  eggs  (e)  Veal 

(b)  With  eggs  20.  Menus 

(c)  Cake  21.  Pastry  picnics 

(d)  Fruit  22.  Pickles  and  catsups 

(e)  Pudding  23.  Potatoes 

(f)  Frozen  24.  Salads  and  dressings 

10.  Eggs,  omelets  25.  Sauces 

11.  Fish,  salt  26.  Sherbets  and  punches 

12.  Fish,  fresh,  shellfish  27.  Soups 

13.  Fruit,  fresh,  stewed  28.  Vegetables 

14.  Fritters,  waffles,  pancakes 

Special  cards  may  be  made  up  giving,  Unusually  Success- 
ful Dinners,  Children's  Dishes,  Formal  Luncheons,  After- 
noon Tea,  etc.,  etc.  Another  classification  might  be  accord- 
ing to  the  qualities  of  the  foods,  as  "Proteins,"  "Starches/* 


etc.  Other  cards  might  be,  "meat  substitutes,"  "fireless 
recipes,"  "milk  dishes,"  "invalid  dishes,"  etc.,  etc.  Five 
points  should  be  covered  with  each  recipe: 

1.  Approximate  cost 

2.  How  many  does  it  serve? 

3.  How  long  to  prepare? 

4.  How  long  to  cook? 

5.  Nutritive  value 

This  file  of  recipes  should  not  be  kept  with  the  other 
cards  in  the  household  file,  but  in  a  separate  small  box  in 
the  cabinet,  or  over  the  kitchen  table.  Or  the  cards  may  be 
placed  in  a  sliding  drawer  to  pull  out  under  the  shelf.  A 
piece  of  glass  the  same  size  as  the  cards  can  be  built  into  the 
front  of  the  drawer.  All  these  cards  should  be  punched 
with  a  small  hole  in  the  center  upper  edge.  Then  a  small 
hook  should  be  screwed  in  the  shelf  at  about  eye  level,  and 
as  a  card  is  taken  from  the  box,  it  is  to  be  hung  on  the  hook, 
where  it  can  be  easily  seen  and  read.  The  newest  guide 
cards  for  this  file  have  celluloid  tabs  so  that  they  will  not 
soil  or  become  bent  with  constant  thumbing. 

The  receipted  bills  themselves  are  of  course  too  bulky  to 
be  placed  in  the  card  file  box.  What  is  called  a  "vertical 
letter  file"  is  excellent  of  this  purpose.  This  is  a  pasteboard 
box,  with  envelope  partitions,  numbered  alphabetically.  It 
is  an  easy  matter  to  have  this  file  stand  upright  on  one's 
desk,  and  quickly  slip  into  it  receipted  gas  bills  under  "G," 
butcher  on  "B,"  etc. 


Sometimes  much  of  the  material  the  housekeeper  wishes 

to  keep  is  in  the  form  of  clippings  on  this  or  that  favorite 

topic..    These   can   be   handled   best   in   a   series   of   large 

envelopes   such  as  are   used   in   libraries   and   commercial 


offices.  Each  envelope  measures  about  8x12  (they  come  in 
different  sizes).  To  use  them,  place  them  upright  (opening 
at  back).  Paste  a  label  in  the  upper  right-hand  corner. 
Decide  on  the  different  divisions  or  subjects  you  wish  to 
make,  as  "Women  and  Civic  Work,"  "Club  Programs  and 
Study,"  "Montessori  and  Child  Training,"  "Furniture  and 

Letter  File,  Postcard  File,  Manila  Envelope,  Recipe  File. 

House  Decoration,"  etc.  The  following  method  of  labelling 
them  is  the  author's  own  adaptation  of  the  "Dewey  Decimal 
System"  and  is  so  simple  and  helpful  that  it  can  be  applied 
to  any  set  of  household  clippings,  or  those  for  other  uses. 
Decide  on  the  main  subject  on  which  you  wish  to  collect 
clippings  and  information.  Call  this  envelope  No.  i.  Al- 
low ten  envelopes  to  this  one  subject.  Decide  on  another 
general  head,  call  this  envelope  10,  and  allow  ten  envelopes 
to  this  group.  The  third  envelope  of  the  general  subject 
will  be  20,  the  fourth  30,  and  so  on.  The  plan  works  out 
as  follows: 


ENVELOPE  No.  i — Food  clippings 

.    2 — Menus  for  special  occasions 
3 — Food  for  children 
4 — Lunchbox  plans 
5-9 — to  be  added  later 
ENVELOPE  No.  10 — Child  education 
ii — Prenatal  care 
12 — Nursery  devices 
13-19 — to  be  added  later 
ENVELOPE  No.  20 — Club   programs 
21 — Music 

22-29 — to  be  added  later 
ENVELOPE  No.  30 — Fashions 

31-39 — to  be  added  later 

The  "key"  to  the  whole  plan  is  to  allow  ten  envelopes  to 
each  subject,  whether  they  are  in  use  or  not.  This  brings 
the  number  of  each  general  subject  ten  and  multiples  of  ten, 
so  that  grouping  is  very  easy.  If  one  wishes  to  carry  the 
plan  to  full  completion,  use  a  set  of  3x5  cards  in  connection 
with  the  envelopes,  and  "index"  the  cards  by  subject  to 
correspond  with  the  numbering  on  the  envelopes.  That  is, 
if  envelope  I  is  "Foods,"  and  envelope  50  is  "Garden  and 
Sprays,"  the  cards  to  correspond  will  have  a  large  guide 
card,  stating: 

Foods  No.  i 

(with  nine  separate  cards  each  with  its  subject  behind  it) 

Garden  and  Sprays No.  50 

(with  its  nine  cards  behind  it). 

It  is  thus  possible,  by  looking  through  the  card  file  first, 
to  locate  instantly  a  clipping  on  a  given  subject.  The  plan 
may  sound  complicated,  but  it  would  not  take  more  than  an 
hour  to  label  and  arrange  both  envelopes  and  cards,  and  it 
will  be  a  permanent  way  to  quickly  and  systematically  file 
all  kinds  of  clippings,  recipes,  booklets  and  others  which 
come  with  many  household  furnishings. 



Now,  after  we  have  described  these  plans  and  the  way 
to  keep  all  houshold  records  "immediate,  reliable  and  accu- 
rate" by  means  of  a  filing  system,  the  author  hears  some 
women  instantly  look  up  from  reading  the  chapter  and 
remark,  "Well,  that  may  be  efficient  all  right,  but  it  sounds 
too  long  and  difficult  for  me  to  try.  I  don't  have  the  time 


to  write  all  that  stuff  on  cards,  and  keep  such  a  plan  going. 
I'll  have  to  stick  to  the  old-fashioned  way."  Now,  dear 
reader,  do  not  condemn  any  plan  until  you  have  given  it 
a  fair  trial.  Second,  the  author  wants  to  say,  emphatically, 
that  even  if  you  don't  use  any  such  system  you  are  taking 
time  "to  keep  track  of  things,"  even  in  your  present  old- 
fashioned  way.  Think  of  the  hours  you  spent  "hunting" 
for  an  important  address  which  you  must  have  imme- 
diately. Think  what  an  amount  of  energy  you  waste  run- 
ning around  the  house  for  a  commercial  receipt  that  you 
are  "sure  you  paid,"  when  the  collector  calls  for  his  bill. 
Think  how  you  take  the  time  of  the  family  asking  them 


"Where  is  this?"  or  "Did  you  see  Mama's  or  

that?"  Or,  "I'm  so  sorry,  I've  hunted  just  everywhere  and 
thought  I  had  it  all  tucked  away  in  my  desk,  but  I  can't 
find  it,"  etc.,  etc. 

Now,  the  author  doesn't  claim  that  any  filing  system 
needs  no  time,  but  that  it  at  least  doesn't  take  any  more 
time  than  any  present  hap-hasard  method,  and  that  its 
results  are  80  per  cent  more  efficient. 
The  time  you  spend  hunting  and 
searching  and  asking  and  "getting 
flustered,"  etc.,  could  be  spent  equally 
well  in  sitting  down  calmly  and  writ- 
ing on  a  card  information  which  will 
save  you  a  "fluster"  next  time.  It 
would  not  take  as  long  to  write  on  a 
card  that  the  painter  charged  $5  for 
painting  the  porch  last  spring  than  it 
would  this  year  to  try  and  remember, 
and  make  a  telephone  call  or  write 
for  a  new  estimate  this  season  when 
the  porch  needs  to  be  repainted.  If 
housekeeping  is  to  be  a  "business," 

then  the  least  we  can  do  is  to  follow  the  business  practices 
in  caring  for  money  and  information  on  which  the  success- 
ful management  of  the  home  depends. 


A  small  device  used  in  many  offices  is  equally  helpful  in 
the  home.  This  is  called  the  "index  visible,"  and  the  author 
has  adapted  it  in  several  ways.  It  consists  of  about  fifty 
3x5  cards,  with  a  special  cut  on  the  lower  edge  which  per- 
mits the  cards  to  slide  up  and  down  a  thin  metal  hanger. 
Only  the  top  edge  of  each  card  is  visible,  but  other  ma- 
terial may  be  written  on  the  body  of  the  card.  Cards  can 



instantly  be  slipped  out  and  changed.    It  can  be  used  excel- 
lently for: 

Telephone  list  (with  alphabetical  cards) 

List  of  phonograph  records 

List  of  linen  closet 

List  of  appointments 

List  of  standard  house  supplies  and  other  subjects 

One  thing  that  contributes  to  being  businesslike  is  to 
have  the  right  "business"  atmosphere.  There  should  be 
some  kind  of  "office"  in  every  home,  where  the  above  files 
and  papers,  etc.,  can  be  permanently  arranged.  A  writing 
desk  is  not  so  good  as  a  flat-topped  table,  such  as  even  a 
stained  kitchen  table  in  the  corner  of  some  room.  If  the 
homemaker  does  her  own  work,  some  convenient  kitchen 
shelf  and  drawer  would  be  excellent.  Just  as  the  busy 
executive  needs  a  place  where  he  can  have  his  papers  and 
materials  untouched,  so  the  homemaker  needs  an  "office" 
corner,  no  matter  how  humble,  where  she  can  go  to  plan 
her  menus,  write  out  her  orders  and  make  up  her  accounts. 
A  few  shelves  over  such  a  table,  to  hold  her  reference 
cook  books,  government  and  state  bulletins  and  other  pub- 
lications on  homemaking  would  all  tend  to  increase  her 
system  and  pride  in  the  "business"  end  of  homemaking. 


Family  Financing  and  Record  Keeping 

1.  With  what  system  of  family  financeering  are  you  most 

familiar  ?    What  are  its  advantages  ?    What  its  defects  ? 

2.  Give  the  budget  of  your  own  family  as  nearly  as  you  can. 


3.  What  system  of  household  accounts  seems  best  to  you? 

4.  Household  records — do  you  keep  any?    Is  it  advisable? 

5.  Can  you  arrange  for  a  "Business  Corner"? 


*  2  .  3  8  S 

ii  m 

1    I 

S         o 

s  ? 

2 'I 


U  I 

i    § 




EVERY  large  business  and  factory  recognizes  that 
the  purchasing  of  its  supplies  and  equipment  is  one 
of  its  most  important  and  responsible  departments. 
Therefore  we  find  business  firms  employing  persons  called 
"purchasing  agents,"  who  are  trained,  informed  on  market 
conditions,  and  able  to  buy  to  the  best  advantage  for  their 
particular  firms.  Such  "agents"  enable  their  firms  to  save 
many  thousands  of  dollars  which  otherwise  might  have 
been  wasted  in  misguided  or  poorly  planned  purchasing. 
The  woman  in  the  home  must  occupy  a  similar  position  as 
the  "purchasing  agent"  of  the  family,  because  in  her  hands 
lies  the  spending  of  the  family  funds.  She  must  therefore 
know  exactly  what  the  family  has  to  spend,  what  it  wishes 
to  spend  for  according  to  its  prearranged  "goal"  or  aims, 
when  is  the  best  time  to  buy,  and  what  she  should  pay.  In 
other  words,  every  woman  running  the  business  of  home- 
making  must  train  herself  to  become  an  efficient  "purchas- 
ing agent"  for  her  particular  firm  or  family,  by  study,  watch- 
fulness, and  practice. 

The  first  basis  of  efficient  purchasing  is  to  plan  the  spend- 
ing according  to  the  budget  plan  given  in  the  previous  chap- 
ter. Definite  amounts  of  the  income  must  be  set  aside  and 
known  in  advance  for  food,  clothing,  replacement,  etc.  These 
amounts  must  be  known  not  only  for  the  week,  or  the  month, 


but  for  the  whole  year,  or  otherwise  no  systematic  buying, 
no  economies,  or  truly  wise  investment-buying  can  be  prac- 
ticed. Unless  purchasing  is  so  planned,  then  the  home 
"purchasing  agent"  will  not  be  able  to  take  advantage  of 
the  right  seasons  for  buying,  or  be  able  to  buy  in  quantity, 
or  find  money  enough  set  aside  when  the  time  comes  to 
purchase.  The  larger  the  income,  the  more  easy  it  is  to  waste 
and  spend  haphazardly.  And  with  the  increasingly  high 
cost  of  all  living,  still  greater  responsibility  is  placed  on  the 
home  "purchasing  agent"  to  buy  on  a  small  or  moderate 
income,  the  necessities  of  food,  clothing  and  furnishing,  and 
still  have  left  enough  money  to  supply  the  family's  needs 
of  education  and  advancement. 

Never  before  in  the  history  of  the  family  have  the  burdens 
of  purchasing  been  placed  so  heavily  on  woman's  shoulders. 
This  is  because  today  the  modern  woman  is  chiefly  a  con- 
sumer, and  not  a  producer.  The  housewife  of  a  century  ago 
made  soap  and  candles,  wove  and  fashioned  all  of  the  gar- 
ments, and  with  her  own  hands  produced  not  only  food  for 
daily  use,  but  also  "jarred"  and  dried  fruits  and  vegetables, 
and  preserved  meats  for  winter  use.  Today  even  the  good 
housekeeper  finds  it  profitable  to  buy  many  articles  prepared 
in  a  "food  factory,"  some  clothing  that  is  "ready  made," 
and  to  avail  herself  of  countless  articles  which  make  for 
comfort  and  sanitation  which  are  produced  commercially. 

It  might  at  first  seem  that  by  being  able  to  buy  the  article 
instead  of  having  to  make  it,  that  the  modern  consumer  is 
at  once  relieved  of  all  responsibility.  Some  women  take 
this  view,  but  it  is  a  mistake.  Because,  in  letting  go  the  work 
of  her  own  hands  she  is  instead  faced  with  entirely  new 
responsibilities.  When  food,  garments,  or  other  articles 
were  formerly  made  in  the  old-fashioned  home,  the  woman 
herself  determined  by  personal  supervision,  that  the  quality, 
purity,  and  cleanliness  of  these  articles  produced  under  her 


roof,  were  of  the  highest.  Just  so,  she  today  must  (person- 
ally or  collectively),  assure  herself  of  equal  standards  of 
purity  and  sanitation  in  these  articles  wherever  they  are 
made — in  factory,  shop,  or  mill.  In  other  words,  some  of 
the  time  saved  by  having  these  articles  manufactured  outside 
the  home  must  be  taken  by  the  housekeeper  in  learning  to 
understand  how  to  buy  commercially  made  products.  What 
standards  to  demand,  what  price  to  pay,  what  adulterants 
to  avoid,  are  some  of  the  things  which  must  be  learned  in 
order  to  become  a  trained  consumer,  or  a  responsible  "pur- 
chasing agent"  for  the  family. 

To  become  a  trained  consumer  is  therefore  one  of  the 
most  important  demands  made  on  the  housekeeper  of  today  f 
because,  whether  she  is  conscious  of  it  or  not,  the  woman  in 
the  home  does  the  bulk  of  the  family  purchasing.  The  fig- 
ures in  the  last  chapter  will  bear  repeating : 

Women  buy  96%  of  all  dry  goods,  87%  of  raw  and  mar- 
ket products,  48.5%  of  hardware  and  housefurnishings,  48% 
of  drugs,  11.2%  of  men's  clothing.  The  broad  conclusion 
is  that  women  alone  buy  48.4%  of  all  merchandise  for  family 
use,  and  help  in  selecting  23%  more,  thus  buying  practically 
71%  of  all  the  products  used  in  the  home.  How  essential, 
therefore,  that  with  this  great  responsibility  placed  on  her, 
she  teaches  herself  to  become  a  wise,  trained  consumer, 
equipped  with  knowledge  and  warned  against  pitfalls  and 
inefficient  buying  methods.  If  she  does  not  train  herself, 
this  large  percent,  representing  annually  billions  of  dollars, 
will  be  spent  for  waste  and  not  value.  Her  family  will  suf- 
fer ;  or  the  husband  will  be  compelled  to  increase  his  income 
with  no  corresponding  saving ;  or  he  may,  indeed,  be  forced 
himself  to  take  up  the  burden  of  the  family  purchasing  agent, 
thus  overtaxing  his  time  and  strength  and  taking  the  time 
needed  to  make  his  own  business  a  success. 

Still  further,  women,  by  failing  to  understand  how  to  buy 


in  the  most  efficient  manner,  are  frequently  responsible  for 
many  of  the  evils  or  high  costs  present  in  our  modern 
selling  methods.  The  women  blame  the  retailer  or  the  manu- 
facturer, whereas,  it  can  be  proved  clearly  in  several  in- 
stances that  the  blame  should  be  laid  directly  at  their  own 
door.  By  undue  use  of  the  "charge  account,"  by  excessive 
delivery  demands,  the  "return  goods"  habit  (by  vagaries  in 
buying  and  other  errors,  women  make  the  cost  of  doing  busi- 
ness higher  than  necessary.  Also  it  may  be  said  here, 
that  every  woman  should  be  a  trained  consumer,  whether 
she  has  a  family  (i.  e.,  husband  and  children)  or  not.  The 
waste  of  inefficient  buying  of  independent  unmarried  women 
creates  just  as  much  disorder  as  does  the  poorly  planned 
buying  of  the  homemaker,  particularly  as  the  former,  hav- 
ing frequently  only  themselves  to  support,  are  inclined  to 
even  greater  carelessness  in  their  buying  habits. 

Increased  skill  in  buying  will  come,  like  every  other  kind 
of  proficiency,  only  from  continuous  trying,  from  experi- 
ment, and  study.     Any  woman    (or  man)    can  become  a 
trained  consumer,  if  they  consciously  train  themselves : 

i — By  knowing  that  efficient  buying  is  based  not  only  on  price,  but 
also  on  considerations  of  value]  quality,  wear,  future  invest- 

2 — By  knowing  the  merits  of  various  kinds  of  distribution  methods, 
as  parcel  post,  mail-order,  co-operative  buying,  public  market, 

3 — By  knowing  the  nutritive  values  of  food. 

4 — By  knowing  and  co-operating  in  the  enforcement  of  state  and 
national  laws  governing  the  standards  and  handling  of  raw  and 
manufactured  products. 

5— By  knowing  existing  weights  and  measure  laws  and  checking  up 
weights  in  the  home  kitchen. 

6 — By  knowing  adulterants  found  in  products  and  malpractice 
among  dealers. 

7 — By  knowing  how  to  identify  manufactured  products,  their  trade- 
marks, labels,  advertising,  sizes  of  cans,  etc. 


8 — By  knowing  the  manufacture  and  qualities  of  various  textiles. 
9— By  personal  experiment  and  test,  keeping  definite  records  of 

results  in  all  purchasing. 
I0 — By  co-operation  with  organized  consumers,  as  housewives'  and 

consumer  leagues,  boards  of  health,  etc. 


The  first  lesson  in  all  efficient  buying  is  to  distinguish 
between  price  and  value,  and  to  learn  to  make  all  purchases 
on  a  basis  of  value,  and  not  on  price  alone.  Prices  may  fluc- 
tuate because  of  economic  conditions,  but  the  value  of  an 
article  can  be  fixed  only  in  the  consumer's  mind.  Value  is 
the  "long-distance,"  investment  view  which  considers  many 
factors  and  results  in  wise  expenditure.  For  instance,  a 
comfortably  upholstered  Morris  chair  at  $20  would  give 
more  value  than  a  brocaded  gilt  settee  at  $50.  Or,  a  lunch- 
cloth  of  excellent  linen,  with  scalloped  edges,  which  cost 
$8.00  that  can  be  used  every  day,  would  give  more  value 
than  an  elaborate  one  of  Madeira  embroidery  costing  twice 
that  amount,  but  so  fragile  that  it  can  be  used  only  once 
or  twice  a  year.  Again,  a  house  is  valuable  as  a  residence 
in  proportion  as  it  offers  sunshine,  dry  cellar,  reliable  plumb- 
ing, and  satisfactory  heating,  and  not  in  proportion  to  the 
details  of  finishing  and  decoration  of  the  exterior  or  the 
interior.  The  price  of  the  second  house,  however,  might  be 
double  that  of  the  first,  but  the  former  is  more  valuable  if  it 
gives  greater  comfort  and  health  to  the  family.  Or,  a  small 
talking  machine,  which  all  the  family  could  use,  at  $20  would 
probably  give  more  value  than  a  piano  at  $400  if  no  member 
were  a  musician. 

The  point  of  value  versus  price  applies  to  all  branches  of 
expenditure.  A  simple  recreation  plan  for  the  family,  alive 
and  interesting,  such  as  camping,  may  have  value  far  and 
above  the  actual  money  expended.  Sight-seeing  trips  to  city, 


factory  or  mine,  which  cost  only  carfare,  may  prove  more 
interesting  and  valuable  than  ten  times  that  sum  spent  at  the 
theaters.  Or,  Mrs.  B.  may  be  willing  to  pay  two  cents  more 
for  a  loaf  of  bread  wrapped  in  paraffin  paper,  a  cent  more  a 
pound  for  butter  protected  by  a  carton,  because  she  believes 
the  additional  value  of  the  increased  sanitary  handling  is 
worth  it.  If  price  only  were  her  basis,  she  would  buy  the 
cheaper  loaf,  and  the  bulk  butter.  A  conception  of  value 
is  of  the  utmost  importance,  for  value  is  always  greater  than 
price  and  must  control  price  in  the  consumer's  mind  in  order 
to  have  efficient  purchasing. 


"Distribution"  is  the  term  which  covers  handling,  or 
means  of  getting  products  from  the  grower  or  manufacturer 
who  raises  or  makes  them,  into  the  hands  of  the  consumer 
who  uses  them.  This  handling  cost  must,  of  course,  be 
added  to  the  actual  production  cost  of  the  article  and  paid  by 
the  consumer.  The  price  paid  for  eggs  in  a  city  store,  or  for 
shoes  or  a  suit  of  clothes,  includes  not  only  the  price  paid 
to  the  farmer  or  manufacturer,  but  also  includes  the  fee 
charged  by  a  respective  chain  of  commission  men,  whole- 
salers and  retailers,  for  packing,  handling,  and  bringing  the 
article  to  a  location  or  store  conveniently  near  the  consumer. 
In  other  words,  "distribution"  includes  the  service  of  bring- 
ing an  article  from  a  distant  territory,  or  factory,  so  that  it 
can  be  easily  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  buyer,  thus  saving 
her  time,  effort  and  personal  handling.  In  the  case  of  manu- 
factured articles,  particularly,  the  cost  of  distribution  in- 
cludes the  risk  taken  by  each  one  of  the  distributors  that  the 
consumer  will  actually  buy  this  product ;  i.  e.,  the  manufac- 
turer who  makes  women's  suits,  let  us  say,  sells  the  suit  to  a 
wholesaler  or  jobber,  who  then  assumes  the  risk  or  chance 


that  he  can  sell  this  suit  to  the  retailer;  next,  the  retailer 
accepts  the  risk  that  he  can  sell  the  suit  to  the  woman  in  his 
town,  and  that  she  will  like  to  buy  it,  so  that  he  will  not  have 
it  on  his  hands.  This  risk  is  added  to  the  cost  of  distribution, 
as  is  also  the  cost  of  storage,  which,  in  the  case  of  some  prod- 
ucts, is  very  high. 

There  is  nothing  wrong  with  the  theory  of  the  consumer 
paying  for  this  delivery,  service,  and  convenience ;  it  is  only 
that  in  many  cases  distribution  costs  have  been  excessive, 
due  to  no  regulation  or  control  by  law.  This  has  been  particu- 
larly true  in  the  case  of  the  commission  houses,  that  have 
been  exposed,  and  proved  guilty  of  such  offenses  as  steaming 
potatoes  in  order  to  hold  up  the  price,  buying  up  orchards 
and  dumping  the  fruit,  etc.,  etc.  The  remedy  here  is  not  to 
do  away  entirely  with  the  central  wholesale  place  of  ex- 
change which  the  commission  house  offers,  and  which  is 
absolutely  necessary  for  the  retailer  and  consumer  in  a  large 
city,  but  to  regulate  such  centers  by  law.  Some  such  regu- 
lation, after  the  manner  of  public  service  commissions,  state 
industrial  commissions,  etc.,  with  uniform  laws  and  mini- 
mum distribution  charges,  should  be  enforced  by  each  com- 
munity in  the  interests  of  both  consumer  and  producer. 

In  most  cases  where  the  consumer  evades  the  distribution 
cost,  she  herself  must  take  some  of  the  time  and  effort  of  dis- 
tribution, which  in  the  former  case  she  avoided,  but  for 
which  she  paid.  For  instance,  prices  are  universally  lower 
in  a  public  market  than  in  a  retail  store.  However,  the 
market  necessitates  that  the  consumer  take  her  own  two 
hours  of  time  walking  a  long  distance,  or,  perhaps,  paying 
carfare,  and  carry  her  packages  home  herself.  In  many 
cases  it  will  be  a  real  saving  to  do  this ;  in  many  other  cases 
the  convenience  and  delivery  of  the  neighborhood  retailer 
will  be  worth  the  additional  cost.  Similarly,  while  the  "cata- 
log" house  in  a  large  center  may  save  some  money,  it  gives  no 


service,  the  consumer  cannot  see  the  goods  before  she  buys, 
and  in  most  cases  she  must  pay  the  delivery  cost. 


I — A  manufacturer  is  the  original  source  of  production  of  a  product 
made  in  factory,  mill,  mine,  etc.  A  producer  or  grower  is  the 
original  source  of  production  of  farm  or  livestock  products.  A 
manufacturer  sells  to  both  jobbers  and  retailers.  A  producer  sells 
generally  only  to  commission  houses. 

2 — A  jobber  buys  manufactured  articles  from  the  manufacturer  and 
sells  to  the  retailer,  but  never  manufactures  himself. 

3 — A  commission  merchant,  or  "house"  is  a  jobber  in  food  products 
who  buys  from  the  grower  and  in  turn  sells  to  the  retailer. 

4 — A  retailer  buys  from  either  manufacturer,  jobber,  or  commission 
merchant,  and  sells  to  the  consumer. 

The  consumer  may  try  to  break  through  these  links  in  the 
chain  of  distribution,  and  in  some  cases  be  successful,  as 
with  the  parcel  post,  which  is  a  direct  means  of  selling  be- 
tween the  producer  and  the  consumer,  or  by  the  mail-order 
house,  which  is  a  jobber.  But  it  must  be  said  emphatically 
that  the  retailer  has  a  genuine  place  to  fill,  and  service  to  give 
in  every  community.  Even  if  the  parcel  post  were  far  more 
universal  and  satisfactory  than  it  is  at  present,  such  a  system 
would  not  be  satisfactory  for  all  consumers  in  large  centers. 
All  buying  cannot  be  done  at  public  markets,  or  from  out-of- 
town  mail-order  houses,  owing  to  distance,  time  involved,  etc. 
In  other  words,  no  matter  how  we  may  save  money  once  in  a 
while  on  buying  a  suit  by  mail,  or  going  six  miles  to  a  market, 
or  having  eggs  sent  direct  by  parcel  post,  we  need  the  retailer 
to  give  us  service  in  providing  necessities  and  perishables — 
fruit,  milk,  butter,  bread,  elastic ;  we  need  the  retailer  to 
mend  our  sudden  plumbing  leaks,  to  supply  us  with  arnica 
and  toothpaste,  to  let  us  quickly  get  another  eggbeater,  or 
badly  needed  shoes  and  stockings. 


We  may  be  able  to  save  money  on  buying  the  large,  antici- 
pated, occasional  purchase,  like  a  rug,  or  a  suit,  from  a  mail- 
order house  or  manufacturer  direct.  But  it  is  only  on  such 
occasional,  almost  luxury-purchases  that  the  retailer  makes 
his  profit,  since  he  makes  almost  none  on  selling  us  the 
necessities.  Therefore,  unless  we  do  buy  from  him  the 
luxuries  or  occasional  purchases  on  which  his  profit  is  larger, 
he  may  not  be  able  to  remain  in  business,  and  we  will  no 
longer  receive  the  convenience,  delivery  and  service  on  the 
daily  necessities. 

There  are  many  inefficient  retailers,  and  often  the  cost 
of  doing  retail  business  is  far  too  high.  In  many  places  there 
are  too  many  retailers.  On  the  other  hand,  the  woman  con- 
sumer herself  is  actually  to  blame  for  much  of  the  excessive 
costs  of  retail  selling.  How  many  of  us  run  up  charge  ac- 
counts, which  increase  the  cost  of  doing  business  over  5%  ? 
How  many  of  us  ask  our  grocer  to  send  the  boy  over  with 
a  yeast-cake  and  a  loaf  of  bread,  or  demand  as  many  as  six 
daily  deliveries?  How  many  of  us  fail  to  pay  our  bills,  or 
are  guilty  of  the  telephone  habit,  the  C.  O.  D.  habit,  or  the 
"returned  goods"  evil — all  of  which  can  be  shown  to  increase 
the  retailer's  cost  of  business  unfairly.  One  delivery  per 
day  in  a  store  makes  the  delivery  service  only  about  5%, 
whereas  many  deliveries  increase  it  to  as  much  as  13%. 
The  grocery  store  which  does  a  "cash"  business  has  a  cost  of 
about  14%  of  doing  business,  whereas  the  store  which  "car- 
ries" customers  must  pay  nearly  20%.  Similarly  in  all  retail 
lines,  delivery,  bad  debts  and  inefficiency  on  the  part  of  the 
consumer  increase  the  cost  back  to  herself. 

The  first  thing  is  to  reform  herself,  and  insist  that  the 
retailer  carry  out  these  reforms  with  her.  For  instance, 
induce  the  retailer  to  make  one  price  if  goods  are  delivered, 
and  another  if  the  customer  carries  them  home  herself.  This 
has  been  done  in  a  large  bakery,  which,  for  example,  asks 


ii  cents  per  doz  for  rolls  sent  home,  but  only  10  cents  if 
they  are  taken.  A  large  milk  company  has  announced  that 
milk  of  a  certain  grade  will  be  10  cents  per  quart  if  delivered 
as  usual,  or  8  cents  if  the  consumer  comes  to  certain  depots 
with  her  own  container.  This  is  the  right  saving  principle : 
to  separate  delivery  cost  from  actual  cost.  Again,  the  cash 
customer  should  receive  a  percentage  off  on  his  purchases, 
or  be  entitled  to  lower  prices.  The  "cash-and-carry"  stores 
always  can  undersell  stores  with  charge  accounts. 

Frequently,  too,  the  customer  is  under  the  illusion  that 
when  she  buys  from  manufacturer  or  jobber  direct,  that  she 
is  getting  a  "wholesale  price."  This  is  seldom,  if  ever,  the 
case,  for  the  manufacturer  who  advertises  that  he  will  sell 
"direct  to  you"  has  to  pay  the  cost  of  advertising  and  printed 
matter ;  he  has  to  make  separate  deliveries,  take  care  of  the 
risk,  the  collections,  etc.  In  a  word,  he  must  assume  some  of 
the  expense  of  the  retailer.  He  cannot  possibly  sell  you  one 
chair  for  as  low  a  price  as  100  chairs  to  a  retailer.  Thus 
the  consumer  never  gets  the  wholesale  price,  though  the 
price  may  be  less  than  charged  by  the  local  retailer  for 
goods  in  stock. 

The  distinction  between  "quantity"  buying  and  "whole- 
sale" buying  should  be  kept  clear.  Oftentimes  so-called 
"wholesale  prices"  can  be  obtained  through  the  local  retailer, 
on  a  special  order,  at  no  more  than  the  "mail-order"  price. 

It  is  a  wise  plan  to  co-operate  with  the  local  retailers  and 
to  understand  their  difficulties.  The  greatest  saving  in  pur- 
chasing staples  comes  through  quantity  buying,  as  was 
shown  in  the  purchase  of  meats,  pages  191-193. 


The  consumer  can  keep  check  on  the  retailer,  especially 
in  the  case  of  market  or  fresh  produce,  by  reading  the  mar- 
ket reports  or  quotations  which  tell  her  from  day  to  day  the 


fluctuations  in  food  prices.  The  prices  quoted  for  veg- 
etables, fruit,  flour,  etc.,  are  for  carload  or  loo-pound  lots, 
and  are  the  prices  paid  by  the  commission  men,  or  whole- 
salers. These  reports  do  not  give  the  retail  price  because 
the  desirability  of  goods,  even  in  the  same  lot,  varies,  and 
thus  no  definite  invariable  increase  can  be  added  to  the 
wholesale  price,  and  the  retail  price  estimated  by  the  con- 
sumer. But  the  reports  do  help  her  by  telling  her  the  head- 
lines, which  state  whether  a  certain  commodity  has  risen  or 
fallen  in  price.  If  the  rise  or  fall  is  steady  for  two  successive 
days,  the  retail  market  will  be  affected  on  the  second  or  third 
day.  War  and  labor  conditions,  the  reports  from  the  gov- 
ernment's "volunteer  crop  reporters,"  who  tell  Uncle  Sam 
about  local  crop  conditions — all  these  will  be  straws  to  show 
which  way  the  market  winds  blow,  and  which  can  be  inter- 
preted by  the  observant  consumer  so  that  she  can  buy  to 
advantage.  For  instance,  if  weather  conditions  have  been 
such  that  the  potato  crop  is  scarce,  then  it  would  be  wise 
to  put  in  a  supply  early,  before  the  prices  rise,  due  to  gen- 
eral shortage.  Or,  if  the  new  wheat  crop  is  affected  by 
blight,  buy  a  barrel  of  flour  at  once  (flour  held  in  mills), 
before  price  advances  on  the  new  milling. 

It  has  been  pointed  out  that  quantity  buying  is  preferable 
to  "bag"  or  package  buying,  wherever  possible.  But  to 
practice  quantity  buying,  there  must  be  adequate  storage 
space,  of  the  right  temperature,  and  such  inspection  that  a 
large  portion  of  the  goods  will  not  waste,  and  thus  undo  the 
original  saving.*  Such  staples  as  matches,  candles,  sugar, 
flour,  etc.,  are  always  best  bought  in  quantity,  if  space  per- 
mits. On  the  other  hand,  it  is  not  generally  advisable  to  buy 
perishables  in  quantity  unless  the  needs  of  the  family  are 

•Send  for  U.  S.  Bulletin  No.  375,  "Care  of  Food  in  the  Horn*." 


well  estimated ;  also,  such  articles  as  soda  biscuit,  spices,  cof- 
fee, etc.,  involving  crispness  and  flavor,  must  be  well  pro- 
tected from  air  and  moisture.  Too  frequently  a  large  quan- 
tity is  bought  because  the  price  is  low,  and  then  the  food 
must  be  served  so  frequently  as  to  tire  the  family  palate,  in 
order  to  "use  it  up."  In  buying  packaged  goods  or  small 
jars  of  such  foods  as  potted  meats,  fish,  etc.,  it  is  economy 
to  buy,  say  one  jar  or  package  at  25  cents,  rather  than  two 
jars,  one  at  15,  and  the  other  at  10,  which,  together, 
will  not  contain  as  many  ounces  as  the  larger  jar  at  the  same 

If,  however,  the  family  is  small,  it  is  greater  economy  to 
buy  in  small  quantity.  All  buying  should,  indeed,  be  based 
on  the  "purchasing  sheet"  (see  page  186),  and  on  the  experi- 
ments the  housekeeper  herself  makes  and  finds  out  in  regard 
to  her  own  particular  family.  Seasons  also  affect  all  buy- 
ing, as  in  summer,  less  coffee  may  be  used  and  more  fruit 
syrups,  or  less  cereals,  and  the  heavier  meal,  beans,  etc. 
Never  keep  cereals  and  a  quantity  of  flour  over  the  warm 
weather,  as  insects  or  mold  are  likely  to  develop.  Daily 
shopping  is  not  necessary;  twice  or,  at  most,  tri-weekly 
ordering  makes  for  efficiency  and  the  "advance  preparation" 
of  meals.  In  the  author's  home,  five  miles  from  fresh  sup- 
plies, and  40  miles  from  a  city,  meat  and  perishables  are 
bought  once  a  week ;  monthly  a  large  grocery  order  is  sent 
to  a  city  dealer — and  that  ends  all  the  marketing ! 


All  marketing  should  be  primarily  on  the  food  budget, 
which  gives  the  total  sum  to  be  spent  for  food  during  the 
year,  based  on  a  general  average  for  each  month.  If  staples 
are  purchased  in  quantity,  the  expenditures  of  one  month 
may  greatly  exceed  the  average.  This  excess  should  be 


apportioned  over  the  succeeding  months ;  thus,  $24.00  spent 
for  winter  vegetables  to  last  six  months  will  reduce  the 
allowance  for  food  $4.00  a  month  for  six  months.  Such 
seasonable  buying  should  be  provided  for  somewhat  as 

January — Linens,  reduced  price  winter  clothing  and 

February — Canned  goods. 

March — Kitchen  utensils. 

April — Barrel  sugar,  preserving  and  canning  jars  and 

May — Coal. 

June — Box  of  soap. 

July — Reduced  price  summer  garments  and  textiles. 

August — Furniture,  reduced  price  summer  furnishings, 
blankets  and  bedding. 

September — Winter  apples,  root  vegetables,  onions. 

October — Canned  goods,  potatoes,  cereals,  dried  vege- 

November — Lard,  smoked  meats,  syrups. 

December — Holiday  gifts  and  extra  delicacies. 


Another  means  of  lowering  distribution  costs,  is  for  the 
consumer  to  buy  co-operatively  with  other  consumers.  Con- 
siderable money  can  frequently  be  saved  if  four  to  ten  fam- 
ilies make  up  an  order  together  and  get  the  quantity  price, 
and  pay  only  one  charge  for  delivery,  instead  of  many. 
There  are,  however,  frequently  marked  disadvantages,  espe- 
cially if  the  people  ordering  do  not  live  closely  together,  or 
do  not  have  the  same  tastes,  as  each  family  is  more  limited 
to  choice  and  selection  when  nine  other  families  must  be  con- 


sidered.  Again,  some  one  member  of  the  group  must  take 
charge  of  collecting  the  money,  be  responsible  for  it,  and 
take  her  own  time  to  go  to  market,  see  to  the  delivery,  and 
attend  to  the  partition  of  the  order  into  ten  different  deliv- 
eries. It  often  seems  a  fallacy  to  suppose  that  nine  persons 
are  going  to  be  able  to  get  a  tenth  most  intelligent  consumer 
to  buy  for  them,  and  yet  not  pay  her  for  the  time  and  intel- 
ligence and  effort  she  puts  into  that  shopping.  Further,  if 
this  tenth  person  is  paid  for  the  time  spent,  then  the  articles 
bought  co-operatively  may  cost  about  as  much  as  if  bought 
at  the  high  individual  price.  However,  two  or  three  neigh- 
bors can  club  together  to  buy  a  barrel  of  apples,  crate  of 
oranges,  3O-dozen  crate  of  eggs  and  the  like  with  a  consid- 
erable saving  in  price  and  not  too  much  trouble. 

Co-operative  stores  are  successful  in  some  parts  of  the 
country,  but  are  not  nearly  so  common  as  in  other  countries. 


In  a  small  and  sporadic  way,  the  parcel-post  system  helps 
the  consumer  by  enabling  her  to  get  products  from  the  farm 
to  the  city.  The  disadvantages  of  the  method  are  that  some- 
times the  containers  devised  are  not  satisfactory  and  too 
much  breakage  occurs.  Also,  the  shippers  themselves  com- 
plain that  the  deliveries  are  not  sufficiently  prompt  to  satisfy 
their  customers,  much  discontent  being  found  with  delayed 
orders.  Vegetables,  fowls,  or  cured  meats  pack  and  carry 
the  best. 

One  of  the  most  successful  developments  in  this  line  is  the 
well-known  "hamper"  deliveries  of  the  L.  I.  R.  R.  Agricul- 
tural Experiment  Station  at  Medford,  L.  I.,  where  different 
sized  hampers  of  assorted  vegetables  are  sent  twice  weekly 
to  city  customers.  Now  that  autos  are  in  such  common  use, 
it  is  quite  possible  for  city  people  to  make  a  weekly  trip  to  a 


farm,  with  which  a  standing  order  is  placed  for  specific 

On  the  other  hand,  it  is  a  not  uncommon  experience  to  find 
that  the  country  producer  charges  exactly  the  city  quota- 
tion, and  expects  his  customers  to  carry  home  products  them- 
selves— or  that  he  even  refuses  to  sell  retail  at  a  good  fair 
price,  and  prefers  to  sell  all  his  produce  at  a  low  figure  to  a 
food  contractor.  The  situation  differs  widely  in  different 
sections,  but  is  worth  trial.  The  U.  S.  Department  of  Agri- 
culture is  encouraging  parcel-post  marketing,  and  postmast- 
ers usually  have  a  list  of  producers.  Some  of  the  express 
companies  also  have  lists. 


The  telephone  habit,  as  generally  practiced,  makes  for 
extravagance,  encourages  hand-to-mouth  buying  without 
advance  buying,  and  increases  the  cost  of  doing  business  to 
the  retailer.  In  every  case  greater  economy  will  result  if  the 
housekeeper  picks  out  the  desired  cut  and  amount  herself 
than  if  left  to  the  dealer  over  the  'phone.  By  marketing 
personally,  a  better  idea  of  what  is  seasonal  is  obtained  and 
the  chance  to  substitute  the  cheaper  vegetables  or  fruit  than 
those  intended.  By  choosing  a  time  of  day,  preferably  be- 
fore 10  a.  m.,  and  by  having  a  tentative  purchasing  sheet  in 
hand,  little  time  will  be  lost.  Some  market  days  are  better 
than  others — Tuesday,  Thursday  and  Saturday  in  most 
cities — for  the  selection  of  perishables.  The  telephone  habit 
encourages  that  lack  of  knowledge  of  conditions  and  prices 
as  exampled  by  the  woman  who  ordered  celery  in  May  and 
complained  that  it  cost  35  cents  a  bunch  and  that  she  was 
being  robbed.  If  she  had  shopped  personally,  she  would 
have,  doubtless,  found  young  carrots  and  spinach  at  a  third 
the  cost. 



The  purchasing  of  food  supplies  is  the  most  important 
of  all  buying,  since  from  one-fourth  to  one-half  of  the 
income  is  spent  for  foods,  and  the  smaller  the  income,  the 
larger  the  sum  that  must  be  spent.  There  is  no  relation, 
fortunately,  between  the  cost  of  food  and  its  nutritive  value. 
The  cost  as  paid  by  the  consumer  is  determined  by  many 
other  factors,  such  as  the  cost  of  production,  especially  with 
animals  eating  grains,  which  today  is  much  higher  than  for- 
merly; by  the  cost  of  transportation,  as  with  the  citrus 
fruits  brought  the  "long  haul"  from  Florida  or  the  West ;  by 
when  the  food  is  "in  season";  by  the  way  it  is  packed, 
in  bulk,  or  in  fancy  basket  or  carton;  by  whether  it  is 
"selected,"  all  of  one  grade,  appearance  and  size;  by  the 
degree  of  its  perishability,  especially  with  such  crops  as 
lettuce,  berries  and  other  fruits. 

Broadly,  there  are  two  bases  on  which  to  buy   foods: 

1 i )  a  basis  of  nutritive  value,  or  how  much  the  food  will  be 
actually  worth  to  the  body  as  fuel  and  building  material,  and 

(2)  a  basis  of  taste  and  esthetic  appeal  of  flavor,  color,  tex- 
ture, shape,  etc.     On  a  generous  income,  there  is  less  need 
to  think  of  the  nutritive  value,  and  more  scope  to  buy  foods 
which  please  and  attract  the  eye  or  palate.    But  on  any  in- 
come, every  housekeeper  should  think,  not  in  terms  of  mar- 
ket price,  but  in  terms  of  nutritive  value  first,  in  order  that 
her  family  shall  be  well  nourished.    There  is  far  too  strong 
a  tendency  to  think  that  foods  which  we  like  are  good  for  us, 
and  to  let  appearance  and  flavor  determine  selection,  when, 
so  far  as  real  nourishment  goes,  they  are  secondary. 


An  ordinary  diet  must  contain  from  2,000  to  3,000  or  more 
"food  units"  (calories),  depending  chiefly  on  size  of  body 


and  amount  of  muscular  exercise.  The  calories  give  the 
measure  of  the  "fuel  value/'  or  the  "heat  and  energy  value" 
of  the  food.  Thus,  perfectly  dry  starch,  sugar  or  protein 
yields  the  body  i  ,820  calories  per  pound,  while  fat  gives 
4,040  calories  per  pound. 

The  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture  has  found  by  experi- 
ment the  average  calorific  requirements  of  the  body  under 
different  conditions  as  follows: 


Weight  of  Body  (Ibs.)    no  120  130  140  150  160  170 

Asleep  in  bed 47  52  56  61  65  63  70 

Sitting  quietly   73  80  87  94  100  105  no 

Light  exercise    125  136  148  159  170  178  187 

Active  exercise    140  152  165  177  190  200  209 

Severe  exercise   330  360  390  420  450  471  496 

Thus,  a  woman  of  about  130  pounds,  sleeping  for  8  hours, 
doing  light  housework  10  hours,  reading,  etc.,  6  hours,  would 
require  (8x56)  +  (lox  148)  +  (6x87)  =2,450  calories.  A 
boy  of  about  the  same  weight  with  8  hours'  sleep,  8  hours' 
active  exercise,  6  hours'  playing  tennis  (severe  exercise), 
and  2  hours'  quiet  would  require  (8x56)  +  (8xi65)  + 
(6x390)  +  (2x87)  =4,282  calories.  He  would  need  a  little 
more  food  to  provide  for  growth.  No  wonder  he  has  such  a 
ravenous  appetite !  A  nervous,  restless  person  will  require 
somewhat  more  calories  than  indicated  in  the  table ;  a  thin 
person  will  need  about  as  much  food  as  if  of  normal  weight ; 
and  fat  above  the  average  should  be  disregarded. 

The  subject  of  balanced  diet  has  been  considered  briefly 
(pages  180-183).  On  a  calorie  basis  a  balanced  diet  means 
that  out  of  each  100  calories,  10  to  14  should  be  protein,  20 
to  40  fat,  and  30  to  60  starch  and  sugar.  A  mixed  diet, 
unless  badly  one-sided,  will  come  within  this  range. 


Food  products  have  high  "fuel  value"  when  they  contain 
but  little  water.  As  fats  give  2^4  times  the  food  units  of 
carbohydrates,  or  protein,  foods  which  contain  much  fat 
have  very  high  fuel  value. 

The  following  table  gives  the  general  average  of  calories 
per  pound  of  classes  of  food  as  eaten,  i.  e.,  without  waste, 
and  also  the  number  of  calories  which  come  from  the  protein 
in  100  calories  of  each  food.  Commit  it  to  memory. 



Calories  Protein  Cal- 
per  Ib.     ories  in  100 
Cereals — flour,  meals,  breakfast   foods,  maca- 

aroni,  etc 1650  12 

Bread   1200  13 

Beans,  peas,  lentils   (dry) 1500  25 

Meat  (fat)    1500  20 

Meat  (medium)    1200  30 

Meat    (lean)    900  40 

Cheese 2000  25 

Eggs  (8  or  9) 635  32 

Milk   (pint)    310  19 

Potato  (white) 385  10 

Root  vegetables    200  10 

Green  and  watery  vegetables 100  12 

Fruits  (fresh)    300  to    400  3 

Fruits   (dried)    1300  to  1500  3 

Nuts   (shelled)    3000  13 

Butter — pleo 3400  0.5 

Lard,  crisco,  salad  oils 4000  oo 

Sugar  1750  oo 

NOTE.  Meats  vary  so  much  in  composition  that  it  is  difficult  to 
give  general  averages;  e.g.,  veal  may  have  only  600  calories  per 
pound  and  have  70  calories  of  protein  in  100;  fat  pork  may  give 
over  2,000  calories  per  pound  and  have  only  12  protein  calories  in  100. 

In  a  diet  containing  3,000  calories  per  day,  for  example, 
300  calories  or  somewhat  more  should  come  from  protein, 
and  the  balance  from  starch,  sugar  and  fats.  As  will  be 


noticed  from  the  table,  all  food,  except  the  fruits  and  manu- 
factured food  like  butter,  lard  and  other  fats,  corn  starch 
and  sugar  have  10  or  more  calories  of  protein  per  100  cal- 
ories of  the  food,  so  that  it  is  not  difficult  to  plan  a  diet  con- 
taining sufficient  protein.  But  feeding  the  family  is  also 
a  matter  of  satisfying  the  appetite  of  the  different  members 
and  here  cooking  and  manner  of  serving  is  more  important 
than  the  chemical  composition  of  foods. 

The  fuel  value  alone  is  not  the  only  consideration.  Cheap 
fuel  calories  may  be  dear  protein  calories,  and  vice  versa. 
Also  many  foods  which  have  low  fuel  value,  such  as  the 
watery  vegetables  may  be  of  sufficient  value,  even  at  high 
prices,  when  we  consider  the  mineral  salts  and  bulk  or 
"roughage"  qualities  they  offer.  Spinach,  lettuce,  string 
beans,  celery,  etc.,  must  be  purchased  considering  the  value 
they  give  in  the  necessary  iron  and  calcium.  Milk  and  eggs 
are  especially  valuable  for  children,  for,  in  addition  to  their 
protein  and  salts,  they  contain  "vitamines"  and  "lipoids," 
which  are  necessary  for  growth.  Vitamines  are  also  present 
in  meats,  vegetables,  fruits,  and  the  outer  covering  of  grains. 

When  prices  go  up  we  are  apt  to  feel  that  some  common 
foods  become  too  expensive  to  use.  For  example,  a  quart 
of  milk  at  12  cents  seems  high,  but  is  equivalent  in  fuel  value 
to  about  a  pound  of  lean  steak,  which  may  cost  25  cents,  or 
eight  eggs  costing  30  cents,  or  a  quart  of  oysters  costing  40 
cents.  Sugar  and  oatmeal  have  practically  the  same  calorific 
value  (1,750  per  pound)  and  cost  about  the  same  price  per 
pound,  but  300  of  the  calories  of  the  oatmeal  come  from 
protein,  while  the  sugar  has  none.  The  oatmeal  also  fur- 
nishes iron,  phosphorus  and  calcium  salts,  all  of  which  are 
necessary  to  the  body.  In  comparison,  then,  oatmeal  gives 
more  value  than  sugar,  though  not  more  fuel  value. 



The  easiest  way  to  become  familiar  with  the  "fuel  value" 
of  different  food  is  by  examining  a  table  of  "100  calorie  por- 
tions," as  devised  by  Dr.  Irving  Fisher.  This  table  is  re- 
printed in  the  bulletin  Food  Values,  and  also  shows  the  dis- 
tribution of  the  calories  of  protein  and  fat  and  carbohydrate 
in  the  100  calorie  portions,  which  gives  a  better  understand- 
ing of  the  real  composition  of  food  than  percentage  by 
weight.  For  example,  shelled  almonds  by  weight  have  a 
composition  of  21%  of  protein,  55%  of  fat,  17%  of  carbo- 
hydrate, 2%  of  ash  and  5%  of  water — apparently  a  high 
protein  food.  On  the  calorie  basis  of  each  100  calories  of 
almonds  13  come  from  protein,  77  from  fat,  and  10  from  car- 
bohydrate. Entire  wheat  flour  gives  about  15  of  protein,  5 
of  fat,  and  80  of  carbohydrate  from  each  100  calories.  On  a 
percentage  by  weight  basis,  the  wheat  flour  shows  only  14% 
protein.  Thus,  wheat  is  really  a  higher  protein  food  than 
almonds,  though  the  opposite  might  be  inferred  simply  by 
examining  a  table  of  composition  by  weight.  The  contrast 
is  even  more  apparent  in  comparing  foods  containing  much 
water  with  dry  foods.  For  example,  milk  contains  only 
about  3^2%  of  protein  by  weight,  but  of  each  100  calories, 
19  or  20  are  from  protein. 

It  so  happens  that  a  loo-calorie  portion  of  food  corre- 
sponds in  many  cases  to  a  serving.  For  example,  there  are 
100  calories  in  a  large  slice  of  bread,  an  ordinary  pat  of 
butter,  i*/2  cubic  inches  of  cheese,  ^  of  a  glass  of  milk,  small 
serving  of  beef,  2  apples,  a  large  banana,  2  small  oranges, 
3  heaping  teaspoons  or  il/2  square  lumps  of  sugar,  etc.,  etc. 
After  weighing  out  100  calorie  portions  of  food  and  actually 
seeing  the  quantity,  it  is  easy  to  estimate  closely  the  amount 
of  food  being  served. 

*"Food  Values;  Practical  Methods  in  Diet  Calculations."  Published  by 
American  School  of  Home  Economics.  Price,  10  cents. 


It  would  be  helpful  if  all  cook  books  gave  the  calorific 
value  of  recipes.  This  is  happily  being  done  in  some  books.* 

It  is  not  difficult  to  figure  out  the  calories  in  recipes  by 
using  the  following  approximate  values : 


Measure            Weight  Calories 

•  •  f  •  •• 

Flour,  wheat   (sifted) i  cup                  4  oz.  450 

Flour,  wheat   (sifted) I  tbsp.                30 

Corn  meal   i  cup                  5  oz.  500 

Butter — oleo    i  cup                 8  oz.  1700 

Butter — oleo    i  tbsp.                no 

Lard   i  cup                 8  oz.  1000 

Lard  i  tbsp.                120 

Crisco,  cottolene,  salad  oil i  cup              6l/z  oz.  1600 

Crisco,  cettolene,  salad  oil i  tbsp.                 100 

Sugar   (granulated) i  cup              7^5  oz.  850 

Sugar    (granulated)    i  tbsp.                 50 

Milk i  cup              Sl/2  oz.  170 

Egg  (whole)   70 

Egg  (yolk) 54 

Egg  (white) 16 

NOTE.  Complete  and  detailed  tables,  together  with  food  units  in 
many  standard  recipes  are  given  in  Feeding  the  Family,  Rose,  price, 


It  is  not  a  very  complicated  matter  to  plan  menus  for  a 
given  sum  with  the  required  number  of  calories  for  the 
family,  as  is  the  practice  in  scientific  feeding  in  hospitals, 
sanitaria,  and  in  the  army  and  navy. 

*  "The  New  Cookery,"   Lenna  Francis  Cooper,  $2.00.     "A  Guide  to  Invalid 
Cookery,"  Fanny  Merritt  Farmer. 



The  amount  of  waste  or  refuse  must  always  be  considered 
in  buying  food.  This  is  particularly  necessary  in  purchasing 
meat,  for  the  amount  of  bone  and  trimmings  varies  greatly 
in  the  different  cuts  and  to  a  considerable  extent  in  the  same 
cut  of  different  grades  of  meat.  The  tables  in  U.  S.  Bulletin 
No.  28,  "Chemical  Composition  of  American  Food  Mate- 
rials/' give  the  percentage  of  waste  in  detail.  For  example, 
the  average  for  ribs  of  beef  is  20%,  and  for  shank  of  beef, 
55%  ;  in  the  ribs,  the  variation  of  refuse  is  from  13%  to 
29%,  and  in  the  shank,  50%  to  68%.  It  is  an  excellent  plan 
to  actually  weigh  at  home  the  amount  of  bone  and  trimmings 
and  figure  the  percentage  of  edible  meat  being  delivered. 
It  will  be  found  that  bones  and  trimmings  frequently  amount 
to  half  the  purchased  weight.  The  amount  of  trimming 
before  weighing  varies  in  different  localities  and  by  different 
butchers.  All  trimmings  and  bone  paid  for  should  be  deliv- 
ered, as  the  fat  can  be  tried  out  and  utilized,  and  the  bones 
are  of  value  in  the  soup  kettle. 

It  will  be  noticed  from  the  tables  in  Bulletin  No.  28  that 
lean  meats  contain  considerable  more  water  than  fat  meats, 
even  in  the  same  cut.  As  an  example,  the  edible  portion  of 
lean  round  is  shown  to  contain  74%  of  water  and  3%  of 
fat,  while  the  edible  portion  of  very  fat  round  is  shown  to 
contain  56%  of  water  and  26%  of  fat.  The  first  has  a  fuel 
value  of  475  calories  per  pound,  while  the  fat  round  gives 
1,145  calories  per  pound.  The  lean  round  has  only  a  little 
higher  percentage  of  protein  than  the  fat.  Medium  fat 
meats  give  more  value  for  the  money,  as  well  as  being  of 
better  flavor. 

The  price  of  the  cheaper  cuts  of  first  quality  meat  is  but 
little  higher  than  second  and  third  quality,  while  the  nutri- 
tive value  is  greater  and  the  flavor  far  superior.  The  follow- 


•flig  newspaper  quotations  of  wholesale  price  of  beef  brings 
out  this  point : 


No.  i  No.  2  No.  3 

Ribs    21  20  13 

Loins  . . 27  23  15 

Rounds    17  16  13 

Chucks 15  M  13 

Plates    13  12  ii 

It  will  be  noticed  that  there  is  a  difference  of  only  2  cents 
per  pound  in  the  price  of  first  quality  chucks  and  third 
quality,  while  there  is  a  difference  of  12  cents  between  the 
corresponding  grades  of  loin.  City  retail  butchers  usually 
have  to  buy  extra  loins  and  ribs,  in  addition  to  sides  of  beef, 
to  fill  the  demand  for  choice  cuts.  Oftentimes  the  cheaper 
cuts  of  meat  can  be  purchased  at  the  high-class  stores  at  a 
better  price  than  shops  catering  to  poorer  trade,  with  the 
additional  advantage  of  getting  first  quality  meat. 

The  economy  of  buying  meats  in  quantity  has  been  shown 
(page  191).  Marketing  for  meat  is  the  most  difficult  and 
important  part  of  food  purchasing,  for  one-quarter  to  one- 
third  of  the  money  spent  for  food  usually  goes  to  the  butcher. 
Considerable  study  and  experience  are  needed  to  become  an 
efficient  purchaser  of  meat.  Then  the  skill  of  the  cooking 
has  much  to  do  with  the  money  that  need  be  spent  in  this 
division.  There  are  a  number  of  excellent  U.  S.  Govern- 
ment bulletins  on  meats. 

No.  391 — "Economical  Use  of  Meat  in  the  Home."    (Free.) 
No.  526— "Mutton  and  Its  Value  in  the  Diet."     (Free.) 
No.    34 — "Meats:  Composition  and  Cooking."    (Free.) 
No.  467 — "The  Food  Value  and  Use  of  Poultry."  Price,  5c  (coin). 
No.  469 — "Fats  and  Their  Economical  Use  in  Home."     Price,  50 
No.     28 — Chemical  Composition  of  American  Food  Materials. 
Price,  loc. 

Send  to  Superintendent  of  Documents,  Washington,  D.  C,  for 
bulletins  "for  sale."  Stamps  not  accepted.  The  "free"  bulletins  are 
distributed  by  the  Department  of  Agriculture  and  Senators  and 
Representatives.  They  cost  5c  each  if  sent  to  Canada,  etc. 



The  following  table,  figured  on  fairly  high  retail  prices 
(but  not  "war"  prices),  will  be  useful  in  giving  the  relative 
costs  of  1,000  calories  of  food.  A  similar  table  based  on 
your  local  current  price  will  well  repay  the  trouble  of 
making  it. 





FOOD  price 

per  Ib. 

Porterhouse 35 

Chuck  ribs    (medium)     .20 

Flank  (rib)    18 

Dried  smoked  beef...     .50 

Forequarter  veal 30 

Mutton,   loin    27 

Leg  of  lamb 24 

Chicken    (fowl)    24 

Mackerel    16 

Canned  salmon 25 

Oysters    (pint)    25 

Eggs  (8  eggs) 20 

Butter 35 

Lard,  etc 22 

Whole  milk  (i  pt.)  . . .     .04 

Cheese    25 

Macaroni   12 

Rice 10 

Potatoes  ($i.5obu.)..     .025 

White  bread    08 

Whole  wheat  bread..     .15 

Wheat  flour   04 

Honey    30 

Sugar    07 

Dried  pea  beans 08 

Mushrooms    50 

Tomatoes    04 

Bananas  (3  to  Ib.) 06 

Oranges  (4  to  Ib.) 10 

English  walnuts    25 

Dates 15 

Chocolate 40 

Raisins   ...  .12 

Percentage  Price     Calories   Cost  per 

of          edible    per  Ib.  as     1,000 
waste     portion  purchased  calories 





1 6.0 






II. 2 







I  O.O 




















































I. II 



















NOTE.  The  simplest  method  of  figuring  fhe  price  of  edible  por- 
tions of  food  is  to  consider  100  Ibs. ;  thus,  in  100  Ibs.  of  porterhouse 
steak  there  will  be  12.7  Ibs.  of  bone,  etc.,  and  87.3  Ibs.  meat.  100  Ibs. 
would  cost  $35.00  and  i  Ib.  would  cost  $35.00  *  87.3  or  $0.40.  The  cost 
of  1,000  calories  is  found  by  multiplying  the  price  paid  by  1,000  and 
dividing  by  the  number  of  calories  per  pound  as  purchased  in  the 

The  figures  given  in  U.  S.  Bulletin  No.  142,  "Principles  of  Nutri- 
tion and  Nutritive  Value  of  Food"  (price,  5  cents),  were  used  for 
this  table. 


The  trained  consumer  should  be  familiar  with  at  least 
the  most  common  laws  in  her  state,  passed  for  her  protec- 
tion in  regard  to  the  standards  and  handling  of  products, 
and  must  co-operate  in  their  enforcement.  The  national 
government  has  taken  some  steps  to  enforce  high  standards 
in  the  manufacture  and  handling  of  products ;  but  the  con- 
sumer must  generally  depend  on  the  laws  of  her  particular 
state  and  city  to  insure  her  purity,  quality  and  sanitation, 
especially  among  such  products  as  meats,  ice  cream,  fish, 
milk,  oysters  and  other  perishables.  Each  state  has  some 
well-organized  department  located  at  the  state  capitol ;  each 
city  has  a  board  of  health  and  various  officers  who  oversee 
weights  and  measures,  detect  adulteration,  unsanitary  condi- 
tions, etc.,  and  prosecute  the  offending  dealers. 

Both  these  state  (or  county)  and  city  departments  have 
issued  definite  laws  on  how  much  certain  commodities  must 
weigh,  what  constitutes  standard  scales,  measures  and  in- 
fringements of  the  law.  The  consumer  should  send  for 
copies  of  these  bulletins  (to  the  state  capital)  :  "Specifica- 
tions for  Weighing  and  Measuring  Devices,"  issued  by  the 
Board  of  Agriculture  of  Ohio,  or  the  Bulletin  "What  Every 
Housewife  Should  Know,"  issued  by  the  New  Jersey  State 
Department  of  Weights  and  Measures ;  or  the  "Sanitary 
Code"  of  any  city,  which  gives  the  laws  governing  the  han- 


dling  of  foods,  as  cold  storage  chickens,  loose  milk,  "base- 
ment bakeries"  or  open  markets.  Armed  with  the  informa- 
tion contained  in  the  bulletins  of  her  respective  state  (and 
city),  each  consumer  will  be  able  to  detect  violations  of  the 
law  and  insist  on  honesty  and  freedom  from  adulteration, 
etc.  For  instance,  there  has  been  a  strong  fight  for  more 
sanitary  handling  of  all  products  in  all  sections.  The  intelli- 
gent consumer  will  no  longer  tolerate  bakery  goods  exposed 
to  flies,  "loose"  milk  opened  a  dozen  times  daily  and  kept  in 
foul  ice  chests,  or  ice  cream  factories  where  the  floor  is  filthy 
and  the  workmen  themselves  unclean. 

Economical  purchasing  does  not  mean  getting  foods  and 
products  which  are  merely  "cheap,"  but  those  which  have 
been  made  under  or  handled  in  a  way  to  safeguard  family 
health.  Foods  made  under  filthy  conditions  or  treated,  adul- 
terated or  processed  with  chemicals  cannot  be  "cheap"  at 
any  price!  It  is  a  large  share  of  the  modern  consumer's 
work  and  training  to  detect  such  frauds,  boycott  them  and 
bring  them  to  the  attention  of  the  proper  inspectors. 


A  discussion  of  the  common  adulterants  found  in  manu- 
factured foods,  or  various  fraudulent  practices,  is  taken  up 
here,  not  to  prejudice  the  consumer  against  all  dealers,  but 
merely  to  warn  her  as  to  possible  deceit.  "Forewarned  is 
forearmed,"  and  knowledge  of  wrong  only  protects  the  right. 
Naturally,  in  all  manufacture  there  are  a  few  firms  who  try 
to  make  additional  money  out  of  the  ignorance  of  the  con- 
sumer. Therefore  it  behooves  the  consumer  to  be  doubly 
intelligent !  Most  of  the  dealers  in  manufactured  foodstuffs 
are  trying  to  give  the  consumer  clean,  unadulterated  prod- 
ucts made  in  sanitary  factories  by  clean  workers.  The 


National  Food  and  Drug  Act  passed  in  1907  has  helped 
conditions  greatly.  However,  there  is  still  a  great  deal  of 
adulteration  in  many  classes  of  foods  in  which  there  is 
profit  when  inferior  materials  can  be  substituted. 


A  pure  food  must  fulfill  these  requirements : 

1.  It  must  not  be  positively  adulterated  with  foreign  sub- 

stances, as  ground  hulls  for  the  true  ground  spice  buds. 

2.  It  must  not  be  treated  with  chemical  preservatives  like 

benzoate  or  salicyclic  acids,  as  in  some  catsups  and 
canned  vegetables. 

3.  It  must  not  be  made  of  "substitutes,"  as  starch  and  lard 

for  true  cream  in  ice  cream,  or  as  starch  in  chocolate. 

4.  It  must  not  be  artificially  colored  with  dyes  or  flavored 

with  chemical  flavors,  as  in  candies  or  "soft  drinks." 

5.  It  must  not  be  handled  in  a  dirty,  unsanitary  way,  or  by 

unclean  workers. 

6.  It  must  not  have  some  of  the  valuable  elements  or  parts 

of  the  food  removed,  so  as  to  make  it  a  "devitalized" 

food,  as  polished  rice  or  bleached  flour. 
These  may  seem  like  impossible  demands.  Yet  unless  the 
consumer  insists  that  these  pure  food  standards  be  lived  up 
to,  she  cannot  be  sure  that  her  family,  and  especially  her 
children,  are  eating  manufactured  or  bought  foods  that  will 
nourish  them  or  that  will  positively  not  harm  them.  If 
health  depends  on  food,  then  surely  that  food  must  be  as 
pure,  clean,  and  as  rich  in  nourishment  as  nature  originally 
made  it. 


It  is  often  remarked  that  Americans  will  "stand"  any- 
thing; and  certainly  it  is  either  because  they  are  overly 
complacent,  or  else  actually  ignorant,  that  the  consumer 



allows  startling  and  disgusting  practices  to  be  followed. 
Let  us  quickly  list  some  of  the  food  practices  which  she 
should  not  tolerate : 

1.  "Basement  bakeries,"  no  light,  unsanitary,  moldy  condi- 

tions, unhealthy  workers. 

2.  Artificial  coloring  and  flavoring  of  candies,  cakes;   soft 

drinks  with  chemicals. 

3.  Substitution  of  low-grade  materials  in  supposed  high- 

grade  products. 

4.  Artificial   preservatives   to  "keep"   foods,   as   benzoate, 

"preservaline,"  etc. 

5.  Exposed  meat,  bakery  goods,  or  permission  of  sale  of 

same  in  open  carts,  wagons  or  stalls. 

6.  "Devitalizing"  of  flours  and  "bleaching,"  which  lessens 


Space  does  not  permit  going  into  the  details  of  all  these 
frauds ;  but  many  times  the  consumer  is  quite  responsible 
for  these  frauds,  although  she  may  not  realize  it.  For 
instance,  flour  is  now  "bleached"  very  white,  and  rice  grains 
given  artificial  polish  solely  because  women  want  or  have 
made  a  market  for  white  foods,  and  refuse  to  buy  dark- 
colored  grains  and  flours!  Again,  mothers  who  give  their 
children  soda  water  which  is  only  water  sweetened  with 
saccharine  and  colored  with  coal-tar  dyes,  cannot  expect  to 
blame  the  dealers.  They  must  refuse  to  purchase  such  foods, 
and  then  the  dealers,  finding  trade  unprofitable,  will  be 
forced  to  change  their  ways. 

At  a  recent  Farmers'  Institute  in  a  large  western  state 
the  author  was  conducting  a  week's  series  of  lectures.  One 
morning,  before  going  to  the  lecture  hall,  she  visited  a  dozen 
shops  and  purchased  about  thirty  samples  of  "penny  line" 
candies.  She  had  a  beautiful  (  !)  assortment  of  candy  made 
of  paraffine,  starch  and  glucose ;  -varnished,  brightly  colored 


with  dyes,  flavored  with  artificial  products,  and  in  all  quite 
an  exhibit.  The  samples  were  on  a  table  and  brought  to  the 
attention  of  the  mothers  present.  Many  would  not  believe 
that  such  candies  were  purchased  only  two  blocks  from  their 
homes! — or  that  such  vile  candies  were  made!  The  exhibit 
was  passed  on  to  the  parent-teacher  association,  and  effort 
made  to  educate  children  to  buy  other  and  purer  uncolored 



No  one  not  directly  connected  with  investigation  in  this 
line  would  believe  the  extent  of  fraud  and  deception  prac- 
ticed in  connection  with  all  kinds  of  weights  and  measures. 
Owing  to  recent  campaigns  for  greater  honesty,  almost 
nation-wide,  and  a  demand  that  false  measures  be  confis- 
cated and  dishonest  dealers  be  prosecuted,  conditions  today 
are  much  better  than  formerly.  There  are  still,  however, 
many  dishonorable  practices  or  causes  for  faulty  weighing. 
The  consumer  must  be  on  her  guard  against  them. 

i.  Scales  may  be  faulty  because — the  scale  is  out  of  balance, 
and  is  too  heavy  on  the  scoop  side ;  or  the  scale  may 
balance  when  equal  weights  are  placed  in  the  center 
of  the  pan,  but  not  when  the  weights  are  shifted  right 
or  left ;  the  scale  may  be  "insensitive"  owing  to  poor 
construction,  worn  or  broken  parts ;  false  weight  may 
be  given  by  attaching  small  wads  of  iron,  lead,  hooks 
or  some  small  article  under  the  scoop,  or  on  the  cross 
under  the  scoop ;  the  "nested"  iron  weights  may  be 
stacked  as  8  oz.,  4  oz.,  2  oz.,  thus  totaling  14  oz.  instead 
of  the  required  16;  the  "poise"  may  be  light,  thus 
registering  more  than  is  true  on  the  scoop ;  the  weights 
themselves  may  be  worn,  drilled,  or  "filled"  with  lighter 


substances ;  or  even  in  the  beginning  they  may  never 
have  been  accurately  adjusted  so  as  to  weigh  correctly. 

2.  Dry  measures  may  be  faulty  because — of  "false"  bot- 

toms, as  in  wicker  baskets,  barrels  and  measures  ;  they 
may  have  "false"  sides  or  be  so  cut  down  as  to  reduce 
the  depth  and  hence  the  true  amount;  they  may  be 
broken,  dented,  or  originally  of  wrong  or  "short"  ca- 
pacity, especially  wicker  or  berry  boxes  holding  less 
than  the  standard  amount ;  or  six-quart  measures  may 
be  used  illegally  for  peck  or  eight-quart  measures; 
or  liquid  measure,  which  is  less,  may  be  used  for  dry 

3.  Liquid  measures  may  be  faulty  because — the  measures 

are  bent  or  dented ;  or  they  have  a  "cupped"  bottom ; 
or  they  are  leaky;  or  they  were  originally  manufac- 
tured "short." 

4.  Linear  measures  may  be  faulty  because — the  yardstick  is 

warped  or  "short";  counter  tacks  may  be  wrongly 
placed;  the  cloth  tape  measure  may  be  shrunk  or 
inaccurately  divided. 

The  department  of  weights  and  measures  of  each  state 
employs  both  county  and  city  "sealers" — men  whose  duty 
it  is  to  periodically  test  all  scales  and  measuring  devices. 
If  the  measure  passes  the  test,  the  dealer  is  allowed  to  con- 
tinue its  use,  and  the  scale  is  marked  with  a  large  seal, 
generally  red,  so  that  the  consumer  may  know  that  it  will 
register  correct  weight.  If  it  does  not  pass  the  test,  it  is 
"condemned"  and  its  use  forbidden.  Sometimes  several 
thousand  inaccurate  or  false  measures  are  "condemned"  and 
burned  by  state  authorities. 

While  the  laws  of  different  states  vary,  it  is  almost  uni- 
versally conceded  that  the  older  type  arm  or  balance  scale 
with  scoop  and  iron  weight  is  least  trustworthy.  The  pre- 



Condemned  by  The  Chicago  Bureau  of  Weights  and  Measures. 

ferred  scale  is  that  called  the  "pan"  or  hanging  type,  or 
the  excellent  glass  protected  "computing"  scale.  Scales  car- 
ried by  ice  men  or  platform  scales  on  which  coal  and  large 
amounts  are  weighed  are  most  frequently  faulty.  Again,  the 


Three   Baskets  Nested  and  Concealed  Under  the  Top  Band. 
Courtesy  of  Illustrated  World. 


dealer  is  not  supposed  to  rest  his  hand  on  the  scale,  place 
the  package  unevenly,  take  it  off  before  the  consumer  reads 
the  dial,  or,  for  instance,  weigh  butter  in  a  wooden  container 
unless  a  similar  container,  empty,  be  placed  on  the  opposite 
side.  In  the  case  of  hams  and  other  foods  covered  with 
burlap,  a  certain  legal  allowance  must  be  made,  of  about 
four  ounces.  Meat  dealers  are  allowed  to  sell  meat  at  the 
untrimmed  weight,  but  these  trimmings  belong  to  the  house- 
keeper. If  left  with  the  butcher  they  will  be  resold  by  him 
to  rendering  plants.  On  a  five-pound  leg  of  lamb  there  may 
be  as  much  as  a  pound  and  a  quarter  of  trimmings.  It  will 
pay,  and  pay  well,  to  check  up  the  weight  of  all  food  coming 
into  the  house.  Tests  have  shown  as  much  as  20%  short- 
age. A  good  scale  is  necessary  (see  page  6). 

It  is  a  rather  common  custom  to  sell  dry  beans  and  peas 
and  cranberries  by  the  liquid  quart  (  one-quarter  gallon), 
which  contains  about  one-sixth  less  in  volume  than  the  dry 
measure  quart.  This  practice  is  not  legal,  even  if  it  is  the 

In  all  of  this  discussion,  let  it  not  be  thought  that  every 
dealer  is  unscrupulous.  The  majority  of  all  dealers  in  all 
lines  intend  giving  dependable  measures,  but  frequently 
scales  become  inaccurate  without  the  dealer  knowing  it; 
or  he  may  have  happened  to  buy  a  cheap,  unreliable  measure 
from  some  unscrupulous  manufacturer.  The  consumer 
should  insist  on  honesty,  not  so  much  to  prosecute  the  dis- 
honest dealer  as  to  protect  herself  and  give  a  fair  deal  to 
the  man  who  is  trying  to  be  fair  to  her.  The  reliable  dealer 
who  has  nothing  to  fear  will  not  be  incensed  if  the  consumer 
investigates  his  measures,  the  sanitary  conditions  of  his 
store,  or  other  of  his  selling  methods,  but  will  welcome 
investigation,  as  it  will  only  serve  to  bind  the  intelligent 
consumer  more  closely  to  his  establishment. 

All  purchasing  should  be  by  definite  weight  or  amount, 


as  bushel,  peck,  quart,  gallon,  etc.  Instead,  for  instance, 
of  buying  a  bushel  of  potatoes,  the  consumer  will  be  assured 
of  getting  her  money's  worth  if  she  asks  for  sixty  pounds  of 
potatoes,  or  whatever  the  legal  amount  is  in  her  particular 
state.  Nothing  makes  for  more  wasteful,  inefficient  buying 
than  this  mistake  of  buying  by  the  "bag"  (how  much  does 
it  contain?),  as  no  two  dealers  sell  the  same  kind  of  "bags," 
and  even  the  same  dealer  might  at  different  times  be  using 
different  kinds  of  measures,  so  that  the  consumer  can  never 
be  sure  of  always  getting  a  definite  quantity  for  a  definite 
sum,  unless  she  asks  the  price  per  weight  of  a  definite  stand- 
ard, as  a  bushel,  or  fraction  of  a  bushel,  or  gallon. 

State  laws  are  by  no  means  uniform ;  each  state  has,  for 
its  own  limits,  passed  standard  weights  per  bushel  for  differ- 
ent articles,  as  shown  in  the  table  on  the  next  page,  taken 
from  Measurements  for  the  Household,  Circular  No.  55,  U. 
S.  Bureau  of  Standards. 


An  amendment  to  the  National  Food  and  Drug  Act  passed 
in  1914  requires  the  net  weight  or  volume  of  contents  to  be 
printed  on  the  label  of  containers  or  packages  distributed  in 
interstate  commerce.  A  number  of  states  have  also  passed 
a  similar  law,  so  that  practically  everything  in  the  food  line 
except  bulk  goods  is  so  labeled.  For  example,  the  various 
brands  of  popular  breakfast  foods  contain  (at  present  writ- 
ing) the  following  weights : 

Quaker  Oats 

Cream  of  Wheat, 

Petti  John    



Ib.  4  oz.  Shredded  Wheat 12  oz. 

Ib.  12  oz.  Grape  Nuts   14  oz. 

Ib.  8  oz.  Corn  Flakes  8  oz. 

Ib.  8  oz.  Puffed  Wheat  4  oz. 

Ib.  3  oz.  Puffed  Rice  4  oz. 











I  I  Carrots 


I  I  Parsnip 

I  I  Peaches 

S  §  Potatoe 

<^  </,  Sweet 
0  *"  Potatoe 






.  . 

.  . 


.  . 

.  , 

.  . 








.  . 



,  > 













.  . 



.  . 






























.  . 









































.  . 

.  . 


























.  . 


.  . 

,  . 



,  . 









.  . 



.  . 

.  . 



4  p 




t  . 




















.  . 


























New    Hampshire  












New    Jersey  









New    Mexico  












New    York  



.  . 



.  . 

.  . 



,  t 

.  . 

North    Carolina  



.  . 




North    Dakota  






,  , 






























.  . 

.  . 

.  . 













Rhode  Island  












South   Dakota  












Tennessee   .  .  .  .  C  





































Washington    ........ 




West   Virginia  













The  legal  weight  for  a  bushel  of  wheat,  a  bushel  of  dry,  white 
beans,  and  dry  peas,  is  60  pounds,  of  corn  and  rye,  56  pounds,  of 
oats,  32  pounds.  Arizona,  California,  Delaware,  District  of  Co- 
lumbia, Louisiana,  South  Carolina,  Utah,  and  Wyoming  have 
few  or  no  legal  weight  laws. 

A  bushel  contains  4  pecks,  and  a  peck  8  quarts. 


This  law  is  a  great  help  to  the  consumer  in  comparing 
prices  of  package  goods  with  bulk  goods  or  different  brands 
of  competing  products,  as  in  canned  goods,  and  in  keeping 
informed  as  to  the  price  per  pound  of  package  goods.  The 
"puffed"  breakfast  foods,  for  instance,  at  15  cents  a  package 
cost  60  cents  a  pound. 

As  the  price  of  staples  increases,  the  manufacturers  have 
reduced  the  weight  of  contents,  in  self-defense.  This  fact  is 
not  advertised.  For  instance,  some  years  ago  a  package  of 

No.    %          No.    1    Short     No.    1    Tall         No.    2  No.    2%  No.    3 


Quaker  Oats  contained  2  pounds — the  price  remains  the 
same  (or  more)  but  the  contents  of  the  package  has  been 
gradually  reduced  to  I  Ib.  4  oz.  Uneeda  Biscuits  when  first 
put  on  the  market  contained  nearly  half  a  pound ;  the 
package  now  contains  4^  ounces. 


So  many  of  the  foods  used  in  the  home  today  come  in 
packages  and  cans  that  it  is  necessary  for  the  consumer  to 
be  familiar  with  the  sizes  and  other  facts  of  identification. 
She  may  have  noted  that  peas,  for  instance,  come  in  cans 
smaller  than  tomatoes ;  but  the  first  fact  to  learn  is  that  all 


canned  products,  whether  they  be  soup,  vegetable,  fruit,  or 
other  foods,  are  supposed  to  be  packed  according  to  a  series 
of  standard  sizes,  which  contain  corresponding  weights, 
though  the  weights  will  vary  somewhat  for  different 



f Sardines,  potted  meats,  pastes,] 
l/4  \  "samples,"  condensed  milk,  1-4  to  4%  ounces 

[etc j 

fPotted  delicacies :  shrimp,  lob-] 

V2  1  ster,    clams,    condensed    milk,  \  8  or  7^4  ounces 

["flat"  salmon   (small),  etc. ...J 

fCanned  soup,  potted  or  boned] 

i     (short) •{ meats,  tomato  or  other  purees, [•  10  ounces 

[condensed  milk J 

T    ftiin    snmp          fCorn,    peas,    pineapple,    sliced]  16  ounces  and  is 
times  calleTiV     ^Peaches,  flat  or  "tall"  salmon,   standard  I  Ib.  or 
/2'  •  [tomatoes,    etc j  i  pt.  can 

fSmall    vegetables,    like    corn,] 
j  beans,    and    small    fruits,    like(     «« 

jberries,     grated     and     chunk  f r  ltx    4  oz< 

[styles     ..: j 

fMany  large  fruits  and  vegeta-] 

2*/2   (41-7"  high)  .  ^ bles,   baked   beans,   asparagus, \\  Ib.  1402. 
[tomatoes,  etc j 

("Large  fruits,  peaches,  pears,] 
3  Regular... {baked  beans,  whole  tomatoes, \2  Ibs.  i  oz. 

[beets,  spinach j 

3  Tall  (55^"  high).  Same  as  above 2  Ibs.  6  oz. 

[Corn  on  cob,  sauerkraut,  soup] 

10    \  and   large   quantity   for   trade  >6  Ibs.  6  oz. 

distribution  ...... 

There  is  no  number  on  the  can,  as  "No.  2,"  to  indicate  its 
size,  but  this  size  can  be  easily  determined  by  noting  the 
weight,  which  is  always  printed  in  small  numbers,  generally 
at  the  base  of  the  face  or  the  reverse  of  the  can.  If  the  label 


reads,  for  instance,  "i  Ib.  14  oz.,"  it  is  probably  a  No.  2^ 
can.  The  same  product  may  be  packed  in  any  one  of  three 
or  four  sizes.  As  an  experiment,  the  author  asked  for  "A 
can  of  tomatoes"  in  several  stores.  She  was  handed  five 
different  sizes  of  cans,  varying  in  weight  from  10  ounces  to 
2  Ibs.  6  oz. — or  from  the  No.  i  "short"  to  the  No.  3.  Five 
different  size  cans  all  in  answer  to  the  same  request  for  a 
''can" !  The  grocer  knows  the  various  size  cans  by  number. 
Therefore  if  you  ask  for  them  by  number  you  have  a  better 
chance  of  gefting  the  exact  size  you  wish.  Then  note  care- 
fully the  "net  weight  of  contents"  on  the  label. 


In  one  brand  of  pineapples,  for  instance,  a  No.  2*/>  can 
contains  ten  large  slices  and  costs  15  cents.  The  No.  2  can 
of  the  same  grade  contains  six  small  slices  and  costs  10 
cents.  In  one  case  a  large  slice  costs  i^c,  but  buying  the 
apparently  cheaper  can  each  small  slice  costs  i^c.  There- 
fore by  estimating  how  many  slices  or  portions  are  con- 
tained in  different  sized  cans  the  housewife  will  be  able  to 
purchase  more  economically,  buying  the  exact  size  can  that 
suits  her  particular  family's  needs.  It  is  generally  better 
economy  to  purchase  one  large  can  and  make  it  cover  two 
servings  than  to  purchase  two  small  cans  separately,  because 
the  smaller  the  size  the  higher,  proportionately,  is  the  price. 

Many  kinds  of  fish  and  other  food  come  in  flat  as  well  as 
tall  cans.  The  tall  No.  i  weighs  exactly  the  same  as  a  flat 
No.  i,  but  the  flat  can  generally  costs  10%  or  15%  more. 
This  is  because,  as  in  salmon,  for  instance,  a  solid  piece  of 
fish  is  cut  right  out  of  the  best  portion  of  the  salmon,  whereas 
the  tall  can  is  filled  with  one  or  two  smaller  pieces,  which 
makes  the  packing  less  expensive. 

Sometimes  the  can  appears  partially  empty  at  the  top,  as 


in  corn.  This  is  called  "slack  fill"  and  is  contrary  to  law. 
It  does  not  always  mean  that  the  can  is  short  in  weight. 
A  certain  amount  of  space  must  be  left  between  the  top  of 
the  can  and  the  material  in  it,  so  that  the  red-hot  "capping 
iron"  will  not  scorch  the  contents.  Corn  especially  swells 
in  "processing,"  and  extra  allowance  must  be  made. 

It  is  economy  to  purchase  canned  goods  in  quantity,  as 
there  is  a  reduction  in  goods  bought  by  the  case,  or  24  cans. 
Fall  is  the  time  to  purchase  fresh  season  stuff.  It  is  easy 
to  estimate  how  many  cans  of  the  various  products  will  be 
used  per  week,  month  or  season,  then  to  make  up  an  order 
and  purchase  by  the  case  (2  doz.),  or  at  least  the  dozen. 
This  is  not  only  a  money  but  a  time  saving,  as  all  too  fre- 
quently unnecessary  time  is  wasted  running  to  the  store  for 
a  can  of  this  or  that. 

It  is  helpful  to  write  in  the  kitchen  note  book  the  con- 
sumer's experience  with  various  brands,  sizes  and  grades 
of  canned  goods ;  also  the  number  of  portions,  slices,  the 
quality,  trade  mark  or  other  facts  which  will  enable  her  to 
do  future  buying  most  economically  and  easily.  No  law 
compels  canners  to  use  uniform  sizes,  and  as  cost  of  mate- 
rials and  labor  increases  there  is  a  tendency  to  decrease  the 
size  of  the  cans  instead  of  increasing  the  price.  It  is  impos- 
sible to  distinguish  by  the  eye  a  can  slightly  under  standard 
size,  but  the  net  weight  on  the  label  will  reveal  it.  Again, 
the  weight  may  be  falsely  kept  up  by  the  addition  of  extra 
water,  as  in  tomatoes,  which  is  an  adulteration ;  therefore 
those  standard  brands  should  be  bought  which  have  proved 
the  test  of  honesty  and  full  measure  and  quality. 

At  retail  city  prices  it  is  not  always  good  economy  to  can 
vegetables  and  fruits  at  home,  but  near  the  source  of  supply 
or  from  the  home  garden  a  very  considerable  saving  can  be 
made  by  "putting  up"  canned  goods.  There  are  many  Gov- 
ernment Bulletins  on  the  subject  which  will  be  sent  on 


request  from  the  Department  of  Agriculture.     The  "cold 
pack"  method  seems  easiest  and  is  successful. 


It  may  be  asked,  if  there  are  as  many  methods  of  deceit 
and  adulteration  as  have  been  pointed  out,  how  is  the  con- 
sumer to  protect  herself  except  by  constant  and  continued 
investigation  ?  Will  not  every  purchase  be  an  experiment  as 
to  quality  and  purity?  The  one  means  of  protection  the 
consumer  can  rely  on  is  the  "trademark"  on  the  package  or 
product  she  buys.  The  "trademark"  is  some  kind  of  label, 
emblem  or  other  means  of  Identification  bearing  the  manu- 
facturer's name,  place  of  factory,  weight,  size,  or  other 
words  leading  to  rapid  identification  on  the  part  of  the  con- 
sumer. For  instance,  before  buying  a  can  of  peas  or  a  pair 
of  hose,  how  can  the  consumer  be  sure  of  the  quality  and 
wear  of  these  articles  ?  Only  by  selecting  goods  which  bear 
a  "trademark"  or  the  name  of  a  manufacturer  who  has  come 
to  be  widely  known  as  a  maker  of  articles  of  quality  and 


There  has  been  a  great  deal  of  discussion  as  to  the  best 
kind  of  products  to  buy — those  which  are  "packaged," 
wrapped  or  in  some  kind  of  container  bearing  a  trademark 
— and  those  which  are  merely  "loose"  or  "bulk,"  and  un- 
wrapped or  untrademarked,  and  which  sometimes,  as  in 
"loose"  tea,  may  cost  a  few  cents  less  a  pound  than  a  pack- 
aged tea.  Now,  in  the  author's  opinion,  all  "bulk"  goods 
are  open  to  the  same  criticism — namely,  that  they  are 
unidentified,  and  thus  the  consumer  is  unable  to  tell  the 
quality  in  advance,  and  thus  has  no  means  of  safeguarding 
her  purchase.  Identification  is  the  only  means  of  protecting 


the  consumer  as  to  the  quality  of  what  she  buys.  In  other 
words,  some  kind  of  trademark  saves  the  consumer's  time  by 
enabling  her  to  pick  out  an  article  of  known  quality  quickly, 
as  well  as  being  the  sole  means  of  identifying  quality,  or 
lack  of  quality.  Not  all  trademarked  goods  are  superior  to 
bulk  or  unidentified  merchandise;  but  the  mere  fact  that  they 
are  "trademarked"  and  identifiable,  protects  the  consumer 
either  the  one  way  or  the  other.  Trademarked  goods  are 
generally  superior  to  bulk  goods  for  the  following  reasons : 

1.  They   furnish  a  means  of  identification  either   for  or 

against  quality. 

2.  They  give  the  manufacturer's  name  and  location  of  fac- 


3.  They  inform  the  net  weight  or  quality  standard  of  the 


4.  They  permit  more  accurate  weighing. 

5.  They  insure  that  the  goods  were  made  under  sanitary 

conditions  by  sanitary  workers. 

The  man  who  is  willing  to  put  his  name  on  his  product, 
and  the  place  where  it  is  made,  is  generally  the  manufac- 
turer who  has  no  fear  of  the  investigations  of  the  consumer. 
Also,  if  he  has  put  out  a  trademarked  product  for  years,  the 
chances  are  strongly  that  the  product  has  a  high  quality,  or 
else  consumers  would  long  ago  have  found  out  its  inferiority 
and  put  it  off  the  market.  And,  last,  the  price  of  the  iden- 
tified products  of  wide  distribution  is  generally  as  low  as 
that  of  a  similar  "bulk"  article;  because  its  wider  distri- 
bution and  long  continued  sale  will  have  enabled  the  manu- 
facturer to  install  such  machinery  and  methods  in  his  fac- 
tory as  to  lower  the  producing  cost,  and  thus  sell  his  iden- 
tified article  at  as  low  a  price  as  the  unidentified  "bulk" 
article  can  be  sold.  Examples  of  this  are  Ivory  Soap  and 
Walter  Baker's  Chocolate,  sold  under  trademarked  labels 


for  many  years,  yet  which  are  as  low  in  price  and  of  higher 
quality  than  similar  competing  unrecognized  brands. 


There  is  another  distinction  in  brands  which  the  consumer 
must  know.  That  is,  the  difference  between  the  "private" 
and  the  genuinely  "trademarked"  brands  of  goods.  For  in- 
stance, here  are  two  cans  of  tomatoes  ;  both  apparently  have 
a  label  and  name.  But  if  we  look  closely  we  see  that  Can  A 
says,  "Queen  Tomatoes,  packed  for  J.  Jones  &  Company" ; 
Can  B  will  say,  "Smith's  Tomatoes,  S.  &  S..  Smith  Bros., 
Vineland,  New  Jersey."  What  is  the  difference  between 
these  two  labels  ?  The  first  is  the  label  of  a  "private  brand." 
It  does  not  state  the  firm  that  packed  it,  only  the  name  of 
the  firm  for  whom  it  was  packed.  Also,  it  generally  does 
not  give  the  location  of  the  factory  where  the  product  was 
packed.  On  the  other  hand,  the  label  of  can  B  does  state 
the  name  of  the  packer  and  the  place  of  the  factory.  In  the 
first  case,  we  have  a  "jobber"  who  wants  to  sell  tomatoes. 
He  gets  any  number  of  small  factories,  even  in  several  states, 
to  pack  tomatoes  for  him.  Then  he  has  these  cans  sent  to  his 
wholesale  house,  and  there  puts  his  own  labels  on  them.  In 
the  second  case  we  have  the  original  packer  himself  putting 
his  own  name  on  the  goods  and  where  they  were  packed. 

The  "private"  brand  goods  is  put  up  in  different  factories, 
from  different  sources  each  year,  and  there  is  no  guarantee 
of  a  permanent  quality  behind  it.  Since  the  name  of  the 
packer  does  not  appear  on  the  container,  there  is  no  way  for 
the  consumer  to  find  out  what  kind  of  a  factory  or  condi- 
tions it  was  packed  under.  On  the  other  hand,  the  honest 
name  of  the  packer  himself  insures  the  consumer  that  she 
can  look  up  this  man  and  this  factory,  and  that  he  stands 
back  of  his  goods,  since  he  is  willing  to  put  his  name  on  them. 


In  every  case,  the  trademarked  brand  carries  more  integ- 
rity or  guarantee.  It  is  now  almost  universal  for  the  trade- 
marked  brand  to  carry  a  refund  guarantee  of  giving  the 
consumer  another  article  or  refund  of  original  purchase 
price  if  she  is  dissatisfied.  If,  for  instance,  the  Kayser 
gloves  do  not  wear  as  represented,  or  Holeproof  sox  develop 
holes  within  a  certain  time,  the  manufacturer  "makes  good" 
with  duplicate  articles.  Some  jobbers,  it  is  true,  have  also 
established  the  high  grades  of  their  brands  by  years  of  fair 
dealing,  and  their  goods  can  also  be  relied  on  in  such  cases. 

L~L  ,  -1 


The  label  is  the  one  protection  of  the  consumer,  if  she 
only  learns  to  always  read  it  intelligently.  Every  label 
should  declare  the  contents  of  the  article;  but  often  we 
may  find  labels  that  are  deceptive,  or  which  at  least  are 
far  from  straightforward.  It  is  common  on  canned  meats  to 
find  the  words : 

"POTTED  meat  HAM  flavor" 

so  printed  as  to  make  the  consumer  think  she  is  buying 
potted  ham,  when  the  contents  are  really  only  inferior  meat 
scraps  flavored  with  ham.  Or  she  may  think  she  has  bought 
a  bottle  of  vanilla,  when  really  the  label,  closely  read,  states : 

"Extract  of  Vanillin" 

Now,  vanillin  is  an  artificial  flavor  made  from  the  oil  of 
cloves;  even  if  it  were  as  wholesome  as  true  essence  of 
vanilla  from  the  tonka  bean,  it  is  not  fair  that  the  consumer 
should  pay  vanilla  prices  for  vanillin. 

Similarly,  "MAPLE  flavor  SYRUP,"  or  other  wording, 
reveals  the  fact  tRat  the  possibly  expensive  syrup  which  the 
consumer  thought  was  true  maple  syrup  is  only* a  sugar 
syrup  flavored  and  colored  artificially.  The  labels  on  cat- 


sup,  as  "preserved  with  -fa  of  1%  of  benzoate  of  soda,  arti- 
ficially colored,"  etc.,  are  familiar;  often  the  words  are 
purposely  made  misleading,  as  a  cough  syrup  may  say  "Tinc- 
ture of  Poppy,  2^";  but  this  "tincture"  is  really  nothing 
but  morphine  or  laudanum,  if  read  intelligently.  Drugs  need 
most  careful  reading,  as  often  headache  powders  which  are 
claimed  to  be  "harmless"  contain  acetanilid  or  other  dan- 
gerous drugs.  The  consumer  should  be  especially  wary  of 
the  words  "compound,"  "artificial"  and  "harmless." 


Modern  advertising  in  periodicals,  on  billboards,  cards, 
etc.,  is  another  means  of  bringing  goods  of  all  kinds  to  the 
consumer's  attention.  The  costs  of  advertising  must  be 
included  in  the  general  cost  of  distribution  of  an  article, 
and  do  not  add  any  more  to  the  price  of  an  article  than  any 
other  means  of  display,  such  as  store  window  exhibits,  cir- 
cular letters  and  the  older  forms  of  traveling  salesmen  which 
were  practiced  in  the  days  before  periodical  publication 
made  modern  advertising  methods  possible.  Advertising 
generally  raises  the  standard  of  production  (since  it  does 
not  pay  to  advertise  a  poor  product),  at  the  same  time  that 
it  makes  possible  wider  distribution ;  and  wider  distribution 
enables  larger  volume  of  production  with  consequent  greater 
economy.  Because  it  has  brought  so  many  thousand  articles 
of  furnishing,  comfort,  and  luxury  before  the  consumer,  it 
has,  naturally,  tended  to  raise  the  standard  of  living.  At 
the  same  time,  our  daily  papers  and  periodicals  would  be 
impossible  if  it  were  not  that  the  advertising  they  carry 
pays  largely  for  their  printing.  Since  most  advertised  arti- 
cles are  also  trademarked  articles,  they  insure  the  consumer 
guarantee,  identification  and  time-saving  shopping. 



There  are  some  forms  of  advertising  practice,  however, 
which  should  not  be  encouraged,  chief  of  these  the  "cut- 
price"  lure,  especially  on  a  trademarked  article.  These 
"specials,"  as  "three  cakes  of  Ivory  Soap  for  a  quarter,"  or 
Fownes'  Gloves,  $1.00  grade,  only  $0.79,"  are  used  solely 
to  get  the  woman  into  the  store,  where  they  hope  that  she 
will  buy  other  unindentified  merchandise  on  which  the  dealer 
makes  more  profit  but  which  are  of  poorer  quality  than 
the  trademarked  goods.  In  other  words,  the  "cut"  is  merely 
"bait";  that  it  is  not  a  sincere  reduction  is  shown  by  the 
fact  that  it  is  offered  "for  this  morning  only,"  or  "only  one 
to  a  customer,"  or  in  some  other  way  which  has  a  "string" 
attached.  The  reason  that  such  buying  is  demoralizing  is, 
first,  that  it  traps  women  into  buying  other  goods  of  lesser 
quality;  second,  it  gives  them  a  false  idea  of  the  price 
which  they  should  pay  for  the  article — a  price  which  their 
own  local  retailer  cannot  meet,  so  that,  therefore,  after  a 
time,  he  may  refuse  to  carry  the  article  because  he  cannot 
meet  the  "cut"  and  still  make  a  profit.  This  may  eventually 
drive  good  products  off  the  market ;  third,  all  juggling  of 
price,  and  discrepancies,  are  bad,  because  they  create  in 
the  consumer's  mind  false  ideals  and  ideas  of  value,  and 
encourage  her  to  demand  "bargains"  to  such  an  extent  that 
merchants  are  forced  to  offer  her  inferior  quality  in  order 
to  satisfy  this  "bargain"  appetite. 

The  sister  evil  of  the  "marked  up"  price  is  also  a  result 
of  this  pernicious  demand  on  the  part  of  women.  This 
means  that  the  advertised  price  of  an  overcoat,  say,  is  stated 
as  "$40.00  overcoat,  now  only  $19.50."  The  truth  is  that 
the  overcoat  was  probably  only  a  $25.00  grade  in  the  first 
place,  but  that  it  has  been  falsely  "marked  up"  in  order  to 
make  the  "bargain"  seem  more  of  a  drop  in  price.  Such 


practices  must  not  be  confused  with  legitimate  reductions 
which  occur  at  seasonal  times.  But  it  cannot  be  too  strongly 
said  that  women  must  stop  encouraging  the  "bargain  habit" 
if  they  wish  dealers  to  make  conservative,  dependable  claims 
and  statements.  Before  John  Wanamaker  developed  and 
enforced  his  policy  of  plainly  marked  prices,  the  buyer  did 
not  know  whether  he  was  being  cheated  or  not.  Today  the 
cut-price,  the  marked-up  price,  and  misleading  statements 
are  still  a  few  surviving  mal-practices  which  the  woman  con- 
sumer must  help  eradicate. 


Next  to  food,  clothing  is  the  most  important  division  in 
household  purchasing.  The  efficient  consumer  must  learn 
to  distinguish,  test  and  judge  the  wearing  qualities  and 
value  of  all  articles  of  clothing  and  textile  fabrics.  The  mar- 
ket carries  so  many  grades  and  variously  named  novelties 
in  fabrics  that  it  is  somewhat  difficult  for  the  buyer  to  judge 
intelligently.  However,  the  number  of  "standard"  fabrics 
are  not  very  great,  and  the  noveltie's  are  but  variations  of 
"standard"  goods. 

The  expert  judges  textiles  by  the  appearance,  feel  and 
weight  of  the  fabric  and  the  knowledge  of  the  various  fibers, 
yarns  and  methods  of  weaving  and  finishing  the  goods. 

A  knowledge  of  the  common  textile  fibers  is  the  first 
essential.  Briefly,  cotton  fibers  are  very  fine  and  compara- 
tively short — 24  of  an  inch  to  an  inch.  Flax  fiber  is  larger 
and  much  longer  than  cotton.  Linen  cannot  be  bleached  by 
chemical  means  as  easily  as  cotton  or  without  losing  strength 
and  luster,  nor  can  it  be  dyed  as  easily  or  are  the  colors  as 
fast.  It  launders  well  but  shrinks  more  than  cotton.  Linen 
has  superior  wearing  qualities. 

As  raw  flax  costs  two  or  three  times  as  much  as  cotton, 
and  as  the  loss  in  finishing  is  much  greater  and  the  process 


more  expensive,  there  is  a  strong  temptation  to  adulterate 
linen  with  cotton  to  make  goods  less  expensive.  As  is  well 
known,  cotton  in  table  linen  detracts  from  the  wearing  quali- 
ties, as  the  short  fibers  of  the  cotton  give  the  pieces  a  fuzzy 
appearance  after  being  used  a  short  time. 

Silk  fibers  are  very  long,  are  strong,  and  have  high  luster. 
Soft  silks  wear  better  than  stiff  ones  which  are  "weighted" 
with  salts  of  tin  and  iron.  This  weighting  decreases  the 
strength  of  the  fiber  but  makes  it  "go  farther."  Taffetas 
are  examples  of  heavily  weighted  silk. 

Wool  is  the  important  animal  fiber.  Its  scale-like  surface 
gives  it  special  felting  and  spinning  qualities.  It  is  strong, 
elastic,  and  when  spun  and  woven  the  elastic  properties  give 
a  great  number  of  air  spaces  in  the  fabric,  rendering  clothing 
made  from  wool  very  warm  and  light.  It  will  absorb  up  to 
30  percent  of  its  weight  of  water  without  feeling  damp  to 
the  touch. 

Wool  fabrics  are  divided  into  "woolen"  and  "worsted" 
materials.  The  woolens  are  made  from  the  short  wool  fibers 
obtained  by  carding  the  wool  fleece.  Woolen  yarns  are  soft 
and  fluffy.  Worsteds  are  made  from  the  long  fibers  which 
have  been  combed  and  carded  until  they  lie  smooth  and 
parallel.  They  are  then,  twisted  more  tightly  than  woolen 
yarns,  thus  making  it  more  regular  and  lustrous.  Woolen 
materials  are  soft,  elastic,  of  soft  finish  and  blurred  pattern. 
Worsted  materials  are  of  harder  finish,  show  the  weave  more 
plainly,  and  have  a  clearer  pattern. 

The  expense  of  manufacture  of  worsted  yarn  is  greater 
than  for  woolen  yarn,  consequently  worsted  materials  cost 
more  than  woolens  of  the  same  weight  and  width. 


The  mixing  of  fibers  is  legitimate,  but  the  consumer  has 
a  right  to  know  what  percent  of  each  textile  she  is  pur- 


chasing,  and  not,  for  instance,  pay  "all  wool"  prices  for 
material  containing  a  large  proportion  of  "shoddy"  or  other 
adulterant.  The  consumer  often  encourages  adulteration  by 
demanding  very  low-price  materials.  Generally,  the  brands 
of  "trademarked"  textiles,  like  "Skinner's  Satin,"  etc.,  long 
established,  can  be  best  trusted.  There  should  be  a  national 
"pure  textile"  law  which  would  enforce  labeling  that  would 
inform  the  consumer  exactly  what  percent  and  grade  of 
each  textile  she  is  buying. 

The  following  gives  some  of  the  common  adulterations 
and  simple  home  methods  of  testing : 

Cotton  in  Linen.  Linen  threads  break  off  with  sharp- 
pointed  ends,  while  cotton  threads  break  off  short  with  fuzzy 
ends.  A  spot  of  oil  or  glycerine  makes  linen  more  trans- 
lucent than  cotton.  A  drop  of  water  on  linen  spreads 
rapidly ;  on  cotton  it  absorbs  slowly.  Singed  ends  of  cotton 
thread  spread  out,  while  singed  linen  threads  look  close 
together  and  uniform. 

Cotton  in  Woolen  and  Worsteds.  When  cotton  threads 
make  up  part  of  the  warp  (running  threads)  or  the  filling 
of  the  fabric,  the  cotton  is  easily  detected  by  picking  the 
threads  apart  and  burning — cotton  burns  quickly,  with  little 
odor  or  ash ;  wool  in  burning  gives  the  odor  of  burning 

When  cotton  fiber  is  spun  with  the  wool,  detection  is 
more  difficult.  Boil  a  sample  of  the  goods  in  a  solution  of 
washing  soda,  2  tablespoons  to  a  pint,  for  twenty  minutes. 
The  wool  becomes  jelly-like  and  may  be  separated  from 
the  cotton  by  rubbing  in  warm  water.  Or  boil  the  sample 
in  caustic  soda  solution  (a  two-inch  stick  of  caustic  in  a  cup 
of  water)  ;  the  wool  will  be  dissolved  completely  and  the 
cotton  left. 

To  remove  cotton  from  woolen,  boil  sample  in  oxalic 
acid  solution  (one  tablespoonful  to  a  cup)  and  dry  without 


rinsing.  Then  wash  out  the  acid  crystals,  dry,  and  rub  the 
goods — compare  with  original  sample  or  with  sample  that 
has  been  simply  boiled  in  water  and  dried. 

Weighting  of  silk  may  be  detected  by  laying  a  sample  on  a 
tin  plate  and  leaving  in  a  hot  oven  for  about  an  hour.  The 
pure  .silk  will  be  burned  away  and  the  weighting  remain  in 
the  form  of  the  sample;  if  it  burns  to  a  heap  of  ash,  it  is 
pure  silk  and  not  heavily  weighted. 

Silk  is  sometimes  adulterated  with  mercerized  cotton, 
which  is  somewhat  difficult  to  detect.  Mercerized  cotton 
is  made  by  treating  cotton  threads  with  strong  caustic  soda 
solution  while  the  cotton  is  under  strong  tension ;  then  the 
caustic  is  removed.  This  process  swells  the  cotton  fiber 
and  gives  it  luster.  The  process  strengthens  the  goods  and 
makes  a  wear-resisting  fabric,  but  it  should  not  be  sold  at 
the  price  of  silk.  Artificial  silk  is  made  by  dissolving 
cellulose  (cotton)  and  forcing  the  pasty  substance  through 
small  holes,  thus  giving  the  structure  and  somewhat  the 
appearance  of  silk,  but  lacking  its  true  softness  and  elasticity. 

To  test  any  woven  material,  pull  sharply  between  the 
two  thumbs,  first  one  way,  then  the  other.  If  it  gives  much 
or  tears  apart  easily,  the  fabric  shows  lack  of  strength. 
Close,  firm  weaves  are  more  enduring  than  loosely  woven 
ones.  By  holding  a  sample  of  cloth  to  the  light,  imperfec- 
tions may  be  detected.  Rubbing  the  material  between  the 
hands  or  thumb  and  first  finger  will  often  detect  "sizing" 
in  the  goods. 

Wash  goods  may  be  tested  by  taking  a  sample  home 
and  heating  a  part  of  it  in  soap  and  water.  If  the  color 
"bleeds"  it  will  be  quickly  apparent.  Moistening  a  sample 
and  exposing  it  to  direct  sunshine  for  a  day  or  two  will 
show  its  fastness  to  light.  A  part  of  the  original  sample 
should  be  kept  for  comparison.  Washing  will  also  remove 
starches  and  gums  used  in  finishing  to  conceal  defects  and 


give  an  attractive  appearance.  The  author  recalls  some 
yards  of  Swiss  with  a  beautiful  "dot,"  which  in  the  first 
washing,  disappeared! 

The  word  "shoddy"  is  often  heard  and  not  as  often  under- 
stood. "Shoddy"  is  the  technical  term  of  "regenerated" 
wool,  made  from  old  woolen  and  worsted  garments,  rags 
and  tailors'  scraps.  These  are  pulled  apart  and  the  fibers 
respun.  "Shoddy"  is  coarse,  inelastic,  and  short-fibered ; 
material  made  from  it  will  crease  easily,  and  have  a  dead 
"sticky"  feeling;  it  cannot  be  depended  upon  for  wear.  A 
certain  amount  is  unobjectionable  as  it  gives  warmth,  if  not 
wear,  and  indeed  is  a  commercial  necessity,  as  there  is  not 
enough  pure  wool  in  the  world  to  go  around !  But  the  con- 
sumer must  learn  to  protect  herself  and  not  pay  a  "wool" 
price  for  "shoddy." 


The  woman  who  can  fulfill  the  following  requirements 
may  be  classed  as  an  intelligent  buyer  of  textiles : 

1.  Know  the  appropriate  kind  of  cloth  to  be  used  for 
the  occasion,  considering  weave,  color  and  design. 

2.  Know  what  she  can  afford  to  pay  for  it. 

3.  Know  what  she  should  be  able  to  get  for  that  sum  of 

4.  Know  whether  the  material  she  purchases  is  what 
it  is  represented  to  be. 

There  is  a  great  tendency  to  be  lured  by  the  swiftly  chang- 
ing fashions  into  spending  more  for  clothing  than  the  income 
justifies.  Some  women  prefer  a  number  of  inexpensive  gar- 
ments following  the  fashions  and  designs  of  the  hour,  while 
others  prefer  a  few  well  made  garments  of  beautiful  ma- 
terial in  conservative  style  to  use  for  two  or  three  years. 


The  first  class  of  women  sacrifice  quality  of  material  and 
workmanship  to  faddish  styles — few  have  enough  money  to 
extravagantly  squander  beautiful  material  on  extreme 
gowns ;  the  second  class  sacrifice  the  latest  skirt  and  sleeve 
to  the  beauty  of  color  and  line  so  pleasing  to  the  individual 
and  to  others.  Needless  to  say  the  second  class  of  women 
on  the  whole  appear  better  dressed.  Where  growing  chil- 
dren have  no  brothers  or  sisters  to  wear  their  outgrown 
clothes,  inexpensive  materials  are  justified. 

Having  decided  the  kind  of  clothes  wanted  (inexpensive, 
up-to-the-minute  in  style,  and  many  of  them,  or  expensive, 
conservative,  and  few  in  number),  consider  next  economy 
in  clothing  from  the  standpoint  of  time  and  money  which 
must  be  spent  in  construction  or  workmanship.  It  may  be 
economy  for  mothers  and  daughters  to  make  their  own  cloth- 
ing, or  have  the  clothing  made  at  home  with  the  seasonal  aid 
of  a  visiting  dressmaker,  paid  by  the  day.  In  estimating  the 
true  economy  of  these  plans  one  must  consider  the  free 
time  and  plus  energy  of  the  individual.  Can  the  schedule 
be  planned  so  that  the  household  will  run  smoothly  for  the 
other  members  of  the  family  during  this  period?  Is  the 
time  required,  justified  by  the  results  and  money  saved,  or 
could  it  be  more  profitably  used  in  other  lines  ? 

Many  busy  women  who  do  not  find  it  profitable  to  sew  rely 
entirely  on  the  department  stores  or  mail  order  houses  as  a 
means  of  saving  time  and  nervous  energy.  If  they  can  be 
fitted  in  the  regulation  sizes  all  is  well  but  much  refitting 
defeats  their  purpose,  is  unsatisfactory  as  a  rule  and  also 
expensive.  Those  who  can  not  be  fitted  easily  at  the  de- 
partment stores  turn  to  high  class  tailors  or  dressmakers  for 
two  or  three  gowns  a  year  which  last  several  seasons  with 
little  repair  or  alteration.  Based  on  the  number  of  years  of 
wear  of  the  garment  the  average  expenditure  of  such  a  plan 
is  not  excessive.  Some  combine  all  of  these  methods  work- 


ing  out  their  own  budget  of  money  and  time  expenditure  to 
suit  their  particular  needs. 


Whatever  the  plan  followed  it  is  extremely  desirable  to 
work  out  a  dress  budget  as  it  alone  helps  one  to  see  the  dress 
problem  clearly  and  see  it  as  a  whole. 

A  dress  budget  is  best  based  on  a  three-year  average.  The 
expenditure  for  one  year  may  exceed  the  allowance  but 
thru  continued  use  of  the  articles  in  successive  years  the  aver- 
age may  be  maintained.  In  this  connection  the  importance 
of  keeping  the  clothing  repaired  and  pressed  for  results  in 
long  service,  can  be  easily  seen.  According  to  the  budgets  in 
Part  7,  14%  is  the  average  amount  for  clothing.  As  women's 
clothes  usually  cost  more  than  men's  assume  that  y$  of 
this  amount  may  be  used  by  the  women  and  J/$  by  the  man. 


After  determining  the  amount  of  money  which  can  be 
expended,  consider  next  the  social  or  business  demands 
which  must  provide  for;  then,  list  the  occasions  for 
which  clothes  must  be  planned — such  as  church,  afternoon 
and  evening  affairs,  theatre,  office,  street,  afternoons  at 
home,  morning  work  dresses,  etc.  That  dress  is  the  most 
economical  which  is  appropriate  to  the  greatest  number  of 
occasions.  For  instance  a  dressy  waist  with  a  tailored  suit 
forms  an  acceptable  costume  for  church,  luncheons,  theatre, 
informal  afternoons;  a  light  summer  silk  or  lingerie  gown 
can  continue  in  use  thruout  the  year  as  an  evening  party 
frock.  Having  listed  the  garments  needed  your  present 
wardrobe  must  be  reviewed,  and  the  garments  on  hand 
checked  off.  The  following  dress  budget  is  based  on  the 



purchase  of  all  articles  ready  to  wear.  If  the  clothing  listed 
here  be  purchased  between  seasons,  better  quality  can  be 
had  for  the  same  money  or  a  greater  number  of  garments 
can  be  supplied. 


Income,  $1,500.     Family,  2  adults.     Clothing  (14%),  $210;   ^   for 
woman  =  $140  per  year. 


ITEMS                                   ISTYEAR  20  YEAR  30  YEAR    OF  WEAR 
Suits,  coats,  waists,  gowns. 

Suit  for  all  seasons $25.00  $25.00        2  to  3 

Under   jacket    for    extra 

warmth   2.00  3  to  4 

Waist,  dressy  5  OD  5.00        2 

Waist,  tailored   3.00  3.00        2 

Coat    • $25.00           2  to  3 

Reception  gown    (silk) ....  25.00           

Winter   dress    •. 12.50  12.50        2  to  3 

Summer  waists — 

i  dressy  4.00            2 

i  common 2.50  2.50        2 

White  wash  skirt 5.00  ....         2 

Summer  silk   (light)   or  lin- 
gerie gown    20.00  20.00        2  to  3 

Summer  coat 15.00  3 

Summer  dresses   5.00  8.00 

Summer  dresses 8.00  6.00  5.00        2 

House  dresses — 

i  at  $1.50 3.00  1.50           

1  at     2.00 2.00        i  to  2 

Aprons — 

2  at  $0.50 i.oo  .50  .50        i  to  2 

Underclothing,  winter  under- 
wear— 3  at  $1.00 3.00  i.oo        2  to  3 

Summer  vests — 

4  at  $0.25 i.oo  .50  .50        2 

Combination  suits — 

2  crepes  at  $1.00 2.00  i.oo  2.00        2 

1  muslin  at    1.50  1.50  1.50            

Nightgowns — 

2  at  $1.00 2.00  i.oo  2.00        ito2 

Brassieres — 

2  at  50  cents i.oo  i.oo        2 

Corsets — 

I  at  $1.50 

I  at    3.00 4.50  4.50  4.50 




ITEMS                                 IST¥EAR  20  YEAR  30  YEAR    OF  WEAR 

Silk  for  suit 3.50           3.50 

Muslin — 

2  at  $1.00 2.00          i.oo       2  to  3 

1  at    2.00 2.00  .... 

Shoes — 

Oxfords  3.00           3.00        2 

Street  shoes 5.00  5.00  5.00        I 

Dress  shoes 8.00  8.00  8.00        I 

Room  slippers 75  ....  ....         4 

Rubbers    75           .75        2 

Slippers  4.00           2 

Gloves — 

Winter  (heavy)   i.oo  ....  i.oo        2 

White  kid 1.50  3 

2  pr.  white  washable  at  6oc    1.20  .60  .60        i 
Winter,  street  (new  or  re- 
modeled)         5.00  i.oo  5.00 

Dress  (new  or  remodeled)     i.oo  8.00  i.oo 

Summer,  street   5.00  i.oo  5.00 

Dress   i.oo  8.00  i.oo 

Hosiery — 

Winter,  3  at  50  cents 1.50  i.oo  1.50        ito2 

Summer,  4  at  35  cents 1.40  1.05  1.40        ito2 

i  at  $1.00 i.oo  i.oo  i.oo        i 

TOTAL  $158.60      $116.15      $133.25 

Total  of  three  years $408.00 

3  X  $140.00  =  $420.00,  leaving  $12.00  or  $4.00  a  year 
for    handkerchiefs,    repairs,    cleaning    and    sundries. 

NOTE.  Prices  in  this  budget  have  no  special  significance— the  idea 
is  to  show  the  plan. 


The  value  of  many  ready  made  garments  can  be  readily 
enhanced  by  adding  a  bit  of  hand  embroidery,  fine  lace  or  a 
different  collar.  The  woman  who  must  economize  on  her 
clothing  and  yet  wishes  to  dress  well,  must  buy  either  gar- 
ments or  materials  between  seasons.  A  great  deal  of  time 
can  be  saved  in  shopping  if  the  housewife  can  identify  her- 
self with  one  clerk  in  the  department,  as  the  clerk  knows 


the  stock  and  soon  will  learn  to  fit  it  to  the  customer's  taste 
and  pocket  book.  Time  of  usual  legitimate  seasonal  reduc- 
tion in  clothing  are  as  follows : 

After  Thanksgiving — fall  articles  on  sale. 

First  of  the  year — winter  articles  on  sale. 

First  of  February — between  seasons — period  of  greatest  reduction. 

Decoration  Day — spring  articles  on  sale. 

Fourth  of  July — summer  articles  on  sale. 

First  of  September — between  seasons — period  of  greatest  reduction. 


Where  the  clothing  budget  of  the  mother  must  be  divided 
with  little  children,  or  where  she  desires  to  have  many  gar- 
ments at  less  cost  saving  must  be  effected  by  making  some 
articles  at  home.  In  general  it  may  be  said  that  outside 
clothing  as  suits  and  coats  should  be  purchased,  for  their 
style  depends  entirely  upon  lines  and  tailoring.  The  more 
skilled  the  housewife  is  in  designing  and  sewing  fine  clothing, 
the  greater  is  her  saving,  as  shown  by  the  following  table 
based  on  the  clothing  budget  given. 

Saving  where  nothing 
ITEMS —  is  paid  for  time 

Wash  waists  (which  have  hand  work) 

Winter  dress   . 

Summer  dresses 


Light  summer  silk  or  lingerie  dress 


House  dresses  ] 

Aprons    (•         20%  to  30% 

Machine-made  waists  . .' J 

Underclothes    $%  to  15% 

Standard  garments,  such  as  housedresses,  aprons,  and 
underclothing  which  have  no  particular  style,  can  be  cut  out 
by  the  hundred,  and  made  by  unskilled  workers.  As  the  style 
is  not  pronounced,  a  merchant  can  carry  them  over  several 
seasons  (unless  soiled)  so  there  is  less  loss  in  handling.  All 
factors  combine  to  make  them  cheaper,  so  that  the  busy 
housewife  can  little  afford  to  spend  her  time  on  such  items. 



Ready  or  home  made  as  the  garments  may  be,  all  need 
attention  at  some  time  in  repairing  and  alteration,  so  every 
home  needs  a  sewing  corner,  just  as  it  needs  a  "business 

A  2j4-inch  Wood   Frame  Covered  with  Cretonne. 

corner."  If  repairs  and  simple  alterations  alone  are  planned 
for,  the  simple  equipment  of  a  home-made  sewing  screen 
such  as  illustrated  may  be  sufficient.  The  hooks  and  spindles 
provide  places  for  all  tools  as  scissors,  hem  gauge,  darning 
ball,  pin  cushion,  beeswax,  and  thread  of  different  shades 
and  numbers.  The  many  pockets  are  arranged  to  hold  find- 
ings, patterns,  remnants,  current  work,  and  in  one  corner  of 
the  top  shelf,  pill-boxes  of  sliding  variety  with  collar  button 
punched  through  the  front,  make  useful  little  drawers  for 
buttons,  snappers,  hooks  and  eyes.  Where  home  sewing  is 
a  regular  part  of  the  seasonal  schedule,  the  following  equip- 
ment should  be  added : 


1.  Machine. 

2.  Cutting  board  or  table. 

3.  Chair  (right  height). 

4.  Lap  board. 

5.  Ample  scrap  basket. 

6.  Dress  form. 

7.  Yard  stick. 

8.  Shelves  for  fashion  magazines. 

9.  Electric  iron. 

10.  Pressing  board  and  cloth. 

11.  Dress  file. 

12.  Good  light. 

Electric  Motor  Attached;  Made  by  Western   Electric  Co.     Price,  $45.00. 


The  following  form  for  dress  file  will  be  suggestive  and 
prove  particularly  valuable  where  sewing  is  done  for  many 
members  of  the  family  : 

1.  Samples  of  each  standard  fabric  on  a  card  with  infor- 

mation of  width,  cost,  guarantee,  manufacturer,  and 
dealer's  name. 

2.  Classified  list  and  location  of  findings,  kept  on  hand. 

3.  For  each  member  of  the  family  : 

a.  Dress  budget  plan. 

b.  Measurements  with  date  of  taking. 

c.  Sewing  cost  of  each  article. 

1.  Cost  of  materials. 

2.  Time  required. 



Sewing  is  a  seasonal  occupation  in  many  households  and 
the  complaint  arises  that  sewing  and  housework  do  not  fit 
together,  and  that  the  many  interruptions  make  progress  in 
the  work  difficult.  True  the  regular  schedule  would  have 
to  be  reduced  to  a  minimum  of  simple  meals,  bed-making 
and  simplest  putting  of  the  house  in  order,  and  the  time  of 
different  sewing  operations  will  have  to  be  planned  accord- 
ing to  frequency  and  nature  of  interruptions,  such  as : 

Evening  for  cutting — 

1.  Least  interrupted  time,  and 

2.  Work  does  not  strain  the  eyes. 
Morning  for  machine  work — 

Fewer  unplanned  for  interruptions. 
Afternoon  for  handwork — 

Can  be  continued  during  unexpected  calls. 


Making  a  number  of  like  garments  at  one  time  such  as 
underwear,  dresses,  waists,  and  having  a  standard  practice 
of  procedure  simplifies  the  work  and  reduces  the  total  time. 

A.  Preparatory. 

1.  Test  samples. 

2.  Select  pattern. 

1.  Open  each  piece. 

2.  Mark  with  make  and  number. 

3.  Measure  for  required  amount  of  material  if 

allowance  on  pattern  seems  large. 

3.  Buy  material  and  finishing. 

4.  Put  pattern,  material  and  finishing  in  a  labeled  box. 

5.  Note  costs  in  dress  file. 


B.  Cutting. 

1.  Prepare  equipment. 

Board,    scissors,   weights    (better   than   pins), 
yard  stick,  French  chalk. 

2.  Lay  goods  and  pattern. 

3.  Cut. 

4.  Baste  or  mark  as  necessary. 

C.  Replace  pattern  and  pieces  in  respective  boxes. 

D.  Work  on  all  like  articles  at  one  time  without  change  of 

shift  as  skirts,  waists,  sleeves,  etc. 

1.  All  basting. 

2.  All  fitting  on  form. 

3.  All  seams. 

4.  Remove  basting. 

5.  Final  fitting. 

6.  Do  all  like  finishing,  as  buttonholes,   snappers, 

hems,  etc. 

7.  Pressing. 

E.  Replace  each  article  in  respective  box  as  done  and 

avoid  confusion. 

The  time  study  for  each  step  will  vary  with  the  speed 
of  the  individual  and  the  amount  of  work  done,  but  making 
a  study  of  dress  making  as  with  other  work  will  give 
not  only  a  valuable  gauge  for  schedule  calculations,  but  will 
show  also  whether  the  time  spent  in  sewing  is  profitable  in 
proportion  to  the  saving  of  money. 


The  buying  of  household  tools  and  equipment  has  been 
taken  up  fully  in  a  previous  chapter  (see  Chap.  Ill,  pp.  100- 
108;  also  VI)  ;  the  other  needs  which  must  be  purchased 
for  the  home,  may  be  divided  into  Furniture  and  Room  fur- 


nishings ;  Medical  and  Sanitary ;  China,  Glass  and  Silver ; 
Art  and  Musical  Objects. 

Space  does  not  permit  going  into  each  group  in  detail. 
It  may  be  said,  however,  in  regard  to  furniture : 

1.  Buy  a  few  pieces  of  good  model,  and  the  best  work- 
manship rather  than  an  assortment  of  poorly  harmon- 
izing ones. 

2.  Avoid  those  pieces  which  have  high  polish,  and  an 
excess  of  carving,  "turned  legs,"  etc.,  as  they  show  soil 
and  scratches  more  easily  and  require  more  work  to 
keep  them  clean. 

3.  Avoid  buying  "sets"  or  "suites"  or  "period"  furniture 
when  the  home  is  neither  large  enough  nor  has  the  right 
setting  for  such  furniture. 

4.  Buy  separate  mirrors  and  drawers  rather  than  typical 
"bureaus,"  because  they  can  be  more  easily  placed  in 
different  positions  and  rooms ;  have  as  much  of  the 
furniture  "built  in,"  rather  than  of  the  portable  type. 

5.  Choose  such  models  which  permit  easy  cleaning  under 
them,  and  which  have  such  pillows,  seats,  etc.,  which  are 
easy  of  care  and  inexpensive  in  restoration. 

6.  In  choosing  beds  a  "box-spring"  covered,  is  the  most 
permanent  and  sanitary,  and  less  likely  to  catch  on 

7.  The  cost  of  an  iron  or  enameled  bed  depends  on  the 
width  and  weight  of  the  iron  supports,  and  on  the  ar- 
rangement of  the  spring.    Those  beds  with  'woven  wire 
spring  attached  permanently   to   the  framework,  are 
more  satisfactory  than  using  a  separate  wire  spring. 
See  that  the  spring  is  reinforced  by  strands  of  cross 
wire  so  that  it  does  not  sag. 

8.  Mattresses  of  laminated  cotton  are  more  sanitary,  and 
distribute  weight  more  evenly  than  those  of  horsehair. 
Ask  to  see  a  cross  section  of  the  filling  before  purchase. 



In  every  home  there  is  need  of  certain  sanitary  articles 
and  comforts  bought  from  time  to  time.  The  point  is  that 
very  few  of  these  articles  are  planned  in  purchase,  but  are 
bought  suddenly  when  emergency  demands,  with  a  result 
of  either  extravagant  or  inefficient  buying,  whose  total  is 
quite  a  sum  out  of  the  annual  expenditure.  A  comfort  like 
a  hotwater  bottle  is  best  developed  in  an  electrically  heated 
pad  if  there  is  current  in  the  home,  or  at  least  by  an  alumi- 
num bottle  which  cannot  leak,  or  burst  like  the  rubber  bag. 
Grey  agate  ware  sanitary  utensils  give  better  service  and 
cost  less  than  the  same  articles  made  of  white  enamel.  Medi- 
cines should  be  kept  away  from  light;  the  tri-sided  poison 
bottle  should  be  used  to  avoid  danger.  "Quantity"  buying  of 
gauze,  absorbent  cotton,  etc.,  by  the  half  or  pound  is  much 
less  expensive  than  buying  small  10  and  15  cents'  worth; 
large  sizes  of  witch  hazel,  alcohol,  bought  by  the  pint,  etc., 
toilet  rolls  bought  by  the  dozen,  and  soap  by  the  box  where  it 
can  be  unwrapped  and  laid  to  harden.  In  families  with 
children  the  medicines  or  "emergency  shelf"  should  be  kept 
well  stocked,  where  it  is  instantly  accessible.  All  rubber 
tubing,  etc.,  must  not  be  used  or  left  with  oil  and  must  be 
hung  away  to  avoid  bending  and  breakage.  Care  in  keep- 
ing contents  protected  from  air  and  dust,  well  corked,  etc., 
will  save  as  much  as  original  careful  estimation  of  pur- 


In  buying  chinaware  it  is  wiser  to  buy  from  "open  stock." 
This  means  a  stock  or  pattern  which  the  manufacturer  and 
retailer  have  constantly  on  hand,  as  opposed  to  a  "set"  which 
is  a  pattern  of  which  only  a  few  "sets"  are  manufactured, 
and  then  discontinued.  "Open  stock"  permits  buying  only 


a  few  dishes  at  a  time,  and  allows  easy  replacement  for 
breakage.  Indeed  it  is  always  better  to  avoid  the- lure  of 
all  "sets  of  108  pieces  complete,"  etc.,  because  many  of  the 
pieces  of  such  standard  sets  are  used  so  seldom  as  to  be  poor 
investments ;  i.  e.,  the  large  turkey  platter,  the  soup  tureen, 
etc.,  can  best  be  replaced  by  a  more  serviceable  chop-plate 
or  a  less  expensive  casserole  which  can  be  used  for  other 
foods  than  soup  alone.  Staring  or  large  and  brightly  colored 
patterns  are  tiring  to  the  eye,  do  not  set  off  the  food  attrac- 
tively, and  do  not  harmonize  with  the  other  table  appoint- 
ments. Avoid  large  handles  and  ornate  knobs,  which  break 
easily  and  excess  of  gold-leaf,  which  comes  off  in  the  wash- 
ing after  hard  usage.  Porcelain  is  the  finest  quality  of 
ware,  almost  transparent  when  held  to  the  light,  and  the 
most  fragile.  China  is  the  medium  weight  grade  of  which 
most  sets  are  made.  Pottery  is  the  coarsest  ware,  of  which, 
however,  beautiful  pitchers,  bowls,  etc.,  are  made. 

It  is  also  not  necessary  to  buy  a  "complete  dozen"  of  each 
kind  of  plate,  saucer,  etc.  For  a  small  family,  eight  of  each 
kind  of  flat  dish  seems  to  be  adequate.  A  plate  which  will 
be  suitable  for  both  breakfast  and  supper,  and  salad  can  be 
chosen,  and  so  avoid  the  endless  number  of  sizes  of  plates 
with  which  the  average  "set"  is  burdened.  One  size  sauce 
dish,  or  a  shape  that  will  do  both  for  soup  and  cereal,  again 
saves  a  multiplicity  of  dishes.  The  same  points  are  true  in 
regard  to  silver — that  simple  pattern,  good  lines,  and  few 
pieces,  give  the  table  a  better  appearance  than  does  an  excess 
of  elaborate  encrusted  ware,  which  also  means  more  cleaning 
labor  for  the  housekeeper. 


So  many  are  the  articles  which  might  come  under  this 
head,  that  merely  the  general  suggestions  may  be  given,  first, 
not  to  have  too  many  of  such  extraneous  objects  as  pictures, 


hangings,  ornaments,  since  most  American  homes  (and 
women  buyers)  delight  in  an  excess  of  superfluous  objects  in 
the  rooms — objects  which  mar  the  general  harmony,  which 
are  often  of  doubtful  quality  and  ephemeral  value,  and 
which  also  lessen  the  amount  of  air  in  the  room,  not  to 
mention  the  great  labor  they  entail  in  cleaning.  Long- 
trailing  lace  curtains,  portieres,  fringe,  doilies,  bric-a-brac 
are  generally  not  wise  investments.  "Ten-cent  store"  buy- 
ing is  a  cause  of  unwise  spending,  and  overcrowded,  inartis- 
tic homes — simplicity  and  permanent  quality  should  be  two 
watchwords  in  all  buying  of  housefurnishings. 



1.  Investigate  (by  telephone  or  better  by  visit)  the  price  of 

flour,  sugar,  eggs,  butter,  potatoes,  bacon  and  flank 
steak  in  all  your  local  stores  and  sources  of  supply,  on 
the  same  day,  and  report. 

(b)  Hov^  do  the  sanitary  conditions  in  the  different 

stores  compare? 

(c)  What  are  your  local  laws,   if  any,  on  sanitary 

standards  ?    On  weights  and  measures  ? 

2.  Tell  of  any  experience  you  have  had  in  purchasing  food 

by  (a)  paicel  post  or  express,  (b)  co-operative  buy- 
ing or  wholesale,  (c)  at  public  markets. 

3.  Make  out  a  table  of  at  least  ten  items,  giving  the  cost 

per  1,000  calories  of  food  "as  purchased,"  using  your 
current  prices. 

4.  Give  a  recipe  and  calculate  (a)  the  total  number  of  cal- 

ories it  contains,  (b)  the  total  cost  and  (c)  the  cost 
per  1,000  calories. 

5.  The  dress  problem — what  seems  the  best  solution  under 

your    conditions?      Have    you    ever    used    a    "dress 
•  bu'get?" 




THERE  are  approximately  22  million  families  in  the 
United  States;  of  this  number,  92%,  according  to 
1910  estimates,  employ  no  permanent  servants.  Fig- 
ures compiled  now  would  undoubtedly  show  an  even  higher 
percentage ;  war  conditions  abroad  have  almost  entirely  cut 
off  the  stream  of  immigrant  labor  from  which  servants  were 
formerly  recruited;  war  conditions  in  this  country  have  so 
disorganized  industry  that  women  are  replacing  men  in 
shops  and  factories  which  offer  such  high  wages  as  to  tempt 
many  professional  servants  away  from  all  branches  of 
housework  into  these  wartime  occupations. 

Employment  agencies  in  Eastern  states  have  requests 
for  four  times  as  many  applicants  as  they  can  find 
even  at  wages  a  third  to  a  half  higher  than  at  a  period 
"  before  the  war."  The  demand  is  so  much  greater  than 
the  supply  that  even  responsible  workers  are  shifting  and 
unreliable.  It  is  even  more  difficult — almost  impossible,  to 
secure  household  help  on  farms  and  in  isolated  suburban 
sections,  as  workers  prefer  town  amusements  and  city  living 

It  is  probable  that  the  situation  will  not  improve,  but 
that  there  will  be  a  still  greater  shortage  of  professional 
resident  servants  during  the  succeeding  years. 



The  average  homemaker  is  therefore  faced  with  the 
necessity  of  doing  all  her  own  housework,  or  depending  on 
such  outside  assistance  and  agencies  as  will  enable  her  to 
manage  her  home  without  permanent  or  "  resident "  serv- 
ice. But  this  should  not  be  regarded  by  her  as  a  situation 
to  be  deplored,  but  as  an  opportunity  to  manage  her  home 
according  to  her  own  highest  standards  of  thrift,  efficiency, 
sanitation,  and  family  happiness. 


There  is  a  very  strong  case  against  the  presence  of  the 
permanent  worker  in  the  home.  First,  there  is  the  responsi- 
bility and  psychological  adjustment  which  she  forces  on  the 
homemaker,  and  on  the  entire  family.  Even  if  she  is  a 
trained  worker  (and  how  seldom  she  is!)  the  employer, 
in  addition  to  the  strain  of  seeing  that  the  worker  carries 
out  her  directions  and  plans,  feels  responsibility  as  to 
whether  the  worker  is  "  satisfied,"  if  she  has  sufficient  pri- 
vate life  after  hours,  if  her  goings  out  and  her  comings  in 
are  as  they  should  be,  if  things  in  the  house  are  adjusted 
to  please  her.  In  other  words,  there  is  usually  considerable 
tension  between  the  worker  on  one  side  and  the  family  on 
the  other. 

In  many  cases,  the  standard  of  the  home  is  consciously 
or  unconsciously  made  less  simple  or  adapted  to  the  expec- 
tations and  demands  of  the  worker.  This  is  particularly 
true  in  the  case  of  meals ;  it  is  a  common  occurrence  to  find 
the  cook,  hired  man  or  houseworker  dissatisfied  with  the 
simpler  kind  of  food  with  which  the  family  itself  would  be 
quite  content.  Again,  hundreds  of  intelligent,  progressive 
housekeepers  have  ideas  of  continuous  efficiency,  thrift, 
and  management  which  it  is  impossible  for  them  to  get 
their  servants  to  follow.  The  result  is  that  the  home  is 


not  managed  so  much  according  to  the  standards  the  home- 
maker  would  like  to  have  set,  as  according  to  the  ineffi- 
ciency, waste  and  lower  standards  of  a  constantly  shifting 
and  generally  low-grade  worker. 

Further,  what  is  the  actual  cost  of  a  permanent  worker? 
She  receives  a  cash  wage ;  in  addition  she  represents  (which 
many  homemakers  fail  to  include)  a  cash  expenditure  for 
food,  room,  light,  furnishings,  heat,  breakage,  wear  and 
tear.  She  also  creates  more  work  in  the  family,  merely  by 
living  in  it — i.  e.,  her  dishes,  the  washing  of  her  clothes, 
etc.,  all  of  which  must  be  estimated  in  her  exact  cost.  It 
is  a  fair  average  to  figure  that  a  servant  costs  double  her 
wages;  a  worker  costing  $25  in  wages  costs  actually  $50 
in  cash,  and  that  each  additional  worker  costs  20%  more. 
A  professor  of  nutrition  writes  that  each  servant  represents 
a  cost  of  at  least  $4  weekly  for  food  alone. 

Added  to  this,  her  general  lack  of  thrift  brings  her  total 
cost  startlingly  high — $600  to  $1,000  or  more  a  year.  In 
other  words,  whether  she  likes  to  admit  it  or  not,  the  home- 
maker  is  paying  a  high  price  (perhaps  even  more  than  the 
price  of  efficient  day  or  hour  help)  for  transient,  inefficient 
permanent  help. 


Wages  (general  housekeeper,  to  housekeeper) $25-$45  a  month 

Board  (men  servants,  about  one-third  more) 16-  25  "        " 

Room     (weekly,    $i-$3) 4-  12  "        " 

Light  and  fuel 3-    5  " 

Breakage   and  waste    (weekly,   $i-$3) 4-  12  "        " 

Total    $52-$99  "       " 


Bed,    mattress,    blanket,    etc $25 

Bureau   or   chiffonier    10 

Two    chairs    5 

Table    4 

Rug    5 

Servant's  room  and  bath $2,000 



The  servantless  household  (by  "servantless"  is  meant 
without  resident  workers)  offers  the  only  real  opportunity 
for  a  family  to  follow  the  exact  standards  it  wishes  and  to 
carry  out  its  ideals  regardless  of  adjustment  to  any  other 
persons.  Again,  it  offers  the  homemaker  the  one  chance 
of  putting  into  practice  her  progressive  sanitary  knowl- 
edge, the  use  of  improved  machinery,  and  efficient  home 
management.  Further,  it  enables  her  to  practice  thrift  and 
economy,  and  to  know  that  every  dollar  she  spends  for 
service  goes  for  actual  work  done,  and  not  for  waste  or 
additional  "  overhead."  Last,  and  most  important  of  all, 
the  servantless  household  enables  a  family  cooperation  and 
a  chance  for  the  training  of  children  that  makes  for  the 
highest  value,  and  which  can  never  possibly  be  secured 
under  the  constant  presence  of  hired  workers 


It  may  be  well  for  the  woman  who  is  the  executive  head 
of  the  servantless  household  to  turn  back  to  the  "  Intro- 
duction "  (page  9)  and  re-read  the  twelve  principles  of 
efficiency.  There  she  will  see  "  Ideals  "  given  as  the  first 
principle.  To  make  a  success  of  managing  a  home  by  her- 
self it  is  necessary,  above  all,  to  have  the  right  point  of 
view  about  her  work.  She  must  want  to  run  a  home,  and 
see  that  its  various  tasks  offer  scope  for  her  best  intelligence, 
effort  and  study. 

The  reason,  perhaps,  why  many  women  "  doing  their 
own  work  "  regard  housekeeping  as  distasteful,  is  that  they 
merely  "  married  into  housekeeping,"  and  are  constantly 
regretting  that  they  can't  afford  a  servant,  or  thinking  of 
teaching  or  office  work  which  they  would  prefer  to  do,  or 


envying  women  who  do  nothing  except  try  to  amuse  them- 
selves. No  one  ever  made  a  success  of  any  enterprise  which 
he  was  constantly  disparaging  in  his  own  mind.  It  is  most 
important  that  the  homemaker  of  the  servantless  home  see 
all  its  advantages  for  family  cooperation  and  child  training, 
and  the  chance  it  is  for  her  to  show  to  the  community  in 
her  homemaking,  her  executive  ability,  her  expression  of 
what  a  home  in  the  highest  sense  should  be.  Here  is  her 
best  chance  to  be  "  A  productive  citizen  of  the  State,  not  a 
social  debtor." — Ellen  H.  Richards. 

One  of  the  first  elements  of  this  right  point  of  view  will 
be  to  get  rid  of  the  idea  that  her  particular  family  or  house 
must  be  run  according  to  arbitrary  standards,  set  up  by 
friends  or  the  community.  Another  is  to  refuse  to  attempt 
to  run  a  home  without  service  in  the  same  way  or  on  the 
same  scale  as  a  house  which  has  permanent  help. 

If  in  a  particular  family  it  seems  best  only  to  wash 
dishes  once  a  day,  or  if  it  should  make  for  family  happiness 
to  do  the  laundry  work  on  Thursday,  instead  of  Monday; 
or  if  certain  kinds  of  meals  are  preferred  other  than  the 
conventional  ones,  let  the  homemaker  follow  these  or  what- 
ever methods  conduce  to  the  efficient  management  of  her 
particular  home,  regardless  of  tradition,  or  what  is  sup- 
posed to  be  the  "  proper  "  way.  Too  many  women  doing 
their  own  housework  are  slaves  of  routine  and  tradition, 
and  put  the  work  itself  first,  and  the  true  comfort  and 
development  of  the  family,  and  justice  to  their  own  health 
and  interests,  second. 

One  woman  with  the  right  viewpoint  has  her  week  so 
planned  that  she  neither  cooks  nor  cleans  on  Saturday,  but 
devotes  it  to  her  three  small  boys  who  are  home  from 
school,  taking  them  to  museums,  the  zoo,  and  other  places 
of  educational  interest,  since  this  is  the  only  day  they  can 
go-  How  much  better  than  the  plan  which  "must"  put 


baking  day  on  Saturday !   (and  leaves  the  children  to  run 
loose  around  the  neighborhood). 

Another  wise  woman  arranges  her  Sunday  with  buffet 
or  tray  meals  pre-cooked  the  day  before,  so  that  she,  also, 
has  a  "  day  of  rest "  and  can  spend  more  time  with  hus- 
band and  children  than  if  she  follows  the  usual  hot  mid-day 
dinner  which  means  incarceration  in  the  kitchen  the  whole 
forenoon.  The  woman  managing  the  servantless  house- 
hold has  the  widest  field  for  ingenuity,  for  originality,  for 
running  a  home  with  the  greatest  freedom  and  service  to 
her  family. 


The  servantless  household  offers  a  wide  opportunity 
for  training  and  educating  children.  Unfortunate  indeed 
are  those  children  in  homes  of  wealth  where  the  cook  will 
not  allow  them  in  the  kitchen,  or  where  the  children  are  so 
waited  upon  that  their  initiative  and  responsibility  are  not 
developed.  As  a  very  prominent  and  successful  man  said 
to  the  author  recently,  "  The  greatest  loss  to  society  is  the 
disappearance  of  the  family  woodpile."  He  meant  by  this 
that  the  child  who  has  chores  to  do  and  who  shares  in  the 
many  small  tasks  of  the  home  will  receive  training  in  the  most 
important  point  of  co-ordinating  motor  and  mental  tasks, 
as  in  making  beds,  learning  to  cook,  doing  small  cleaning 
tasks,  etc.  Indeed,  the  modern  educator  with  his  Mon- 
tessori  and  similar  systems  is  only  trying  to  give  back  to  the 
child  in  school  what  he  formerly  (and  still  could)  learn  in 
the  various  small  manual  tasks  of  the  home.  But,  further, 
if  there  is  one  thing  more  than  another  that  will  teach  chil- 
dren the  ethics,  the  spiritual  side  and  beauty  of  home  life, 
it  is  to  enlist  their  co-operation  with  the  mother  in  doing 
home  tasks,  and  making  them  feel  "  this  is  my  home,  too" 

Each  child  in  the  servantless  home  should  have  its  defi- 


nite  daily  and  weekly  tasks.  Older  boys  may  care  for 
furnace  or  stove,  clean  rugs,  and  similar  work;  girls  can 
cook  and  clean,  and  even  the  smallest  empty  a  wastepaper 
basket  or  "  pick  up."  Children  of  eight  or  over  can  be  held 
accountable  for  making  their  own  bed,  picking  up  their 
night  clothes  and  leaving  a  room  "  tidy." 

If  housework  is  presented  to  them  with  the  right  point 
of  view,  children  regard  it  as  a  privilege,  rather  than  a  duty, 
and  are  eager  to  "  help."  No  mistake  is  more  fatal  than 
to  keep  children  from  doing  work  because  the  mother  can 
"  do  it  so  much  better  myself."  How  will  she  ever 
expect  skill  if  she  does  not  permit  a  period  of  inexperience 
and  practice?  How  many  girls  there  are  who  have  said 
that  they  did  not  know  anything  about  housekeeping,  be- 
cause when  they  were  small  their  mothers  prevented  them? 

It  is  the  author's  feeling  that  there  should  be  no  sex 
discrimination  in  such  tasks — that  boys  should  cook  simple 
dishes,  and  at  least  darn  and  sew  buttons,  and  that  girls 
should  share  in  the  mechanical  jobs  with  hammer  and  saw. 

Older  children  taking  manual  training  in  school  can  assist 
by  making  simple  labor-savers  like  shoeblacking  or  sewing 
stand,  coal  box  on  castors,  etc.,  the  making  of  which  will 
round  out  their  school  instruction  and  be  an  incentive 
because  they  will  see  their  handiwork  actually  used  by  the 

But  whatever  the  task  or  work,  it  should  be  definite, 
provided  for  in  the  schedule  with  its  due  reward  or  repri- 
mand. It  should  not  be  a  constant  nagging  to  do  all  kinds 
of  running  and  errands  so  that  the  child  comes  to  hate  his 
share  instead  of  like  it.  A  child  should  not  be  made  a 
"body  servant'' — he  should  have  his  rights  as  well  as  his 
duties.  Here  as  in  all  child  training  "An  ounce  of  example 
is  worth  more  than  a  pound  of  precept." 

From  present  indications  it  would  seem  as  if  the  struggle 


for  living  is  going  to  be  even  much  harder  for  our  children 
than  it  is  for  ourselves  today.  Economists  and  moralists 
point  out  to  us  that  many  of  the  serious  modern  problems  of 
extravagance,  divorce,  etc.,  arise  largely  because  young 
people,  girls  especially,  have  not  been  trained  in  home  man- 
agement, or  in  ideals  of  thrift  and  home  life.  No  "  domes- 
tic science  training,"  however  good,  taken  in  later  years, 
can  replace  this  early  dexterity  in  manual  tasks,  or  the 
instilling  ideals  as  to  the  point  of  view  of  the  worthwhile- 
ness  of  normal,  inter-co-operative  home  life  of  parents  and 


In  some  households  where  there  is  no  permanent  worker, 
it  often  happens  that  the  homemaker  looks  to  the  husband 
as  a  kind  of  nursemaid,  choreman  or  kitchen  assistant.  The 
author's  feeling  is  very  much  against  this  view, — that  the 
moment  a  man  comes  into  the  house  he  should  be  asked  to 
carry  out  the  slops,  hold  the  baby  or  wash  the  dishes.  If 
the  father  works  hard  and  faithfully  at  his  task  of  earning 
money  during  his  work  day,  it  is  not  more  fair  to  ask  him 
to  turn  choreman  as  soon  as  he  comes  home,  than  it  would 
be  to  ask  the  woman  who  has  cooked  and  cleaned  all  day 
to  turn  around  and  do  office  or  business  work  after  five 
o'clock.  It  is  not  fair  to  put  on  a  father  any  housework 
duties ;  his  hours  at  home  should  be  hours  of  recuperation, 
or  so  that  he  can  study  his  own  work,  become  more  pro- 
ficient, and  thus  secure  advancement  or  a  better  economic 

There  comes  to  mind  the  case  of  a  gifted  man  starting 
a  profession,  who,  because  of  his  wife's  poor  management, 
spent  his  time  after  office  hours  caring  for  the  children  and 
doing  chores.  He  never  seemed  to  "  get  on  "  as  far  as  people 
had  expected.  Would  it  not  have  been  better  to  use  his 


spare  time  studying  and  improving  in  his  own  profession 
and  thus  be  eventually  able  to  pay  for  more  service  to  help 
his  wife,  than  to  neglect  his  own  opportunities  by  doing 
the  housework? 

There  are  other  ways  in  which  father  can  be  of  more 
true  assistance, — one  is  in  being  satisfied  with  simple  stand- 
ards, and  especially  simple  meals  and  table  service.  It 
has  been  found  too  often  that  unnecessary  work  for  the 
housekeeper  has  been  made  because  the  tastes  of  the  men  of 
the  family  were  capricious.  One  husband,  for  instance, 
always  refused  to  eat  "  made  dishes  "  of  any  kind ;  another 
did  not  think  he  had  a  good  meal  unless  pie  of  some  sort 
was  included;  other  brothers  wouldn't  eat  anything  but 
roasts,  demanding  constant  watching  at  the  stoves,  etc.,  etc. 
Sunday  is  the  hardest  day  in  the  week  for  many  women 
largely  because  their  families  demand  (or  are  in  the  habit 
of  having)  an  extra  fancy  hot  noon  dinner,  when  such  a 
dinner  could  easily  be  taken  Saturday  night,  and  only  simple 
buffet  meals  taken  Sunday  which  would  allow  the  house- 
keeper, like  the  others,  to  enjoy  one  day  of  rest. 

Many  of  such  habits  on  the  part  of  the  family  make  the 
housekeeping  harder,  but  can  easily  be  changed  by  a  little 
helpful  co-operative  spirit  and  willingness  to  see  a  new 
viewpoint.  In  one  home  where  Sunday  breakfast  usually 
was  dragged  on  from  seven  until  nearly  ten  by  different 
members  on  whom  the  mother  waited,  a  newer  plan  was 
followed  by  setting  four  separate  trays  on  the  dining  table 
complete  for  each  one  with  fruit,  prepared  cereal,  and 
glass  of  milk.  As  each  came  down,  he  ate  his  trayful,  then 
carried  it  out  and  washed  and  laid  away  those  few  things 
himself,  thus  doing  away  with  any  long-standing  and  un- 
tidy table  and  waiting.  The  ideal  should  be  not  to  do  any- 
thing or  leave  anything  untidy  that  will  make  some  other 
member  of  the  family  do  needless  personal  service. 


Again,  he  may  by  suggestions  from  his  business,  assist 
her  in  her  finances  and  budget  making.  If  he  is  a  "  handy  " 
man  he  may  occasionally  turn  his  tools  to  make  some  shelf, 
repair,  or  device  to  save  her  labor.  Some  men  enjoy  cook- 
ing and  doing  other  household  tasks  once  in  a  while,  and 
any  man  may  be  expected  to  help  out  in  case  of  illness  or 
special  emergency,  but  father's  share  is  not  in  being  a  chore- 
boy — housekeeping  the  woman's  job  and  she  has  no  right  to 
burden  the  man  with  it. 


The  first  step  in  managing  the  servantless  household  is 
to  sit  down  and  study  carefully  the  conditions  you  must 
meet  in  your  particular  family  and  home.  Get  them  down 
in  writing !  What  are  the  "  must-be's  "  of  the  problem — the 
maximum  money  you  can  spend  for  outside  service,  the 
unalterable  construction  of  the  house  you  live  in,  the  inex- 
orable needs  of  a  baby  or  small  children?  At  what  hour, 
and  what  kind  of  meals  must  be  served,  when  can  you  best 
do  the  marketing,  when  will  be  the  best  time  for  a  "  rest 
period  "  for  yourself,  or  for  outside  or  social  interests  ? 
How  can  you  save  steps,  time,  effort  and  fuel  and  run  the 
home  at  the  lowest  expenditure  and  yet  carry  out  your 

This  takes  us  back — particularly  to  what  is  given  on 
"  Schedules."  All  that  has  been  said  in  previous  lessons 
will  bear  re-reading.  For  instance,  it  is  of  the  first  impor- 
tance that  the  woman  doing  her  own  work  have  her  kitchen 
arranged  in  the  most  step-saving  manner,  with  heights  of 
table,  sink,  etc.,  to  suit  her  own  comfort,  and  utensils  placed 
and  grouped  where  they  will  entail  fewest  steps  in  assem- 
bling or  laying  away.  A  high  stool  for  work,  adequate  light, 
ventilation  and  both  floor  and  work  surfaces  that  are  easy 
to  keep  clean  will  make  the  kitchen  work  done  in  shorter 


time  with  greater  pleasure.  Extra  touches  of  decoration 
in  plants  or  bowl  of  flowers,  in  curtains  with  stencil  on 
them,  in  the  use  of  ornamental  as  well  as  useful  casseroles, 
will  make  the  kitchen  as  charming  a  place  to  stay  in  as  any 
other  room  in  the  house. 

In  addition,  the  woman  doing  her  own  work  should  have 
some  sort  of  "comfort  corner"  (or  "business  corner") 
near  the  kitchen,  preferably  a  screened  portion  of  a  porch 
or  hall,  where  she  can  have  an  easy  chair,  a  shelf  for  books, 
etc.,  where  she  can  sit  down  while  in  work  clothes  and  take 
a  few  minutes'  relaxation.  One  such  corner  was  developed 
near  a  window  seat  and  a  wash  basin  in  the  rear  hall.  Here 
was  kept  a  shelf  with  mirror,  cold  cream  for  hands,  and 
means  of  "  freshening  up  "  before  going  to  the  door.  Clean 
aprons,  a  few  magazines,  a  purse  of  money,  the  telephone 
and  also  the  household  account  books  and  bill  file  made  this 
just  the  corner  to  sit  down  and  take  a  few  minutes'  rest 
while  at  the  same  time  entering  some  bill  or  other  item. 

What  is  said  on  planning  and  dispatching  (Part  II)  on 
marketing  and  planning  meals  in  advance  (Part  V)  will  be 
especially  helpful.  For  after  making  the  thorough  "  sur- 
vey "  (as  one  might  call  it)  of  the  special  conditions  in  any 
particular  home,  as  suggested  above,  the  next  step  is  to  work 
out  such  schedules  as  will  best  suit  those  conditions,  both 
weekly  and  daily,  experimenting  with  them  until  they  ap- 
proach a  "  standard  "  that  seems  to  do  the  greatest  justice 
to  the  work  and  to  the  family's  comfort.  Buying  in  quan- 
tity, marketing  seldom,  cooking  in  concentrated  periods  for 
several  meals,  are  all  ways  to  short-cut  waste  time  and 
motion,  and  the  chapters  dealing  especially  with  these  points 
should  be  studied  over  again  and  applied. 

It  will  be  distinctly  "  up  to  "  the  housekeeper  herself 
whether  she  saves  steps  or  the  reverse.  Too  much  energy 
supposed  to  be  spent  in  actual  housework  is  quite  commonly 


dissipated  in  running  up  and  down  stairs  (how  many  times 
a  day?),  hunting  for  the  needed  receipt,  walking  about  the 
back  yard,  or  just  pure  sitting  around  or  neighborhood 
"  visiting."  You  must  work  to  have  leisure ! 

To  save  running  up  and  down,  have  enough  money 
downstairs  to  pay  all  small  amounts  that  may  be  presented, 
lay  articles  to  be  carried  up  on  the  stairs  to  be  taken  up  by 
the  first  goer,  and  not  run  up  especially.  Don't  make  a 
special  trip  to  carry  out  the  garbage,  unless  you  can  also  do 
some  other  outside  chore,  etc.  Read  most  carefully  the 
pages  on  grouping  of  tools,  foods,  and  sitting  down  to  work 
(page  29  et  seq.).  If  you  have  a  'phone,  kindly  ask  friends 
or  local  calls  to  be  made  only  within  definite  most  conve- 
nient periods  or  have  an  extension  'phone  upstairs.  In 
many  houses  a  most  startling  amount  of  time  is  wasted  in 
useless  'phoning.  Above  all,  work  on  schedule,  as  it  will 
save  you  more  energy  and  time  than  you  will  believe. 

Remember,  too,  that  you  should  have  definite  rest  periods 
as  well  as  work  periods  (see  Part  II).  Emphasize  the 
importance  of  "  beating  your  own  record "  and  making 
time-studies  of  each  particular  task.  The  housekeeper  in 
the  servantless  home  has  widest  opportunity  to  make  origi- 
nal kitchen  and  housework  time-studies.  Where  does  the 
time  go?  How  long  does  it  take  you  to  make  the  beds? 
How  long  to  clean  the  downstairs  rooms?  Do  you  wash 
dishes  three  times  a  day,  or  only  once  ?  Why  ?  There  is  a 
peculiar  prejudice  among  some  women  that  dishes  must  be 
washed  after  every  meal.  Now,  with  a  family  of  not  more 
than  two  to  four,  it  is  far  more  efficient  to  wash  the  dishes 
of  two  meals  together.  The  time  covered  by  the  whole 
work  of  dishwashing  is  very  largely  consumed,  not 
in  actual  washing,  but  in  the  "  clearing  up,"  the  scouring 
the  sink,  etc.  If  dishes  are  well  scraped,  and  stacked,  in 
the  dish  pan  or  even  in  the  sink  itself,  fitted  with  a  broad 


stopper,  and  covered  with  warm  or  tepid  water,  the  dishes 
of  two  meals  (except  the  solid  silver)  can  be  done  in  one- 
third  less  time  than  if  two  batches  are  made  of  it.  When  a 
dishwasher  is  used,  it  is  even  practical  to  wash  the  dishes 
of  all  three  meals  at  once,  having  stacked  and  soaked  them 
in  the  washer  previously. 

Many  of  the  schedules  sent  in  by  students  of  this  course 
have  been  particularly  interesting  and  excellent,  but  no  two 
are  alike.  You  are  the  only  one  who  can  draw  up  a  suc- 
cessful working  schedule  for  yourself,  under  your  special 
conditions,  and  you  cannot  plan  your  best  schedule  in  a 
week  or  a  month  or  one  year  even.  Also,  you  will  have  to 
constantly  modify  and  adjust  your  schedules  to  changing 
conditions,  if  need  be. 

The  general  tendency  is  to  make  the  schedule  too  elabo- 
rate— to  raise  standards  of  cleanliness,  complexity  of  meals, 
etc.  This  is  often  a  wrong  standpoint,  especially  for  the 
servantless  household.  It  is  quite  possible  to  keep  the 
house  too  clean,  when  there  is  only  one  pair  of  hands  to  do 
the  work,  and  to  neglect  other  more  important  interests. 
Housekeeping  should  never  be  an  end  in  itself.  Work  for 
a  minimum  schedule ;  try  to  simplify,  not  to  complicate.  For 
example,  if  each  member  of  the  family  leaves  the  bathroom 
as  he  found  it,  daily  cleaning  should  not  be  necessary;  in 
some  localities  and  in  some  families,  weekly  cleaning  of  the 
living  room  will  keep  it  in  good  condition. 

While  some  of  the  special  cleaning  needs  to  be  done 
every  week,  much  other  work  needs  to  be  taken  care  of 
only  once  a  month,  such  as  window  cleaning,  high  dusting, 
beating  of  rugs.  These  things  should  be  provided  for 
in  the  schedule,  but  divided  so  that  no  one  week  is  over- 
crowded. Mothers  with  little  children  find  it  difficult  to 
plan  a  working  schedule.  Here  a  margin  of  time  over  that 
required  in  the  "  time  studies "  must  be  allowed.  One 


mother  with  children  of  two  and  five  finds  that  a  margin 
of  ten  minutes  on  the  hour  is  sufficient  to  meet  their  many 
small  demands. 

One  housekeeper  writes :  "  I  have  found  my  schedule 
a  great  help  until  the  spring  sewing,  gardening  and  yard 
work  all  came  at  once  to  upset  it.  Then  everything  had  to 
be  brushed  aside  and  I  hurried  from  morning  till  night  in 
the  old  way."  Here  is  just  where  a  schedule  should  prove 
most  useful.  The  minimum  schedule,  even,  should  be  sim- 
plified, especially  the  meal  preparation,  so  that  free  time  is 
cleared  each  day.  This  free  time  may  then  be  given  to  the 
planned  seasonable  tasks. 

The  following  suggestions  may  be  helpful  in  planning 
seasonable  work  which,  of  course,  will  vary  somewhat  in 
each  family: 

January — Household  linens,  supplies  or  furnishings. 

February — Undergarments. 

March — Spring  clothing. 

April — Spring  clothing  and  gardening. 

May — Garden  and  housecleaning. 

June — Garden  and  canning. 

July — Garden  and  canning. 

August — Canning  and  vacation. 

September — Fall  clothing. 

October — Fall  clothing. 

November — Housecleaning. 

December — Holiday  preparations. 

A  busy  mother  finds  that  her  sewing  progressed  easily 
if  she  planned  and  cut  at  night,  did  all  possible  fitting  and 
machine  work  in  the  morning  hours  and  saved  the  hand- 
work for  the  afternoon.  By  this  plan  she  was  able  to  give 
about  six  hours  a  day  to  sewing  for  a  few  days. 

A  number  have  written  that  they  find  it  easier  to  plan 
menus  and  to  market  twice  a  week  rather  than  only  once. 
One,  for  example,  markets  Friday  for  Friday  dinner,  thru 
Sunday  to  Monday  night  and  on  Tuesday  thru  to  Friday. 



Labor-saving  equipment  is  more  justifiable  and  profit- 
able in  the  servantless  household  than  in  any  other.  It  is 
right  that  the  woman  without  permanent  service  should 
invest  in  every  device  she  can  afford  which  will  really 
save  her  own  manual  effort  and  time.  Also,  the  woman 
doing  her  own  work  is  so  much  more  intelligent  than  the 
average  hired  worker,  that  she  can  get  far  better  results 
with  equipment  requiring  skill  and  understanding.  Indeed, 
as  a  general  rule,  labor-saving  equipment  is  almost  useless 
in  the  hands  of  the  servant  of  whom  mistresses  constantly 
complain,  "  She  will  not  use  a  bread-mixer,"  or  a  "  fire- 
less,"  or  some  other  device. 

The  author  confesses,  regretfully,  that  in  her  own  home 
an  excellent  ironing  machine,  gas  iron,  fireless  cooker,  dish- 
washer and  washing  machine  stand  unused  by  any  save  her- 
self— more  than  one  worker  (and  that,  too,  of  education, 
and  more  than  15  years'  experience  in  managing  homes  of 
their  own)  refusing  to  be  "  bothered  "  with  "  new-fangled  " 
ideas,  even  preferring  a  hand  washboard  and  knuckle  rub- 
bing hours  to  an  excellent  rocking  type  washer,  and  asking 
if  she  could  lay  aside  the  most  efficient  dish  drainer  and 
substitute  an  old  tin  tray  on  which  to  lay  the  dishes ! 

Too  many  housekeepers  have  somewhat  this  same  atti- 
tude— a  feeling  that  "  mother's  way  (or  grandmother's  way) 
is  good  enough  for  me."  What  success  or  progress  would 
a  storekeeper  or  professional  man  or  farmer  make  who  has 
this  attitude?  It  does  take  some  time  and  patience  and 
study  to  learn  to  use  labor-saving  household  equipment 
effectively  and  it  is  easier  to  continue  in  the  "  old  ways," 
without  progress ;  but  is  this  not  an  indication  of  mental 
stagnation  and  a  sign  of  old  age? 

Other  housekeepers  spend  much  money  for  new  equip- 


ment  in  the  vague  hope  that  it  will  make  the  housework  go 
easier  and  are  disappointed  to  find  that  it  does  not  help 
much.  Perhaps  the  appliance  is  not  suitable,  perhaps  not 
enough  time  and  patience  is  given  to  mastering  it  and  often 
the  appliance  is  not  cared  for  properly ;  it  gets  "  out  of 
kilter,"  so  it  is  discarded  and  the  money  spent  for  it  is 
wasted.  Time  studied  will  show  clearly  what  appliances 
and  changes  are  most  needed.  (Read  Part  III  "Helpful 
Household  Tools"  again.) 

The  purchase  of  such  equipment  may  be  looked  upon  as 
so  much  money  expended  for  service.  For  instance,  if  a 
washing  machine  enables  two  days'  work  to  be  done  in  one, 
then  its  cost  may  be  balanced  up  or  credited  against  the 
wages  of  a  day  laundress.  The  cost  of  a  dish-washer,  bread- 
mixer  or  other  useful  device  can  all  be  bought  with  what- 
ever appropriation  the  homemaker  has  for  "  temporary " 
or  day  service.  The  exact  labor-saving  tools  which  should 
be  bought  will  depend  on  the  particular  home,  fuel,  and  con- 
ditions. But  it  may  be  said  generally,  that  the  servantless 
household  will  get  the  most  benefit  from  such  equipment  as 
the  fireless  or  pressure  cooker,  or  stoves  having  ovens  based 
on  the  fireless  or  insulated  principle ;  from  the  dishwasher, 
from  a  power  washing  machine,  from  the  ironing  machine, 
from  paper  products,  from  some  form  of  portable  tray  on 
wheels  for  serving  and  clearing  meals,  and  from  a  utility 
motor  with  various  attachments. 

A  resident  servant  costs  $600  a  year  or  more;  if  with 
labor-saving  equipment  and  part  time  expert  service,  one- 
half  this  expense  is  saved,  that  will  amout  to  $300.  This 
represents  an  investment  of  $2,000  with  interest  and  depre- 
ciation at  15  per  cent.  This  sum  is  very  much  greater  than 
need  be  spent  for  all  the  equipment  that  could  be  used,  so 
there  is  no  question  of  the  economy  in  replacing  the  human 
by  the  mechanical  servant. 


"But,"  you  say,  "I  have  no  money  to  spend  on  equip- 
ment." Little  money  is  needed  to  make  a  good  beginning. 
The  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture  has  an  excellent  Bul- 
letin which  will  be  sent  on  request — "  Home-Made  Fireless 
Cookers  and  Their  Use  " ;  also  descriptions  of  home-made 
wheel  tray,  iceless  refrigerator,  etc.  More  often  it  is  lack 
of  enterprise  rather  than  lack  of  money  which  stands  in  the 
way  of  a  more  conveniently  arranged  kitchen  and  labor- 
saving  equipment. 



The  device  or  cooking  equipment  operated  by  electricity 
is  also  most  worthwhile  where  the  intelligent  homemaker 
herself  uses  it.  It  is  generally  unsafe  to  trust  the  common 
grade  of  household  worker  with  the  costly  and  delicate  appa- 
ratus of  electric  cooking,  or  expect  her  to  understand  and 
use  it  economically.  On  the  other  hand,  in  the  servantless 
household  much  labor  may  be  saved  by  using  extensively 
the  percolator,  table  stove  and  table  warming  units  in  meal 
preparation ;  and  by  depending  entirely  on  electric  cooking 
(where  the  current  cost  justifies  it),  as  it  will  mean  a  clean, 
cooler  kitchen  with  no  waste  heat  or  combustion  products  as 
ashes,  soot  or  smoke,  to  make  further  cleaning  labor  for 
the  homemaker. 

The  expense  of  a  general  utility  motor  with  its  many 
attachments  such  as  coffee  grinder,  parer,  silver  buffer, 
mixer,  etc.,  would  be  excellently  justified,  and  act  as  a 
"  silent  servant "  for  innumerable  uses.  There  is  now  on 
the  market  a  fairly  low  price  motor  which  may  be  attached 
to  bread  mixer,  chopper,  etc.,  thus  replacing  much  hand 
labor.  Other  electrically  operated  equipment,  such  as  vacuum 
cleaner,  washer  and  dishwasher,  will  replace  a  large  share 
of  the  work  usually  done  by  a  permanent  servant.  Indeed, 



it  may  be  said,  that  "  the  one  way  out  "of  the  servant 
problem  in  the  future  is  the  much  wider  use  of  power  and 
machinery  in  the  home.  The  servantless  household  will 
have  to  become  more  of  a  mechanical  household,  where 
every  possible  purely  manual  task  is  done  by  arms  of  steel 
or  knuckles  of  copper. 


Will  Operate  all  Ordinary  Appliances  on   Hand.     Made  by  Reynolds 
Electric  Co. 

And  in  the  future  it  is  believed  that  such  machinery  will 
be  far  more  unified  than  at  present.  That  is,  instead  of 
such  small  devices  made  by  different  firms  and  bought  sepa- 
rately, there  should  be  a  larger  installation  or  "  system  " 
(scientifically)  planned  for  a  specific  kitchen,  with  the 
various  pieces  related  to  one  another.  No  efficient  lunch- 
room or  hotel  kitchen  today,  for  instance,  is  fitted  out  by 
the  manager  by  buying  a  kitchen  table  here,  a  stove  there, 
sink  there,  a  potato-pafer  off  in  another  corner;  the  equip- 
ment he  buys  is  (if  up-to-date),  all  related,  and  made  ac- 
cordingly as  it  shall  be  placed  scientifically  to  permit  of  the 
best  "routing"  of  work  from  step  to  step.  It  is  generally 


also  of  the  same  finish,  same  design  and  so  matched  as  to 
avoid  any  grooves,  cracks,  etc.  Similarly  the  home  kitchen 
will  have  to  be  made  efficient  in  the  future,  with  labor-saving 
equipment  standardized  and  related  by  a  definite  system  of 
work,  not  placed  as  at  present,  according  to  the  whim  of  the 
owner,  or  accordingly  as  some  architect  happens  to  leave 
space  for  it. 


After  having  made  out  a  general  workplan,  with  sched- 
ules for  day  and  week  as  suggested  above  and  in  Part  II, 
according  to  the  conditions  of  your  particular  family,  after 
having  installed  such  labor-saving  devices  as  seem  to  be 
most  useful  in  those  particular  conditions,  the  next  step  is 
to  work  out  standard  practice  or  the  best  and  shortest  way 
to  do  certain  kinds  or  divisions  of  work.  The  most  fre- 
quently recurring  work  is  the  preparation  and  clearing 
away  of  meals — how  can  this  be  made  more  efficient  for 
the  woman  doing  her  own  work?  Briefly,  by  the  following 
suggestions  and  summary : 

1.  Understand  food  values  so  that  as  nourishing  and  attrac- 

tive meals  may  be  obtained  from  a  few  courses  as 
from  many  complicated  dishes. 

2.  Market  in  quantity  and  plan  meals  in  advance,  thus  sav- 

ing being  "out"  of  articles,  and  wasted  time  in  too 
frequent  marketing. 

3.  Cook  in  concentrated  periods  for  more  than  one  meal  at 

a  time.     (See  page  193,  Part  V.) 

4.  Prepare  bulk  of  evening  meal  in  the  forenoon. 

5.  Reduce  time  spent  in  "pot-watching"  by  use  of  fireless, 

pressure  cooker,  or  insulated  oven  stoves. 


6.  Adopt  a  simple  table  service  without  service  plate  and 

elaborate  usages. 

7.  Make   use   of   table  and   self-service   cooking   devices; 

i.  e.j  electric  table  stove,  percolator,  grill,  etc. 

8.  Use  a  portable  tray  on  wheels  for  easy  service  and  re- 

moval of  dishes. 

9.  Use  "self-server"  table  device  for  easy  serving  at  table. 

10.  Make  frequent  use  of  paper  products  to  save  dishwash- 

ing labor ;  also  casseroles,  glass  dishes,  etc. 

11.  Have  many  "tray"  or  buffet  meals,  especially  at  lunch, 

and  in  summer.  (These  can  be  set,  individual  style, 
in  the  kitchen  and  carried  to  any  room  or  porch  with- 
out setting  formal  table.) 

12.  Set  table  at  night  for  breakfast,  without  putting  dishes 

back  into  pantry. 

13.  Always  utilize  the  time  spent  in  dishwashing,  in  over- 

seeing some  form  of  "pot-watching"  or  cooking,  thus 
lessening  the  time  needed  for  staying  in  the  kitchen 
for  cooking  only. 

14.  Wash  dishes  but  once  daily,  if  possible,  or  at  most  only 


The  serving  of  meals  can  be  accomplished  gracefully 
and  with  ease,  even  without  a  servant.  Some  form  of  port- 
able wheel  tray  and  either  warming  disks  or  electric  plate 
warmer  or  disk  stove  turned  at  "low"  heat,  and  platters 
with  covers  are  needed.  The  tray  should  stand  at  the  left  of 
the  hostess.  On  its  lower  surface,  place  the  warming  disks 
on  which  the  hot  roast,  vegetables,  or  other  hot  dishes  may 
be  kept  covered  and  warm  until  needed.  On  the  top  tray 
place  salad,  cold  dessert,  extra  silver,  water  and  small  ac- 
cessories. Reserve  the  middle  tray  foV  setting  on  the  soiled 
plates  as  they  are  taken  from  the  table.  By  having  the 
table  all  set,  accessories  ready,  the  serving  tray  so  planned, 


and  the  first  soup  or  meat  course  on  the  table  when  the 
meal  is  announced,  it  will  not  be  necessary  for  anyone  to 
rise  from  the  table  to  serve  during  the  course  of  the  meal, 
unless  the  family  is  very  large;  then  it  is  often  possible  to 
have  the  removal  of  plates  done  by  older  children,  one  taking 
one  course,  the  other  the  next.  The  reason  meals  without 
a  servant  are  frequently  interrupted  with  rising  and  con- 
fusion is  not  that  it  must  be  so,  but  because  there  has  not 


been  sufficient  planning,  and  "standardization"  of  the  serv- 
antless  meal  in  advance. 

In  many  cases,  where  the  dining  table  has  a  large 
enough  diameter  it  is  practical  to  use  in  the  middle 
of  the  table  a  "revolving  susan" — or  circular  glass 
tray  mounted  on  a  revolving  stand,  which  will  ac- 
commodate butter,  relishes,  etc. ;  but  its  greatest 
value  lies  in  assisting  the  host  to  pass  dishes  to  each 
person  to  be  served.  Set  the  plate  of  food  on  the  server, 
give  slight  touch,  and  it  will  revolve  to  the  person  desired, 
thus  doing  away  with  awkward  passing  from  one  to  another. 
Similarly  the  server  may  be  used  for  removing  the  soiled 
plates,  by  each  person  laying  their  soiled  plate  in  turn  on  the 


server  and  whirling  to  the  hostess,  who  will  then  remove 
them  unobtrusively  to  the  lower  tray  of  the  portable  tray  at 
her  left. 

If  a  crumb  brush  and  tray  are  placed  at  hand  on  the  tray, 
it  is  an  easy  and  also  graceful  matter  for  the  hostess  to 
remove  crumbs  from  her  own  place,  and  pass  to  each  in  turn. 
After  the  meal  is  finished,  every  article  but  the  linen  may 
be  piled  on  the  portable  tray  and  wheeled  to  the  kitchen  to 
sort  and  wash. 



The  first  requisite,  perhaps,  in  making  cleaning  work  as 
simple  as  possible  is  for  the  homemaker  to  have  a  new  point 
of  view  about  the  furnishings  in  her  home.  Dozens  of  let- 
ters have  come  to  the  author  bewailing  the  amount  of  clean- 
ing necessary  and  the  time  taken,  and  how  tired  out  the 
homemaker  became  because  of  the  daily  recurring  work. 
Now  actual  visits  (on  lecture  trips)  into  many  such  homes 
have  disclosed  the  fact  that  altho  the  homemaker  was  doing 
all  or  most  of  her  own  work,  the  furnishings  in  her  home 
were  such  as  to  require  the  daily  upkeep  of  one  parlor  maid, 
if  not  two !  It  cannot  be  said  too  plainly  that  no  efficiency 
methods  will  help,  if,  in  the  first  place,  the  home  is  cluttered 
and  crowded  with  ornaments,  portieres,  bric-a-brac  and  ex- 
cess furnishings.  If  there  is  only  the  one  pair  of  hands 
to  do  all  of  the  housework,  it  is  physically  impossible  for 
them  to  be  adequate  to  a  heavy  cleaning  burden,  without 
resulting  in  overtaxed  strength. 

Long  lace  curtains  merely  catch  dust  and  require  more 
time  to  "pin"  than  scrim  or  net  curtains  of  sill  length ;  plate- 
rails  loaded  with  dishes  and  ornaments  make  the  room  hotter 
and  smaller  as  well  as  being  a  joy  to  the  Dust  Demon; 
portieres,  pillows  with  fringe,  elaborate  doilies  and  scarf 
covers,  too  many  small  articles  lying  around  on  the  tables 


and  sideboards — all  make  for  confusion  and  unending  work. 
Too  often  rooms  have  a  profusion  of  small  novelties  and 
curios  scattered  on  mantel,  shelf,  or  tables,  which  rightly 
belong  only  in  a  glass-doored  closet,  where  they  will  be 
both  safe  and  clean,  and  not  cause  such  excessive  handling. 
One  of  the  greatest  of  American  failings  is  to  purchase  too 
many  "things"  which  are  often  neither  truly  beautiful  or 
useful.  The  homemaker  doing  her  own  work,  must  first 
of  all  incorporate  into  her  efficiency  point  of  view,  that  the 
house  with  few  and  simple  furnishings  will  not  only  be, 
after  all,  the  truly  most  restful,  attractive  and  artistic  home, 
but  from  the  work  point  of  view,  the  home  that  requires  less 
time,  less  labor  and  less  cost  in  upkeep  and  care.  Get  rid  of 
the  junk. 

It  will  be  well  to  re-read  Part  IV  on  cleaning  and  pay 
special  attention  to  the  point  of  trying  to  "route"  the  clean- 
ing work  to  the  best  advantage  in  your  particular  home. 
Properly  "routed"  work  will  save  at  least  20  per  cent  of 
waste  effort  and  time.  Then  again  comes  the  need,  men- 
tioned before,  of  having  a  definite  place  for  cleaning  tools, 
and  for  keeping  them  in  efficient  condition. 

It  may  also  be  said  that  here  is  one  of  the  places  where 
family  co-operation  may  score  heavily — much  of  the  so- 
called  cleaning  is  actually  only  endless  "pick-up"  of  cloth- 
ing, toys,  and  other  articles.  If  each  person,  and  child 
especially,  is  responsible  for  and  shares  in  this  work  of 
"straightening"  whatever  newspapers,  table  top,  playthings, 
etc.,  have  been  used,  50  per  cent  of  the  cleaning  will 
be  done.  One  very  charming  family  is  recalled,  where 
before  leaving  the  living-room  for  the  night,  each  member 
"picks  up"  the  library  table  in  order,  straightens  the  pillows, 
brushes  in  the  hearth  ashes,  and  sets  the  chairs  straight ;  it 
is  but  the  work  of  a  moment  for  each,  but  how  much  better 
than  for  all  to  leave  the  room  upset  and  unsightly,  where  it 



might  require  twenty  minutes'  time  of  one  worker  (if  there 
is  one)  next  morning. 

If  the  income  provides  for  outside  service,  part  of  it 
may  be  spent  with  the  greatest  advantage  on  forms  of  day 
cleaning  service.  A  competent  cleaning  woman  in  one  day  of 
eight  solid  hours  of  work,  will  go  thru  a  seven-room  house, 
thoroly  and  completely,  except  the  fine  dusting  or  bureau 
ttop  arranging,  which  would  take  the  permanent  worker 
most  of  two  days,  and  then  not  be  done  so  well. 

An  electric  vacuum  cleaner  may  be  rented  for  about 
50  cents  per  hour,  to  be  operated  by  the  homemaker  or  one 
of  the  family ;  or  less  frequently  a  man  and  his  own  large 
apparatus  may  be  employed  to  give  the  rugs,  draperies,  and 
walls  a  thoro  going  over,  at  from  $3  to  $5  a  day,  depending 
on  the  locality.  Windows  may  be  washed  by  professionals 
at  about  10  cents  each.  By  thus  expending  a  small  amount 
on  expert  cleaning  service  at  stated  intervals,  the  daily 
cleaning  in  the  servantless  household  should  be  reduced  to 
a  minimum,  especially  if  the  family  co-operates  well  in 
"picking  up  after  itself." 

When  there  are  small  children  in  the  household,  they 
should  have  their  own  playroom,  if  possible,  with  the  rule 
not  to  bring  toys  into  the  living-room.  If  they  have  their 
own  play-table,  shelves  and  window  seats,  they  will  less 
likely  be  blamed  for  upsetness  in  other  rooms. 

There  should  be  a  good  footscraper,  place  for  rubber 
shoes,  and  rear  entry  where  muddy  boots  and  outside  wraps 
may  be  hung  without  taking  into  the  house.  It  is  often 
merely  habit  which  makes  the  family  "track"  thru  the 
kitchen  or  living  room  when  there  is  another  entry  provided. 
Keep  the  other  door  locked. 

Children  can  be  taught  to  pick  up,  and  to  eat  tidily,  to 
hang  up  their  clothes,  and  not  keep  the  whole  house  in  one 
huge  disorder — no  training  is  more  valuable. 



In  most  homes  where  there  is  no  permanent  servant,  the 
washing  and  ironing  may  be  done  by  the  housekeeper  her- 
self, or  by  a  day  laundress,  or  part  of  it  sent  to  commercial 
laundries.  It  is,  however,  possible  in  any  case  to  cut  down 
the  amount  of  laundry  in  the  following  ways : 

1.  Use  crepe  materials  for  much  personal  underwear,  house- 

dresses,  for  children's  dresses  and  rompers — crepe 
needs  no  ironing.  Use  Turkish  towels  only ;  knit  goods 
and  cotton  flannel  "nighties"  need  not  be  ironed.  Cotton 
blankets  in  place  of  sheets  in  winter  are  warmer  and 
save  laundry  work.  Small  boys  much  prefer  jerseys 
and  flannel  shirts  to  starched  linen. 

2.  Simplify  table  service  by  discarding  long  allover  white 

tablecloths,  and  use  instead  separate  doilies,  "runners" 
of  crash  or  toweling,  or  small  colored  cloths  of  Oriental 
or  foreign  type. 

3.  Use  paper  napkins  frequently,  especially  for  children  and 

during  the  fruit  season ;  use  paper  cloths  for  luncheon, 
and  paper  towels  as  hand  towels  in  kitchen  and  lava- 

4.  Individualize  towels,  wash  cloths,  napkins,  etc.,  giving  out 

an  "allowance"  weekly  for  each  person  and  child. 

5.  Avoid  ruffled,  be-laced  articles,  especially  for  children's 


6.  Standardize  and  schedule  the  washing;  know  how  many 

sheets,  cases,  bedspreads,  towels,  napkins,  shirts, 
dresses,  etc.,  there  should  be  each  week,  and  do  not 
overburden  any  week  and  upset  the  whole  weekly 

7.  Hang  up  clothing  after  use  on  proper  stretchers  and 

hangers,  thus  keeping  clean  longer  by  avoiding  crush- 


The  need  of  good  equipment  in  the  laundry  has  been 
dwelt  on  in  Part  VI.  The  price  of  a  washer  should  be 
counted  as  an  investment  which  will  save  on  the  wages  of  a 
day  laundress,  or  on  the  health  and  strength  of  the  home- 
maker  herself. 

It  is  often  advocated  that  the  housekeeper  without  per- 
manent help  should  take  advantage  of  the  commercial  laun- 
dry to  the  exclusion  of  the  day  worker  to  whose  wages  must 
be  added  the  cost  of  equipment,  fuel,  soap,  etc.  But  from 
experience  it  appears,  that  as  yet,  even  with  all  the  disadvan- 
tages of  inefficient  help  (especially  in  country  sections)  the 
results  of  laundry  work  done  at  home  are  preferable  to 
that  done  by  commercial  laundries,  both  on  a  basis  of  wear 
and  tear  and  of  price.  The  only  exception  to  this  may  be 
the  low  rate  of  35  cents  to  45  cents  per  dozen  for  "flat"  work 
(sheets,  cases,  towels)  made  by  some  good  city  laundries, 
in  which  case  it  is  most  wise  to  take  advantage  of  such  price 
and  have  the  "flat"  done  outside  the  home. 

In  other  sections  there  is  a  "wet  wash"  service,  meaning 
that  clothes  are  washed  (but  not  starched  or  ironed)  and 
brought  home  wet  at  once.  Again  there  is  the  "rough  dry" 
plan  which  washes  and  starches  and  dries  the  clothes,  but 
leaves  them  to  be  ironed  at  home.  The  success  of  these 
plans  depends  largely  on  the  particular  laundry.  The  "wet 
wash"  method  may  not  be  sanitary,  the  "rough  dry"  method 
and  "flat"  or  mangle  work  are  usually  safe,  because  of  the 
high  temperature  used  in  drying.  It  is  worth  while  to  make 
a  personal  investigation  before  using  a  laundry. 

A  recent  experiment  was  made  in  the  author's  home, 
sending  to  an  average  laundry  all  of  the  washing  and  ironing 
usually  done  in  one  day  by  only  an  average  laundress. 
Counting  the  labor  of  the  worker  as  $2,  and  fuel,  soap  and 
interest  on  equipment  as  50  cents,  there  was  a  cost  of  $2.50 
as  balanced  against  $6.35  which  the  laundry  asked  for  the 


same  bag  of  wash,  each  pair  of  socks  counting  as  5  cents, 
and  many  of  the  children's  rompers,  20  cents  and  30  cents 
each,  etc.  The  cost  of  collection  and  delivery,  rent,  interest, 
bookkeeping,  profit,  etc.,  and  lack  of  volume  of  household 
laundry  makes  the  cost  too  high  for  ordinary  use. 


"Yes,  that's  all  very  well,  but  I  live  in  the  country  and 
have  no  electricity  nor  gas,  have  a  small  baby  and  half- 
grown  children.  I  can  get  no  help  at  all — what  shall  I  do  ?" 
This  letter  is  typical  of  many  homemakers  in  isolated  sec- 
tions, and  the  author  herself  has  been  in  exactly  such  a 
situation.  The  answer  is,  first,  simplify  furnishings,  serv- 
ice, meals,  clothing,  laundry.  Perhaps  it  will  be  best  to 
use  a  small  table  for  meals  in  the  kitchen  and  make  the 
dining  room  into  a  first  floor  nursery  and  playroom,  where 
the  children  may  be  watched,  and  yet  not  be  right  under 
the  feet.  Cut  down  the  amount  of  cleaning  and  handling 
necessary  by  laying  away  ornaments  and  extra  furnishings, 
leaving  only  a  minimum  of  articles  to  care  for.  Do  concen- 
trated cooking ;  plan  one  or  two-dish  meals  instead  of  elabo- 
rate ones ;  cut  down  laundry  as  suggested ;  bring  up  into  the 
kitchen  or  back  porch  enough  vegetables  and  the  necessary 
canned  materials  for  several  days  to  avoid  constant  trotting ; 
make  every  step  count. 

And,  further,  pick  out  the  essential  things  and  do  them 
first,  and,  if  necessary,  let  the  other  details  slide.  Thomas 
Edison  told  a  friend  that  "I  always  do  the  hardest  things 
first."  His  advice  is  as  applicable  to  the  home  as  to  the 
laboratory.  The  woman  with  little  children  must  let  some 
things  go  neglected ;  if  it  is  a  choice  between  excessive  clean- 
liness and  artistic  surroundings,  on  the  one  hand,  and  a 
woman's  strength  on  the  other,  the  health  of  the  mother 
should  come  first.  She  has  no  right  to  sacrifice  her  health 



and  youth  for  small  children  and  housework;  the  children 
will  need  her  much  more  a  few  years  later. 

Third,  train  the  older  children  to  help  one  another,  pick 
up  and  watch  the  baby  intelligently.  Train  the  baby  to  a 
strict  feeding  and^  sleeping  schedule,  and  arrange  your  work 
according  to  the  baby's  schedule.  For  instance,  plan  to  do 
the  most  exacting  work,  such  as  cooking,  when  the  chil- 
dren are  good  or  early  in  the  day,  and  save  the  purely 
mechanical  work  like  dishwashing  for  the  time  when  they 


may  be  fretty  and  you  will  have  to  be  interrupted.  Let 
the  baby  sleep  outdoors,  so  that  it  will  be  less  nervous  and 
fretty.  When  the  baby  naps,  take  a  nap  or  at  least  a  complete 
bodily  relaxation  for  yourself  instead  of  foolishly  utilizing 
that  time  to  "dig  in"  and  completely  use  your  nerve  force 
up.  Train  yourself  to  manage  several  tasks  at  once  without 
letting  it  fatigue  you. 

Even  in  the  country  there  are  many  labor-savers.  The 
hand  operated  washing  machine  and  dishwasher  are  better 
than  doing  work  all  by  hand.  A  small  gasoline  engine  will 
operate  such  equipment  as  washer,  ironing  machine,  churn, 
separator,  freezer,  etc.  The  newest  oil  stoves  are  nearly 
as  efficient  as  gas  and  only  need  a  little  more  care  in  clean- 


ing  and  upkeep — use  one  for  cooking  the  year  round.  The 
fireless,  and  the  hand  suction  sweeper  are  available.  But 
most  important  of  all  is  the  planning,  the  picking  out  the 
essentials  that  must  be  done,  and  having  that  efficient  atti- 
tude of  mind  that  does  not  permit  small  details  to  annoy 
and  create  nervous  tension. 


It  is  frequently  urged  by  certain  groups  and  persons, 
that  co-operative  living  will  still  better  solve  the  problems 
of  the  family  which  cannot  afford  or  does  not  care  to  employ 
permanent  help.  Why,  they  ask,  should  ten  families  strug- 
gle with  ten  kitchens  and  ten  laundries  with  ten  second- 
grade  workers,  when,  if  they  all  co-operated  they  could 
equip  one  kitchen  and  one  laundry  with  the  most  perfect 
equipment  and  first-class  cooks  and  workers,  thus  relieving 
each  homemaker  of  responsibility,  and  giving  her  better 
service  than  she  can  possibly  now  alone  procure?  Many 
experiments  have  been  tried  along  these  lines ;  but  it  must 
be  said  regretfully,  none  have  been  a  success  for  more 
than  a  few  months. 

No  one  questions  but  that  such  a  plan  would  greatly 
remove  the  burdens  of  management  and  result  in  better 
service  with  less  friction  than  the  present  plan  of  having 
ten  separate  homes  struggling  with  ten  inefficient  workers, 
etc.  But  it  seems  strange  to  the  author  that  all  these  advo- 
cates of  co-operative  living  fail  to  see  that  it  is  not  necessary 
to  start  any  new  scheme  to  attain  exactly  this  end — it  is 
only  necessary  to  move  to  a  high-class  apartment  hotel  or 
boarding  house  and  obtain  exactly  these  benefits.  For 
does  any  co-operative  plan,  such  as  these  persons  suggest, 
differ  from  living  in  an  apartment  hotel  where  one  may 
have  as  many  rooms  as  one  chooses  and  eat  in  a  common 
dining  room?  Or  live  even  in  a  detached  cottage  and  use 


a  central  eating  place,  as  is  so  well  established  in  many 
sections  ? 

The  chief  obstacle  of  every  co-operative  plan  is  its  ex- 
pense; in  spite  of  what  its  advocates  may  say,  it  can  be 
proved  that  co-operative  living  is  far  too  costly  for  even  the 
average  family  of  moderate  income.  Without  doubt  a  high- 
class  apartment  hotel  or  cottage  eating  system  relieves  the 
individual  homemaker  of  responsibility  and  permits  better 
management  and  higher  class  service,  than  that  found  in 
the  individual  home,  but  how  many  families,  especially  with 
children,  could  afford  it  as  a  permanent  method  of  living? 
The  advocates  of  co-operation,  in  their  estimates,  count  the 
cost  of  materials  and  wages  only — they  do  not  include  the 
cost  of  management.  They  say,  "if  ten  of  us  bought  our 
supplies  together,  and  we  had  five  efficient  workers  instead 
of  ten  low-grade  ones,  how  much  more  efficiently  we  could 
all  live."  But  who  is  to  buy  the  supplies,  and  who  is  to  man- 
age the  five  workers?  In  other  words,  they  entirely  leave 
out  of  account  the  cost  of  managing  any  co-operative  plan. 
Now  the  whole  point  of  a  co-operative  scheme  of  any  type  is 
this— if  it  is  well  managed,  from  the  business  side,  it  will  be 
a  success,  if  it  is  poorly  managed  it  will  be  a  failure;  and 
in  order  to  have  it  ivell  managed,  some  person  or  persons 
must  be  well  paid  for  his  services;  and,  as  soon  as  these 
services  are  included,  then  the  whole  co-operative  scheme 
becomes  more  costly  than  the  average  family  can  afford. 

In  many  large  cities  there  are  apartment  house  hotels 
where  it  is  possible  to  rent  several  rooms  and  then  take  meals 
in  a  basement  or  roof  restaurant  of  the  building.  There  are 
even  other  apartments  where  one  may  have  meals  cooked  to 
order  and  sent  up  to  an  individual  family  dining-room  for 
the  family  to  serve  themselves.  In  Cleveland  there  is  a 
large  and  beautiful  suite  of  apartments  of  this  type  which  do, 
indeed,  thus  make  the  "mechanics  of  living"  very  simple. 


But — the  price!  A  suite  of  four  rooms  in  such  an  apart- 
ment costs  from  $60  to  $70  monthly,  unfurnished,  and  the 
meals  for  only  two  persons  amount  to  about  $100.  Such 
modes  of  living,  then,  are  beyond  the  reach  of  the  average 
home,  and  entirely  out  of.  the  question  for  families  with 
growing  children  on  a  basis  of  price  only,  even  if  they  best 
filled  the  requirements  of  family  development  in  other 

In  nearly  all  cities  the  tendency  is  for  more  and  more 
families  to  live  in  apartments  or  "flats" ;  the  expense  is  less 
than  for  detached  city  houses,  and  the  janitor  service  and 
heat  furnished,  and  small  rooms  simplify  housekeeping  some- 
what, but  conditions  are  not  most  favorable  for  children  nor 
ideal  for  family  living. 

There  is  also  a  second,  and  almost  equally  important 
reason  why  co-operative  living  plans  (such  as  Montclair, 
New  Jersey)  have  not  been  a  permanent  success.  And  that 
reason  is  that  families  are,  and  prefer  to  be,  individual  in 
their  taste  and  living  habits.  Co-operation  would  be  very 
easy  if  every  one  of  us  is  willing  to  become  "standardized" — 
that  is,  eat  just  what  the  rest  do,  be  served  the  same  way 
without  preference,  choice  or  personal  taste. 

But  this  is  not  the  case ;  we  prefer  our  own  privacy,  we 
want  certain  food  that  others  may  not  care  for,  we  have 
marked  likes  and  dislikes,  and  any  co-operative  plan  to 
meet  these  varying  demands  and  tastes,  must  cost  more 
than  a  plan  where  all  tastes  are  standardized  the  same. 
Concretely,  it  is  possible  to  feed  thousands  of  men  in  the 
Army  with  abundance  of  food  at  the  low  cost  of  32  cents 
for  food  per  day  because  every  one  of  the  thousand  is  eating 
the  same  ration  of  beef,  beans,  potatoes,  and  plum  duff ;  on 
the  other  hand,  the  cost  of  serving  thousands  in  the  dining 
cars  of  our  railways  is  nearer  $2  per  day,  because  the  dining 
car  caters  to  individual  preference.  It  may  be  said,  then, 


finally,  that  co-operative  living  plans  can  be  cheap  only  when 
those  participating  are  willing  to  have  their  individual  tastes 
and  preferences  set  aside  in  favor  of  one,  universal  " stand- 
ard" service  and  kind  of  food.  The  truth  is,  however,  that 
most  of  us  still  prefer  inefficiency  in  service  and  management 
tp  being  deprived  of  our  love  of  privacy,  individual  prefer- 
ence and  choice — this  is  the  real  reason  why  co-operation 
has,  and  possibly  will  always  continue  to  fail. 


Since  such  co-operative  plans  are  neither  possible  or 
practical  for  the  great  mass  of  families,  and  since  permanent 
service  is  either  of  low  grade,  or  too  costly  or  impossible 
to  secure,  the  housekeeper  will  find  her  solution  in  her  own 
efforts  rightly  aided  by  "part-time"  service  of  different 
sorts.  As  has  been  pointed  out,  a  skilled  day  worker  can, 
in  one  day,  do  as  much  work  as  a  general  houseworker  can 
do  in  parts  of  two  or  three  days.  Again,  in  many  homes  a 
schedule  can  be  so  arranged,  that  a  few  hours  of  work 
each  day  will  amply  assist  the  housekeeper.  Just  what 
service  will  be  needed,  depends  on  the  size  of  the  family, 
whether  there  are  children,  the  style  of  house,  whether  the 
members  stay  at  home  all  day  or  are  at  work,  etc. 

In  large  cities,  there  are  many  agencies  which  make  a 
specialty  of  "part-time"  workers.  For  instance,  they  will 
furnish  a  cleaning  woman,  a  nurse,  or  a  cook  by  the  hour 
at  all  times.  Again,  in  smaller  towns  there  are  many  women 
who  would  like  to  use  some  of  their  time  beyond  that  needed 
for  their  own  family,  to  earn  extra  if  the  hours  could  only 
be  arranged  for  both  parties.  The  number  of  such  mature 
and  practical  women  who  want  to  housework  on  a  part-time 
basis  has  greatly  increased  since  the  war  has  forced  up  living 
costs,  and  many  instances  are  known  of  where  such  arrange- 
ments have  worked  out  most  successfully.  An  advertise- 


ment  in  the  local  paper,  attractively  worded,  will  bring 

This  is  one  work  arrangement:  For  example,  in  a 
family  of  four  adults,  all  of  whom  are  employed  out  of 
the  house  all  day,  one  day  a  week  a  woman  comes  to  thor- 
oughly clean  the  entire  house  of  six  rooms ;  one  day  a  week  a 
worker  does  the  washing  and  ironing ;  the  family  gets  its  own 
breakfast,  leaving  the  dishes.  At  4  p.  m.  every  day  a  woman 
(with  family  of  her  own)  comes  and  works  until  9  p.  m. 
During  this  4^-hour  period  she  washes  the  breakfast  dishes, 
cleans  silver  or  pantry,  prepares,  serves  and  clears  up  after 
a  several-course  supper,  and  lays  the  table  for  breakfast. 
The  cost  of  this  service  is  $4  weekly  for  cleaning  and  laun- 
dry, well  done,  and  $5.50,  at  20  cents  hourly  (for  six  days) 
for  the  cooking,  or  a  total  of  $9.50  weekly.  This  is  about 
the  same  as  a  general  houseworker  receives  in  a  small  town 
— if  she  can  be  found !  But  remark  that  there  is  no  cost  of 
meals  for  the  worker  but  once  daily,  no  room,  light,  heat, 
etc.,  less  chance  of  waste,  and  all  of  the  service  is  first-class, 
without  any  responsibility  or  friction  for  the  housekeeper. 

Another  actual  case  is  of  a  woman  who  comes  to  work  at 
10  a.  m.  and  stays  until  3  p.  m.  In  this  period  she  washes  the 
breakfast  and  lunch  dishes,  serves  lunch,  bakes  bread  or 
cake,  and  prepares  greatly  toward  the  evening  meal  which 
the  housekeeper  serves  and  clears  up  after  herself.  The 
housekeeper  does  her  own  cleaning,  and  the  ironing  for  a 
family  of  three.  The  service  here  costs  $6  weekly  for  a 
period  of  five  hours  daily  for  seven  days,  and  $i  weekly 
for  the  laundry,  with  a  minimum  of  waste,  fuel,  and  "over- 
head" expense.  This  arrangement  has  been  working  most 
successfully  for  about  four  years — the  woman  has  a  family 
of  her  own  that  she  sees  off  to  school  before  she  goes  to  work, 
and  to  whom  she  is  back  before  they  are  out  of  school,  and 
for  whom  she  has  the  whole  latter  half  of  the  day,  and  yet 


earns  as  much  as  many  permanent  workers,  with  none  of  the 
mutual  disadvantages. 

Such  part-time  workers  receive  from  15  cents  to  30  cents 
per  hour,  depending  on  the  kind  of  work,  the  skill,  and  the 
location.  Generally,  20  cents  or  25  cents  an  hour  will  cover 
any  part-time  service,  even  including  mending  or  dressmak- 
ing. Men  cleaners  are  able  to  do  heavier  work,  and  are 
worth  the  additional  5  cents  or  10  cents  hourly  they  may  re- 
ceive. One  friend  told  how  she  had  the  local  painter  clean 
her  kitchen  frequently  in  his  spare  time;  old  men  can  take 
care  of  furnace  or  yards,  or  even  a  boy  of  ten,  if  the  family 
does  not  possces  one,  may  do  some  of  the  work  formerly 
done  by  "Mary  Ann,"  on  an  hour  basis. 


Although  relatively  few  families  live  in  college  towns, 
the  success  of  student  workers  as  helpers  to  the  housewife 
should  be  noted.  In  most  college  towns,  there  are  many 
students  who  for  room  and  board,  or  on  a  straight  hour 
basis,  will,  if  men,  care  for  furnace,  yard,  windows,  beat 
rugs,  etc.  Young  women  can  assist  with  the  cooking,  or 
serving,  or  certain  specific  cleaning  or  mending.  In  the 
house  where  the  author  lived  one  year  in  a -college  town, 
one  of  the  women  students  had  her  room  and  board  in 
exchange  for  getting  the  family  breakfast,  waiting  on  the 
family  dinner,  and  doing  about  four  hours  of  cleaning  on 
Saturday.  A  boy  student  washed  the  windows  weekly,  and 
did  the  heavy  rug  cleaning,  and  cared  for  the  lawn,  by  the 
hour.  The  mother  of  the  family  did  the  cooking,  sent  the 
laundry  out,  and  was  able,  even  with  a  family  of  six,  to  run 
her  home  on  a  minimum  of  service  cost.  At  a  western  state 
school  recently,  the  wife  of  one  of  the  professors  told  how 
she  never  had  a  servant  problem  in  her  life,  because  she 
always  arranged  the  work  between  three  college  boys,  on 


the  hour  basis,  and  that  she  would  never  go  back  to  any 
servant  girl  again ! 

Many  Y.  M.  or  Y.  W.  C.  A.  homes  can  furnish  names 
of  those  who  would  be  only  too  willing  to  do  housework, 
if  on  a  dignified  part-time  basis.  One  girl  is  known,  who 
came  at  8  a.  m.  and  stayed  until  noon  in  one  home,  and  then 
went  to  a  neighbor's,  working  from  i  to  5  p.  m.,  buying  her 
own  lunch  independently,  and  having  her  every  evening  free, 
and  yet  giving  some  tired  housekeeper  just  the  necessary 
daily  "lift."  It  is  among  such  girls  that  nurses  by  the  hour 
are  commonly  found,  or  what  may  be  called  a  "mother's 
helper."  To  the  housekeeper  with  children,  this  is  one  of 
the  most  important  part-time  services.  She  may  be  able 
and  want  to  do  all  her  housework,  if  she  can  only  find 
someone  to  take  the  children  for  a  few  hours  in  the  after- 
noon. In  large  cities,  this  work  is  definitely  established. 
One  may  go  to  a  good  agency  bureau,  and  have  sent  a  reli- 
able young  woman  who  will  take  children  for  a  walk,  to  a 
museum,  or  chaperone  them  trustworthily  anywhere.  There 
are  other  grades  of  workers,  also,  who  will  come  in  and  do 
the  rougher  work,  such  as  mending,  napkin  washing,  etc. 

Every  housekeeper  should  do  all  she  can  to  encourage 
"part-time"  household  service  because  it  will  only  be  on 
a  part-time  or  hour  basis  in  the  future,  that  our  detached, 
individualized  homes  can  continue  to  exist.  Effort  should  be 
made  to  locate  women  of  mature  experience  who  can  give 
three  or  five  hours  to  outside  household  service  without 
foregoing  their  own  homes ;  to  young  women  graduates  of 
domestic  science,  who  on  an  hour  basis  can  find  in  house- 
keeping as  dignified  a  work  as  teaching  or  demonstration 
work ;  to  the  many  other  young  women  who  have  a  natural 
bent  toward  housework,  but  who  enter  the  store  or  the  office 
because  housekeeping  is  on  an  unstandardized,  indefinite  hcur 




In  cities,  of  course,  some  parts  of  house  or  homekeeping 
are  performed  by  the  municipality.  Such  common  ones  as 
garbage  and  ash  collection  should  be  insisted  on  everywhere. 
In  one  progressive  suburb,  the  ash  man  comes  to  the  very 
basement  door  of  the  detached  house,  and  takes  a  specified 
can  out  daily ;  how  much  better  than  the  householder's  con- 
stant struggle  and  overseeing  of  a  privately  engaged  person ! 
In  one  other  progressive  street,  the  entire  care  of  fifteen 
furnaces  is  handled  by  two  men  employed  by  the  owners 
of  the  houses  collectively,  instead  of  by  each  house  indi- 
vidually. Such  an  arrangement  permits  more  wholesale 
buying  of  coal  and  other  advantages  over  separate  manage- 

Municipal  housekeeping  in  the  way  of  clean  streets  makes 
a  great  deal  of  difference  in  the  amount  of  cleaning  and 
laundry  work  required  in  the  individual  home.  Dusty 
streets  should  be  oiled  by  the  town  or  by  the  "Neighborhood 
Improvement  Association." 

In  a  few  cities  steam  for  house  heating  is  distributed 
through  the  streets  like  gas,  but  only  in  the  closely-built-up 
portion,  as  the  loss  of  heat  and  expense  of  construction  is 
prohibitive  on  long  runs.  The  cost  is  not  less  than  for  indi- 
vidual house  heating ;  the  saving  is  in  labor,  trouble  and  dirt. 

A  few  co-operative  steam  laundries  have  been  started 
in  the  country  in  connection  with  dairies,  but  with  no  great 
success,  because  the  housekeepers  do  not  place  a  cash  value 
on  their  time  and  labor. 


As  has  been  pointed  out,  the  cost  of  running  the  servant- 
less  household  is  much  less  than  the  upkeep  of  the  house 
with  permanent  help.  Even  if  the  money  expended  for  serv- 


ice  by  the  hour  is  identical  with  the  sum  paid  for  service  by 
the  month,  the  saving  lies  in  the  lower  "  overhead,"  and  par- 
ticularly in  less  waste  of  fuel  and  food.  As  one  woman  put 
it,  who  dispensed  with  a  servant,  and  started  in  to  do  her  own 
work,  assisted  by  day  labor,  "  I  see  now  where  all  my  maga- 
zines and  theatre  tickets  kept  going  out  of  the  kitchen 
garbage  can."  With  present  food  prices,  the  food  of  an 
additional  adult  is  certainly  worth  $5  weekly,  and  furnish- 
ings and  room  rent  are  higher  than  ever,  thus  increasing  the 
upkeep  over  the  figures  of  past  years. 

While  no  general  percentages  can  be  given,  we  can  take 
the  estimates  of  families  who  have  actually  tried  the  two 
plans,  and  who  have  given  their  opinions  as  follows : 

Mrs.  M. — Location,  Boston,  family  of  two  adults  and  two  chil- 
dren;  over  period  of  five  years  from  1912-1917: 

"  Formerly  one  general  houseworker,  $28  monthly ;  one  nursegirl, 
$18  monthly;  estimated  total  cost  of  both  workers,  including  their 
food,  lodging,  etc.,  $75.  Present  plan  :  Laundress,  i  day,  $2 ;  cleaner,  I 
day,  $2;  3  hours'  special  nurse  daily  on  hour  basis  of  50  cents  day, 
$3.50;  Sunday  dinner  at  hotel  for  four,  $3.50  (of  which  only  about 
$i  could  rightly  be  charged  to  service)  ;  and  boy,  half  Saturday  at 
50  cents  to  clean  basement,  etc.  Total,  $9  weekly;  no  food  for  any 
worker  except  two  lunches  for  laundress-cleaner,  which  you  might 
say  was  50  cents,  thus  bringing  the  total  cost  of  service  to  not  more 
than  $10,  as  against  $18  weekly  in  the  first  case.  Housekeeper  (Mrs. 
M.)  herself  prepares  the  meals,  but  often  assisted  with  them  and  did 
other  work  even  with  a  general  housekeeper." 

The  B.  Family. — Location,  Chicago,  3  children  and  two  adults; 
from  1915-1917: 

"  I  used  to  keep  a  cook  and  a  nursemaid,  and  had  a  laundress ; 
this  cost  me  in  wages  alone,  $68.  I  reorganized  my  household  this 
way :  Had  a  man  come  in  one  day  every  week  for  cleaning  at  $2.50 ; 
hired  a  more  capable  woman  who  could  both  cook  and  do  the  laundry 
at  $40 ;  the  children  were  older  now,  and  one  at  school ;  I  bought  an 
electric  washer,  and  we  did  our  wash  in  half  the  time  as  before; 
then  I  did  the  upstairs,  and  paid  the  cook  extra  when  she  kept  the  two 



smaller  children  when  I  wanted  to  go  out  at  night  This  way  the  plan 
costs  me  about  $55  in  wages,  but  I  have  only  one  person  to  feed  and 
care  for,  and  all  the  work  runs  more  smoothly  and  is  better  done  than 

Mrs.  S—  Five  adults,  near  Cleveland,  Ohio,  1914-1918: 

"  I  used  to  keep  one  general  girl  of  all  work  at  $24,  and  do  all 
upstairs  myself  and  finish  the  ironing  as  well  as  special  cooking.  I 
couldn't  hire  a  girl  now  for  $35,  as  they  all  work  in  factories.  Now 
I  send  all  washing  out  for  $2.50  a  week.  Every  other  week  I  and 
a  colored  woman  at  $1.75  do  the  thorough  cleaning.  I  get  breakfast 
and  am  alone  at  lunch.  My  daughter  in  high  school  gets  the  dinner 
with  me.  It  costs  $15  for  our  service  now,  without  any  cost  of  food 
for  the  girl." 

Mrs.  N. — Family  of  3  adults  in  New  Jersey: 

"  In  1915  we  kept  one  general  worker  who  did  everything.  We 
haven't  been  able  to  get  anyone  for  some  time,  as  we  are  in  a  some- 
what lonely  'suburb.  I  can't  even  get  a  good  local  worker.  I  find 
this  plan  the  best  in  my  family,  and  at  less  expense  after  all.  Every 
other  week  I  have  a  cracker  jack  colored  woman  from  the  city  come 
out  for  three  days.  Then  she  does  our  wash,  irons,  and  cleans  the 
whole  house.  We  wash  only  every  other  week.  She  gets  $2  a  day 
and  her  car  fare,  which  is  almost  a  dollar  each  time,  or  $7  every 
other  week.  Then  once  a  week,  generally  Sunday,  we  all  have  din- 
ner at  the  club  house  here,  which  I  don't  call  service,  but  our  pleasure. 
One  other  night  I  try  to  go  into  town  and  meet  Mr.  N.  and  my  son 
and  have  dinner  with  them.  My  son  takes  care  of  the  heater.  I 
should  say  that  it  costs  me  $18  for  service  only.  I  buy  home-made 
bread  from  a  neighbor  twice  weekly,  and  a  cake  on  Saturday,  as  my 
talents  run  to  sewing  and  not  cooking.  We  all  like  the  freedom  of 
the  arrangement  very  much.  It  seems  to  me  that  there  need  be  no 
servant  problem  for  the  able-bodied  woman  who  has  no  small 

The  C.  Family  in  a  Pennsylvania  Small  Town. — Three  daugh- 
ters, 2  younger  sons,  father  and  mother  and  grandmother,  1914-1918: 

"  You  ask  me  how  we  manage  such  a  big  family  without  help. 
Well,  we  girls  are  all  over  twenty,  and  tho  two  of  us  work  every 
day,  we  manage  nicely.  The  boys  cut  wood  for  the  stoves  and  do 


the  ashes,  and  in  summer  take  care  of  our  big  lawn  and  hose  the 

porches.    B .  is  a  school  teacher  and  takes  Saturday  morning  for 

her  work,  which  is  baking,  which  she  likes  well,  and  in  that  time  she 
bakes  bread  and  pies  and  cake  enough  to  last  more  than  half  the 
week.  Grandmother  makes  the  beds  and  tidies  the  rooms.  Mother 
gets  the  other  meals  with  me,  and  does  the  washing;  we  have  a 
power  washer  and  mangle,  and  it  takes  us  about  two  days  to  get  it 
all  done  along  with  the  other  work.  We  take  turns  at  supper  dishes 
between  the  four  of  us,  or  if  we  all  happen  to  go  out,  father  or  the 
boys  will  help.  Each  of  us  girls  gets  a  little  money  for  our  share  and 
so  do  the  boys.  I  can't  say  how  much  it  costs,  but  of  course  less 
than  any  servant  which  we  couldn't  even  afford." 

To  sum  up,  we  can  say  that  the  servantless  house  is  by 
far  the  more  preferable  method  of  management.  The  chief 
secret  of  doing  housework  daily,  and  yet  not  becoming  over- 
fatigued  or  dulled,  is  to  use  the  old  suggestion  of  "  more 
head  and  less  heels."  Free  time  must  be  planned  for.  If 
necessary  this  planning  must  run  counter  to  what  is  com- 
monly accepted  as  what  "  ought "  to  be  the  house  routine. 
If  there  are  children,  they  should  share  in  the  responsibility 
of  small  tasks  so  as  to  make  the  division  of  work  more 
equable.  Each  child  should  "  lift  his  own  weight  "  in  the 
housework  at  as  early  an  age  as  possible.  Part-time  outside 
service  will  give  more  efficient,  less  wasteful  assistance  than 
any  permanent  worker.  A  simpler  standard  for  the  home, 
both  in  food  and  furnishings,  will  make  the  work  less  labori- 
ous. Finally,  the  servantless  housekeeper  should  install  and 
use  very  possible  true  labor-saver  which  will  save  her  time 
or  energy. 





1.  How  many  hours  per  week  (one  person)  are  needed  to 

keep  your  home  in  running  condition :  (a)  For  meal 
preparation  and  clearing;  (b)  For  cleaning;  (c)  Laun- 
dry work;  (d)  Other  work? 

2.  What  have  you  done  since  beginning  the  course  to  "  short- 

cut "  this  time  ?    What  more  can  you  do  ? 

3.  (a)   Enumerate  the  tasks  on  which  you  have  made  "time 

studies"  and  give  your  results,  (b)  How  many  exam- 
ples of  "standard  practice"  have  you  written  record 
of?  (c)  How  does  your  present  "schedule"  differ 
from  the  first  one  you  worked  out? 

4.  Count  the  number  of  "  things  "  in  your  house  that  are 

neither  useful  nor  beautiful  and  report.  What  is  the 
most  time- wasting  factor  in  your  home  ? 

5.  Give  your  experience    (a)   with  resident  servants,    (b) 

part-time  service.  How  do  they  compare  in  cost  and  in 







ONE  of  the  problems  in  management  which  many 
housekeepers  face  at  least  during  some  part  of  their 
housekeeping  experience,  is  the  handling  of  house- 
hold workers  or  "servants."  As  has  been  pointed  out,  the 
"servant  problem"  is  more  acute  than  ever  owing  to  the  fact 
that  women  formerly  engaged  in  household  service  have 
entered  industries  and  prefer  these  conditions  with  high  pay 
and  freer  hours  to  the  more  confining  conditions  which  gov- 
ern housework  at  present.  In  many  other  cases,  especially 
among  colored  workers  throughout  the  entire  Southern 
states  at  period  of  the  war,  men  were  receiving  such  high  pay 
either  in  Government  service  or  at  "boom"  war  industries 
that  their  wives  or  families  who  formerly  did  housework, 
cleaning,  laundry,  etc.,  no  longer  needed  to  work  and  so  stay 
at  home.  As  one  colored  cook  said  to  the  family  where  she 
had  been  employed  for  years,  "Jeff  am  makin'  so  much  money 
by  de  Gov'ment  dese  days  dat  I  thinks  I'll  just  set  at  home 
and  help  him  spend  it." 

Even  with  normal  industrial  conditions,  there  is  every  indi- 
cation that  service  for  the  home  will  be  increasingly  more 
difficult  to  obtain — and  also  to  keep.  It  is  therefore  worth 
while  for  any  employer  of  household  labor  to  study  the 
"servant  problem,"  understand  its  causes,  and  particularly 
give  attention  to  the  relation  and  attitude  between  herself 
and  any  employee  she  may  engage. 



Recently  the  national  Y.  W.  C.  A.  undertook  a  report  on 
household  employment.  They  interviewed  women  workers 
themselves  in  different  occupations ;  some  girls  were  at  the 
time  working  as  house  servants,  others  as  clerks,  factory 
hands,  office  help,  etc.  And  the  girls  themselves  (who  cer- 
tainly must  be  regarded  as  the  best  judges)  summed  up  their 
opinion  briefly  that  it  is  the  conditions  surrounding  house- 
work, and  not  the  work  itself  which  are  today  urging  women 
into  factories,  stores,  offices — any  place  except  the  kitchen 
of  another  woman.  Prominent  industrial  and  social  wel- 
fare authorities  who  have  studied  the  "problem"  concur  in 
the  same  view  and  even  urge  women  away  from  domestic 
service  because  of  the  following  reasons  against  it: 

(1)  Social  stigma  of  "servant"  both  from  employer's  class 

and  from  other  members  of  worker's  own  group  in 
other  occupations,  as  factory  workers,  shopgirls,  etc. 

(2)  No  standardized  hours  of  work. 

(3)  No  independence  or  private  life  after  work  hours. 

(4)  Too  much  loneliness  and  confinement  and  lack  of  stim- 

ulus from  other  workers. 

(5)  No  chance  for  advancement  or  professional  progress. 

(6)  Often  lack  of  bodily  comforts. 

(7)  Housework  offers  fewer  chances  of  marriage. 

It  is  significant  that  neither  the  girls  themselves  (this 
report  was  based  on  a  consensus  of  500  girls)  nor  social 
workers  make  any  mention  of  pay  in  connection  with  the 
problem.  All  based  their  objections  on  the  conditions  or 
psychological  objections  involved.  In  other  words,  even  if 
the  pay  of  the  houseworker  and  the  office  worker  were  iden- 
tical (at  the  present  time  housework  is  even  better  paid!)  a 
girl  would  prefer  the  latter  occupation.  The  most  impor- 
tant of  these  objections,  because  it  is  the  most  difficult  to  con- 


trol  and  eradicate,  is  the  social  stigma  which  commonly 
attaches  to  the  appellation  "servant."  Naturally,  "servant" 
still  carries  with  it  the  old  world  idea  of  an  inferior,  a 
dependent  or  subordinate.  And  in  this  country  of  democ- 
racy, whose  very  air  breathes  the  idea  that  "all  men  are 
created  free  and  equal"  (meaning  with  equal  opportunities), 
neither  men  nor  women  like  to  be  in  positions  of  implied 
inferiority  to  the  people  for  whom  they  work.  It  is  only  fair 
to  acknowledge  that  household  service  is  still  the  only  occu- 
pation for  women  where  this  inferiority  is  implied,  or  often 
keenly  felt  by  the  worker. 


It  must  be  admitted  by  many  women  or  mistresses  them- 
selves that  they  are  largely  to  blame  for  this  relation.  While 
other  work  for  women  has  been  put  upon  a  business-like 
"employer-employee"  basis,  the  servant  still  is  part  of  the 
old  feudal  "mistress-slave"  basis  long  since  discarded  by 
modern  industry.  They  may  not  outwardly  admit  it,  but 
most  women  who  are  able  to  afford  servants  to  assist  them 
in  the  home,  want  those  other  women  workers  to  stay  just 
servants  and  to  remain  on  a  subordinate  plane  where  they 
can  be  bossed  and  talked  down  to  from  her  platform  of  the 
superior  mistress.  They  want  the  "servant"  as  well  as  the 

It  would  be  an  excellent  idea  if  women  employers  of 
household  labor  could  visit  a  modern  large  office  or  factory 
and  see  how  employees  in  modern  business  are  treated.  The 
factory  may  hire  the  services  of  the  most  humble  vegetable 
preparers,  dish  washers,  label  pasters,  etc.,  and  yet  each  of 
those  employees  is  treated  not  as  an  inferior,  but  as  a  worker 
free  and  equal  with  the  higher  overseers  and  managers.  The 
true  basis  of  the  success  which  modern  industry  has  in  deal- 


ing  with  employees  and  the  reason  why  even  the  most  inferior 
and  low-wage  factory  entices  girls  away  from  domestic 
service,  is  the  principle  of  "team  work  between  equals."  Each 
employee  under  "scientific  management"  feels  that  he  is  part 
of  the  company,  and  this  team  work  basis  elicits  their  loyalty 
and  co-operation.  The  most  successful  corporations  and 
employers  of  labor  are  those  who  are  doing  everything  pos- 
sible to  make  each  employee  feel  his  importance,  instead  of 
crushing  him  by  browbeating  and  treating  as  a  subordinate. 

Whetl  er  she  likes  to  or  not,  the  housekeeper  of  today  who 
employs  labor  will  have  to  revolutionize  her  own  attitude 
along  the  lines  of  modern  treatment  of  employees — or  she 
will  find  no  other  women  willing  to  work  for  her.  It  cannot 
be  quite  explained  why  women  who  do  often  assume  this 
progressive  attitude  in  regard  to  a  trained  nurse  (who  does 
similar  acts  to  a  houseworker),  or  to  a  stenographer,  or  a 
sewing  woman,  or  even  to  a  day  laundress  whom  they  em- 
ploy, nevertheless  refuse  to  assume  it  to  a  woman  who  cooks 
their  food  and  dusts  the  chairs.  Why  should  she  treat  a  day 
sewing  woman  or  laundress  with  respect  and  fairness,  while 
she  so  often  feels  it  is  her  right  and  privilege  as  a  mistress 
to  browbeat,  scold  and  tyrannize  over  a  household  worker? 
The  reason  is,  that  in  her  own  mind,  the  mistress  commonly 
does  think  the  servant  "inferior."  And  thus  thinking,  she 
naturally  shows  it  in  her  attitude  and  treatment. 

Let  it  be  repeated  then,  that  the  first  step  in  solving  the 
servant  problem,  is  to  solve  the  "mistress  problem,"  and  for 
the  mistress  to  place  her  relationship  with  the  worker  on  a 
straight,  dignified,  employer-employee  basis.  The  old  feudal- 
slave  relation  was  possible  as  long  as  workers  did  not  have 
any  other  occupations  from  which  -to  select,  and  as  long  as 
they  remained  unintelligent  and  uneducated ;  but  today  work- 
ers will  not  put  up  with  such  medieval  treatment.  In  other 


words,  the  mistress  of  today  is  trying  to  impose  a  worn- 
out,  archaic  relation  upon  a  worker  who  in  many  cases  has 
become  more  educated  and  who  will  not  submit  to  it. 
Adjustment  must  be  made  before  it  is  too  late. 


The  adoption  of  the  modern  employer-employee  .basis 
means,  first,  that  in  her  own  mind  the  mistress  will  not  think 
of  the  household  worker  as  an  inferior.  Second,  instead  of 
calling  her  servant,  why  not  think  and  speak  of  her  as  a 
household  assistant,  a  household  helper,  or  "houseworker" 
seems  about  the  best  term,  which  will  counteract  the  present 
social  stigma?  If  even  the  youngest  $6.00  a  week  office  girl 
is  called  Miss  Smith,  why  not  Miss  Smith  in  the  home?  If 
the  worker  is  really  reliable  and  intelligent  enough  to  trust 
with  the  preparing  of  food  for  the  family,  with  attending 
to  its  comfort  and  keeping  the  home  sanitary  and  attractive, 
is  she  not  worthy  to  be  called  by  her  surname  instead  of 
addressed  by  the  familiar  first  name  which  we  reserve  either 
for  animals  or  for  our  loved  ones?  If  each  mistress  would 
sincerely  follow  out  this  attitude,  then  gradually  public  opin- 
ion would  come  to  place  household  work  on  a  higher  plane 
and  the  worker's  own  friends  in  other  occupations  would 
not  longer  slightingly  call  her  "pot  slinger,"  "kitchen  me- 
chanic," etc. — an  attitude  which  does  much  to  prejudice  a 
self-respecting  girl  against  household  service. 


The  second  chief  reason  given  against  household  service 
by  all  the  workers  questioned  was  "no  standardized  hours." 
It  is  my  firm  personal  belief  that  all  household  service  should 
be  based  on  an  hour  system  and  that  workers  should  live 
and  eat  in  some  other  place  than  the  home  where  they  are 


employed.  I  feel  strongly  that  the  adoption  of  this  living- 
out-plan  would  do  more  to  solve  the  problem  and  change 
the  conditions  now  surrounding  the  work  than  any  other 
one  step.  I  believe,  and  have  preached  for  years  that  house- 
work, like  any  other  occupation,  should  be  placed  on  a  day 
basis  and  permit  the  worker  to  have  a  home  life  of  her  own 
after  the  hours  of  service  she  gives  to  her  employer.  Such 
a  living-out-plan,  of  course,  would  at  once  solve  the  point  of 
standardized  hours,  for  then  arrangement  can  easily  be  made 
about  the  exact  hours  that  a  worker  will  give  to  her  task. 
(See  page  408,  Chap.  IX.)  It  will  also  in  one  sweep  solve 
the  objections  of  "private  life  after  work,"  "loneliness"  and 
"confinement,"  chances  of  meeting  people,  etc.  And  the 
author  cannot  too  strongly  emphasize  her  conviction  and  ex- 
perience that  the  final  solution  of  the  servant  problem  can 
come  only  by  placing  housework  in  all  its  branches  on  a  day 
basis  of  definite  hours,  which  will  permit  the  worker  to  have 
her  own  life  after  that  specified  work  is  done,  just  as  is  now 
followed  by  factory  hands,  clerks,  laundresses  and  sewing 

But  if  the  mistress  still  wishes  to  cling  to  the  present 
method  of  having  workers  (if  she  can  find  them!)  sleep  in 
the  home,  she  nevertheless  must  arrange  for  them  definite 
schedules  of  both  the  work  they  are  to  do  for  her  and  the 
rest  or  free  periods  they  are  to  have  for  themselves.  Over 
and  over  again  has  come  the  story  of  a  worker  "having  no 
time  to  herself,"  and  not  knowing  all  day  long  at  what  time 
she  will  be  "free."  Mistresses  say  in  reply  that  they  do  not 
require  the  worker  to  be  busy  all  of  the  time,  merely  that  she 
"be  there"  when  wanted.  But  the  mistress  must  surely  see 
that  it  is  just  as  fatiguing  to  "be  there,"  as  it  is  to  actually 
work,  and  must  provide  and  allow  some  definite  period  every- 
day which  the  worker  can  use  as  she  pleases. 


How  many  mistresses  permit  a  girl  an  hour  or  two  every 
afternoon  in  which  she  can  unquestioningly  go  shopping,  to 
the  library,  or  do  exactly  what  she  likes?  When  this  point 
of  a  definite  rest  period  for  the  worker  was  mentioned  by 
the  author  at  a  lecture  before  a  prominent  woman's  club, 
several  immediately  exclaimed,  "But  who  will  answer  the 
bell  in  the  afternoon  while  she  is  out  ?"  It  was  hard  to  con- 
vince these  dear  ladies  that  the  situation  is  so  serious  today, 
that  it  is  a  choice  between  answering  the  bell  oneself  during 
a  couple  of  afternoon  hours  or  not  being  able  to  secure  a 
worker  at  all ! 

Further,  let  any  mistress  ask  herself,  can  she  expect  a 
worker  to  remain  in  good  health  and  yet  never  leave  the 
house  except  the  conventional  "Thursday  afternoon  off"  and 
"every  other  Sunday"?  The  majority  of  mistresses  in  the 
past,  too,  have  always  exacted  that  their  cooks  and  maids 
"stay  in,"  in  the  evening,  unless  special  permission  is  given 
to  leave.  Can  any  mistress  imagine  any  factory  or  business 
man  asking  an  employee  to  stay  in  the  office  or  factory  in  the 
evening  as  long  as  she  has  finished  her  stipulated  work? 
Why  then,  if  the  cook  has  served  the  supper  and  washed 
the  dishes,  should  she  not  be  free  to  leave  the  house  every 
night  if  she  wants  to  ? 


But  no,  the  average  mistress  usually  regards  "time  off" 
and  free  evenings  as  "privileges"  or  something  for  which  the 
worker  must  beg  and  which  is  a  favor  if  it  is  granted.  In 
their  own  hearts  many  mistresses  resent  employees  being 
sufficiently  independent  to  leave  the  house  without  special 
permission.  But  from  the  employee's  point  of  view,  it  is  this 
constantly  having  to  ask  permission  that  creates  the  feeling 
of  no  independence — a  feeling  that  they  keenly  resent.  It  is 


a  mistake  for  any  mistress  to  thus  patronize  her  workers 
and  grant  them  "privileges"  which  frankly  should  be  the 
employee's  business-like  rights. 

It  may  be  set  down  as  a  rule  and  as  an  essential  part  of 
the  new  relationship  that  a  worker  should  be  free  to  leave  the 
house  and  go  and  do  what  she  chooses  in  the  specified  after- 
noon rest  period  or  zvhen  she  has  finished  her  evening's1 
allotted  tasks. 

When  the  author  strongly  stated  this  point  at  the  above 
mentioned  club  audience,  she  was  instantly  met  with  the  ob- 
jection, that  permitting  workers  to  leave  the  house  without 
greater  supervision  would  result  in  immorality !  Several  of 
the  finest  club  women  rose  and  said  that  in  restricting  the 
girl's  time  away  from  the  house  and  in  supervising  her 
friends  they  were  doing  her  a  favor  and  looking  out  for  her 
best  interests.  No  doubt  these  fine  club  women  had  the  best 
of  intentions.  But  in  these  days  of  independent  women 
workers,  no  girl  of  intelligence  or  spirit  will  stand  such  su- 
pervision. Such  a  supervision  implies  on  the  face  of  it  that 
the  employer  doubts  the  conduct  of  her  employee  and  is 
therefore  treating  her  like  a  child  instead  of  a  responsible 
adult.  Let  any  mistress  think  for  a  moment  of  an  office 
manager  who  would  question  his  filing  clerk  as  to  where  she 
had  been  the  night  before  or  whom  she  had  seen.  Under 
the  new  relationship,  no  employer  has  a  right  to  question  a 
worker  as  to  where  she  has  been,  where  she  is  going  or  what 
she  does  outside  of  the  hours  of  her  stipulated  duty  and 
work.  The  only  exception  to  this  is  that  she  should  not  go 
places  from  which  she  might  bring  health  contamination  to 
the  household.  The  old  slave  attitude  (which  so  many  mis- 
tresses still  wrongly  persist  in  following)  meant  paying  for  a 
girl's  life;  but  the  new  business  attitude  means  paying  for  a 
girl's  work. 


To  return  to  the  point  of  supervision  by  the  mistress  in 
protecting  the  girls  from  immorality,  which  was  made  by 
several  audiences  addressed  on  the  domestic  service  problem 
— the  facts  are,  that  there  is  more  immorality  in  the  ranks  of 
household  workers  than  in  any  other  class  of  women  workers. 
This  statement  comes  from  such  workers  as  Miss  Grace 
Abbott  of  the  Protective  League,  by  matrons  in  rescue  homes 
and  from  Miss  Jane  Addams  of  Hull  House,  who  says :  "In 
spite  of  the  fact  that  domestic  service  is  always  suggested  by 
the  average  mistress  as  an  occupation  of  safety  for  girls  the 
Federal  report  on  Woman  and  Child  Wage  Earners  in  the 
United  States,  gives  the  occupation  of  the  majority  of  girls 
who  go  wrong,  as  that  of  domestic  service,  and  in  this  it  con- 
firms the  experience  of  every  matron  in  a  Rescue  Home. 
Many  indeed  are  the  instances  of  fallen  girls  who  only  a  few 
months  before  had  been  honest  girls,  cheerfully  working  in 
the  household  of  a  good  woman  mistress,  whose  sense  of 
duty  expressed  itself  in  dismissing  the  outcast  as  soon  as  she 
knew  her  situation.  Is  it  not  significant  that  the  girls  who 
chiefly  supply  the  demand  of  the  "White  Slave"  trade  are 
drawn  most  largely  from  the  one  occupation  which  is  fur- 
thest from  the  modern  ideal  of  social  freedom  and  self- 
direction  ?" 

In  other  words,  the  only  result  of  the  mistress's  attempts 
to  incarcerate  the  worker  in  her  kitchen  except  on  a  speci- 
fied Thursday  off,  and  to  oversee  her  goings  out  and  comings 
in,  leads  to  nothing  but  the  license  which  comes  from 

How  much  better  it  would  be  if  the  mistress  encouraged 
the  worker  to  have  wholesome  social  ties.  She  knows  that 
for  her  own  daughters  mutual  interest  and  recreation  with 
young  men  of  good  standing  are  necessary,  that  every  girl 
needs  a  chance  to  express  herself  socially,  otherwise  she  will 


become  dull  and  degenerate.  Yet,  in  many  instances,  she 
allows  her  young  worker  possibly  only  in  her  teens,  no  re- 
laxing evenings  away  from  work,  and  especially  resents  her 
taking  advantage  of  neighborhood  social  life.  If  the  mis- 
tress would  only  see  how  inconsistent  it  is  to  expect  the 
highest  morality  and  conduct  from  an  individual  she  persists 
in  shutting  up  like  a  chicken  in  a  coop,  or  from  one  whom 
she  does  not  allow  the  privilege  of  attending  church  or  other 
ethical  service ! 

Again,  why  is  it  that  mistresses  expect  the  highest  per- 
formance and  knowledge  from  their  workers  and  yet  refuse 
to  grant  them  the  stimulation  of  attending  meetings  or 
groups  where  home  subjects  are  discussed?  It  is  not  unrea- 
sonable to  think  of  a  houseworker  as  a  member  of  a  food 
club,  or  as  an  attendant  at  meetings  where  topics  of  diet, 
sanitation,  economy,  etc.,  are  discussed.  Some  women  even 
resent  their  workers  reading  books  and  magazines  about  the 
house.  Indeed,  the  author  knows  of  but  few  families  out- 
side of  her  own,  where  the  worker  visits  food  demonstra- 
tions, reads  Government  pamphlets  or  other  matter  along 
home  lines.  Yet,  why  not  ? 


This  brings  the  discussion  back  to  the  point  mentioned  at 
first,  that  the  mistress  must  prepare  a  definite  schedule  of 
both  off  time  and  work  time  for  each  houseworker.  It  will 
assist  any  mistress  to  re-read  Chapter  II,  on  Scheduling  and 
Despatching,  because  whatever  principles  of  work  are  help- 
ful for  the  housewife  herself  are  even  more  helpful  for  any 
employee.  She  should  bear  in  mind  that  planned  work  is 
work  done  with  less  friction.  And  it  is  almost  necessary  for 
each  employer  first  to  try  to  follow  the  schedule  she  herself 
has  made,  before  she  exacts  it  of  her  employee.  For  it  is 


one  of  the  frequent  complaints  made  by  workers,  especially 
in  a  household  where  only  one  is  employed,  that  too  much 
work  is  laid  out  for  a  required  amount  of  time.  It  must  be 
admitted  that  many  mistresses  are  guilty  of  this  fault  or 
overloading  work  which  cannot  possibly  be  done  in  the  re- 
quired time ;  the  result  is  that  even  the  best  worker  becomes 
discouraged  and  resentful  and  doesn't  do  the  overload  im- 
posed on  her. 

In  households  where  there  is  but  one  worker,  the  house- 
wife herself  must  assume  some  of  the  duties  or  hire  extra 
help  by  the  day,  unless  the  house  or  apartment  and  the  family 
are  very  small.  It  is  just  because  so  many  mistresses  in  the 
past  have  expected  anything  and  everything  and  overloaded 
the  one  worker,  that  we  now  have  no  longer  a  "general  house- 
worker,"  and  that  girls  who  formerly  were  general  house- 
workers  have  turned  to  some  specialized  branch  such  as 
waitress,  parlor  maid,  or  cook.  The  only  result  of  the  mis- 
tress's unfairness  has  been  to  deprive  the  one-servant  house- 
hold of  today  of  the  unspecialized  help  which  is  so  badly 

Careful  planning  of  the  schedule  should  limit  it  to  a  defi- 
nite number  of  hours.  There  is  no  reason  why  the  average 
housework  in  a  typical  family  with  modern  conveniences 
cannot  be  compressed  into  8  working  hours  or  at  most  10, 
instead  of  the  12  to  15  hours  of  which  some  servants  have 
justly  complained  in  the  past.  Of  course,  in  every  family 
the  schedule  will  need  to  be  interrupted  because  of  occa- 
sional sickness,  special  guests,  etc.  But  the  regular  every- 
day routine  should  be  studied,  systematized  and  made  as 
nearly  definite  as  possible. 

The  schedule  should,  as  has  been  pointed  out,  provide  for 
work  hours,  and  rest  hours.  It  should  specify  each  task 
and  approximate  time;  it  should  include  the  special  outside 


help  such  as  laundress  or  cleaner,  and  state  the  days  on 
which  tradesmen  come,  hours  of  delivery,  etc.  If  there  is 
more  than  one  worker,  then  their  hours  also  should  be  care- 
fully scheduled  with  relation,  one  to  the  other,  providing 
that  when  one  is  on  duty  the  other  is  off.  The  schedule  for 
houseworkers  will  depend,  as  for  the  housewife  herself,  on 
the  various  factors  of  hours  of  meals,  size  of  family,  number 
of  rooms,  etc.  Following  are  some  simple  outlined  schedules 
for  one  worker : 

No.  i.     SCHEDULE  FOR  ONE  WORKER  (gl/2  HOURS) 

7:00  A.M. — 12:00  M.        Breakfast,   dishes,  cleaning,  preparing 

12 :  oo  M.   —  i :  oo  P.M.     Lunch. 

I  :  oo  P.M. —  3:30  P.M.     Dishes,  special  silver,  window  or  pan- 
try cleaning.    Prepare  towards  dinner. 

3  :  30  P.M. —  5  :  oo  P.M.     Worker's  off  time. 

5  :  oo  P.M. —  7  :  oo  P.M.     Dinner  and  clearing  up. 

No.  2.     SCHEDULE  FOR  ONE  WORKER  (Sl/2  HOURS) 

7:  30  A.M. — ii :  30  A.M.     Breakfast,  dishes,  etc.,  as  above, 
ii :  30  A.M. —  i :  oo  P.M.     Off  time. 

i  :  oo  P.M. —  2  :  oo  P.M.     Lunch. 

2:00  P.M. —  6:30  P.M.     Special  work,  cleaning,  preparing  and 

serving     dinner,     housewife     clears     up 
after  evening  meal  and  stacks  dishes. 


7  :  oo  A.M. —  8 :  oo  A.M.     Housewife  gets  own  breakfast  with  aid 
of  toaster,  percolator,  etc. 

8 :  oo  A.M. — 12 :  oo  M.       Houseworker  begins  work,  as  above. 
12:00  M.   —  1:00  P.M.     Lunch. 

i  :  oo  P.M. —  4:00  P.M.     Special  cleaning  and  preparing  toward 

4 :  oo  P.M. —  5  :  30  P.M.     Off  time. 

5 :  30  P.M. —  7:  30  P.M.     Serve   and   wash   up   dishes   of   evening 


6:00  A.M. —  7:00  A.M.     Breakfast;    pack    children's    school 


7:00  A.M. —  8:00  A.M.     Dishes;  start  soup,  etc.,  for  dinner. 
8:00  A.M. —  9:00  A.M.     Garden  or  butter  making. 
9:00  A.M. — 10:00  A.M.     Beds,  brush  up  rooms;   lamps  filled. 


10:00  A.M. — 12:00  M.  Baking,  dinner  preparation. 

12 :  oo  M.  Noon  dinner. 

I:OOP.M. —  3:  oo  P.M.  Clear    up    after    dinner,    clean    kitchen. 

porch,  etc. 

3  :  oo  P.M. —  5  :  oo  P.M.  Off  time ;  or  mending. 

5:00  P.M. —  6:00  P.M.  Supper  preparations;  feed  stock. 

6:00  P.M. —  7:00  P.M.  Supper  and  clear  up. 

The  above  schedules  are,  of  course,  only  suggestive ;  they 
would  vary  from  day  to  day  according  to  the  special  tasks 
(see  page  70). 

While  a  schedule  is  an  excellent  plan  for  most  workers, 
it  must  be  admitted  that  there  are  others  who  will  show 
greater  efficiency  if  allowed  to  plan  their  own  work  or  do  it 
in  the  method  that  suits  them  best.  And  it  is  not  wise  for  the 
employer  of  this  kind  of  woman  to  lay  down  an  hour  by  hour 
scheme, — rather  write  down  the  essential  tasks  that  must  be 
done  and  allow  the  worker  her  own  license  to  do  it. 


The  fifth  charge  against  housework  on  the  part  of  women 
workers  themselves,  was  "no  chance  for  advancement."  It 
must  be  admitted  that,  compared  even  to  clerking  and  the 
lowest  office  positions,  housework  suffers  at  this  point.  There 
is  chance  that  the  $8  a  week  stenographer  will  before  long 
receive  $12,  or  maybe  $20,  if  she  increases  her  efficiency ; 
there  is  the  chance  that  the  dry-goods  clerk  may  some  day 
become  head  of  the  department,  buyer,  etc.,  but  what  hope 
is  there  for  the  house  assistant  to  advance?  It  is  a  well 
known  psychological  principle  that  no  worker  increases  his 
skill  or  interest  or  loyalty  without  some  hope  of  financial 
gain,  or  some  other  reward,  emotional  or  otherwise.  This  is 
as  true  of  the  cook  or  maid  as  it  is  of  the  stenographer  or 
shop  girl.  Remember  that  the  twelfth  principle  of  scientific 
management,  and  perhaps  the  most  important  one,  is  the 
"Efficiency  Reward." 


But  how  very  few  housewives  ever  think  of  raising  their 
worker's  wages  or  offering  her  any  incentive  to  increased 
efficiency,  until  she  comes  and  announces  she  is  going  to  leave 
and  work  for  Mrs.  Brown  across  the  street,  who  is  willing  to 
pay  her  more  ?  Would  it  not  be  a  far  better  plan  at  the  time 
of  hiring  an  employee  to  tell  her  that  if  her  work  is  satis- 
factory and  she  proved  permanent,  that  she  would  receive  a 
raise  at  the  end  of  a  certain  period?  One  good  plan  is  to 
offer  an  increase  of  $1.00  per  month  after  the  first  6  months 
of  service  are  ended,  up  to  25  per  cent  of  the  original  salary. 
For  instance,  a  worker  receiving  $28  at  time  of  engagement, 
would  after  six  months  receive  an  increase  of  $1.00  each 
month  for  seven  months  or  until  she  had  advanced  to  $35, 
and  similarly  with  other  wages. 

This  may  seem  an  unwarranted  plan  to  many  women. 
But  it  is  a  plan  followed  with  great  success  by  business  firms. 
The  theory  is  that  at  the  end  of  the  time  of  increase,  the 
worker  will  certainly  be  worth  25  per  cent  more  than  when 
she  began.  In  some  cases,  a  raise  of  only  10  per  cent  is 
given.  But  business  men  affirm  that  if  a  worker  isn't  worth 
a  certain  per  cent  of  increase  at  the  end  of  a  definite  time  of 
service,  she  isn't  worth  retaining.  The  other  theory  which 
some  employers  follow  is  to  employ  only  the  cheapest  help 
work  them  hard  until  they  demand  more  pay  or  want  to 
leave,  then  discharge  them  and  get  other  cheap  help  and 
repeat  the  process.  But  the  more  successful  plan  is  to  offer 
the  competent  worker  a  substantial  wage  incentive  for  in- 
creased efficiency,  so  that  when  she  has  become  efficient,  she 
will  not  leave  but  give  her  employer  the  benefit  of  her  in- 
creased skill  and  training. 

"But  I  cannot  afford  to  raise  the  worker's  wages,"  com- 
plain many  women.  Yes,  but  if  they  stop  to  think,  they  will 
see  that  when  they  lose  trained  help  they  do  afford  the  ex- 


pense  of  new  advertisements  or  agency  fees,  the  cost  of 
breaking  in  new  help,  etc.,  which  in  the  end  amount  to  as 
much  as  the  increased  wage  would  have  done — not  to  men- 
tion the  cost  of  nervous  strain  and  worry. 

It  must  be  remembered,  also,  that  wages  are  only  a  part  of 
the  expense  of  a  resident  worker  and  that  an  efficient  helper 
can  save  on  food,  fuel,  breakage  and  wear  and  tear  much 
more  than  the  few  dollars  a  month  which  may  be  needed  to 
hold  her.  A  full  time  houseworker  is  now  a  luxury  and 
when  the  demand  is  greater  than  the  supply,  a  high  price 
must  be  paid. 


The  industrial  experts  speak  of  the  leaving  and  re-hiring 
of  workers  as  "labor  turnover,"  and  they  have  estimated  the 
per  cent  of  this  turnover  in  many  industries.  But  no  one 
has  yet  been  brave  enough  to  estimate  the  per  cent  of  house- 
worker  turnover  in  the  home,  although  from  the  facts  it 
would  seem  to  be  over  100  per  cent  a  year !  Now  it  is  true 
that  a  certain  amount  of  change  in  positions  will  always 
occur ;  but  the  modern  housewife  must  take  it  as  one  of  her 
responsibilities,  as  an  employer  of  labor,  to  lessen  the  per 
cent  of  turnover  of  house  employees  by  all  the  methods  she 
can.  Beside  granting  wage  increase  as  above,  she  can — 

(1)  Give  two  weeks'  vacation  with  pay  to  all  employees 

having  served  one  year. 

(2)  Allow  legal  holidays  or  their  equivalents. 

(3)  Bonus  for  performing  special  tasks;  like  bread  and 

pastry  making,  fine  ironing,  pressing  clothes,  etc. 

(4)  Extra  pay  for  extra  work  beyond  stipulated  time. 

(5)  Bonus  for  six  months'  or  a  year's  service. 

(6)  Give  percentage  of  saving  on  food  and  fuel  bills. 

(7)  Promote  worker  from  lower  position  to  higher. 


This  last  point  is  possible  if  more  than  one  worker  is  em- 
ployed ;  or  sometimes  a  girl  who  is  first  employed  as  a  gen- 
eral houseworker  may  become  proficient  and  show  such 
initiative  and  responsibility  that  she  can  advance  to  the 
higher  position  of  housekeeper,  and  be  relieved  of  the  more 
fatiguing  manual  work  by  the  services  of  a  day  worker. 


It  is  true  that  the  worker  in  the  confinement  of  a  private 
home  has  no  stimulus  from  a  group,  such  as  obtains  in 
offices,  factories,  etc.,  and  which  exert  such  a  strong  influence 
toward  increased  efficiency  and  advancement.  But  why  does 
not  the  housewife  herself  act  as  a  stimulus  on  her  employees  ? 
Surely,  if  she  were  sufficiently  interested  and  enthusiastic 
about  food  values  and  sanitation  and  methods  of  work,  she 
could  at  least  do  something  to  stimulate  an  employee,  espe- 
cially if  she  does  part  of  the  work  along  with  her.  Praise 
is  another  means  of  increasing  interest  and  skill  and  should 
be  often  given  when  it  is  deserved.  But  above  all,  the  mis- 
tress should  try  to  give  the  worker  room  to  develop  her 
initiative — the  one  practice  which  will  surely  increase  effi- 
ciency and  keep  up  the  worker's  interest  in  her  work. 

Far  too  many  mistresses  advertise  for  "responsible"  and 
efficient  help  and  then  surround  them  with  such  constant 
surveillance  and  hold  them  in  such  rigid  subordination  that 
the  worker  cannot  become  anything  but  a  mechanical  drudge. 
In  how  many  cases  does  not  the  mistress  always  want  the 
worker  to  do  things  "her  way"  ?  In  how  few  cases  does  she 
ever  allow  leeway  for  the  ability  of  the  worker  to  count? 
As  someone  has  said,  the  average  mistress  gives  her  worker 
"responsibility  without  authority."  Case  after  case  comes 
to  mind,  where  the  mistress  has  actually  killed  the  spirit  of 
the  worker  by  refusing  to  let  her  "have  her  head"  as  the 


saying  goes.  The  author  had  in  her  employ  for  a  number 
of  years  an  exceptional  Scandinavian  woman  who  made  this 
point  clear:  she  said  in  her  country,  when  a  mistress  em- 
ployed a  housekeeper  or  worker,  she  then  "put  it  up  to"  that 
worker  to  make  a  success  of  her  management.  But  in  this 
country,  the  American  homemaker  was  constantly  interfer- 
ing and  refusing  to  give  the  authority  sufficient  to  make  the 
woman  develop  her  best  effort.  And  the  author  has  herself 
found  that  the  really  capable  and  efficient  housekeeper  must 
be  allowed  to  develop  her  initiative,  to  create  and  to  have 
sufficient  independence  in  planning  her  own  work,  to  make 
her  happy  in  doing  it. 

There  are  some  exceptions,  but  as  a  rule  women  in 
the  home  are  exceedingly  poor  employers.  The  same 
housewife  who  flatters  herself  that  she  handles  her  house- 
workers  well  would  doubtless  not  be  given  the  position  of 
office  manager  or  factory  forewoman  by  any  manner  of 
means.  Also  there  creeps  in  at  this  point  the  old  prefer- 
ence that  many  women  have  for  working  for  men  employers 
rather  than  for  a  "woman  boss."  Part  of  this  may  be  due 
to  natural  sex  preference,  but  undoubtedly  part  is  also  due 
to  the  poorer  executive  which  the  average  mistress  really  is. 
When  one  hears  tales  of  the  petty  nagging  to  which  workers 
have  been  subjected,  the  interference  of  the  mistress  in  the 
worker's  private  affairs,  the  unnecessary  giving  her  work 
just  to  "keep  her  busy,"  it  is  small  wonder  that  women 
prefer  the  freer  regulations  of  modern  industry  where  most 
frequently  they  are  dictated  to  by  men. 


The  lack  of  bodily  comforts  often  mentioned  by  girls  who 
have  worked  in  homes  has  also  some  foundation.  There  are 
many  housewives  who  do  provide  sufficient  bedding  and  fur- 


nishings ;  yet  it  has  often  happened  that  the  room  devoted  to 
the  houseworker  is  generally  the  least  desirable  in  the  house, 
hot  in  summer  and  cold  in  winter,  furnished  with  cast-offs, 
or  is  the  attic  room,  devoid  of  any  attempt  at  decoration  or 
beauty.  The  housewife  may  say  in  defense  that  workers  do 
not  take  care  of  attractive  furnishings.  And  it  is  not  un- 
usual to  have  an  ignorant  Lithuanian  woman  who  never 
even  heard  of  built-in  plumbing  in  her  own  country,  demand 
a  private  bath  in  a  position  here.  Still,  it  must  be  remem- 
bered that  a  large  reason  why  the  servant  girl  so  much  fea- 
tured by  the  comic  papers,  looks  frowsy  and  untidy  is  be- 
cause she  has  neither  had  time  nor  opportunity  for  her 
personal  toilet.  If  a  housewife  wishes  to  have  the  worker 
neat  and  clean,  she  must  provide  the  means  of  realizing  it 
and  the  time  for  doing  it.  In  the  writer's  own  home  it  is 
plainly  stated  at  the  outset,  that  the  attractive  hangings  and 
bedspread  of  blue  figured  cretonne  will  be  taken  away  unless 
cared  for  and  the  room  kept  worthy  of  them. 

If  possible,  there  should  be  an  extra  bath  for  the  worker 
near  her  own  room  or  she  should  be  granted  the  use  of  the 
family  bath  at  certain  times.  In  all  service  portions  of  the 
house,  hardwood  or  composition  floors  insure  the  greatest 
sanitation.  A  single  size  enamel  bed  of  the  hospital  type  is 
most  suitable ;  and  it  has  been  found  that  blankets  which  can 
be  washed  frequently  or  with  each  change  of  occupant  are 
more  sanitary  than  padded  comforters.  Beside  adequate 
closet  space  a  worker  should  have  a  chiffonier,  table  or  desk 
and  comfortable  rocking  chair.  Generally,  it  is  best  to  have 
the  walls  of  light  colored  tones  of  paint  and  to  permit  each 
worker  to  "decorate"  her  room  as  she  prefers.  The  rooms 
of  all  workers  should  be  open  to  inspection  at  stated  times 
and  always  required  to  be  kept  neat. 

There   should   be,   if   possible,    some   provision    for   the 


worker's  meals,  other  than  snatching  a  "snack"  standing,  or 
cold  food  in  the  dining  room  after  the  family  meals  are  fin- 
ished. If  there  is  a  "dining  alcove"  in  the  kitchen,  as  de- 
scribed in  the  following  chapter,  that  solves  the  difficulty. 
If  not,  perhaps  one  can  be  arranged,  or  at  least  a  "drop  leaf" 
in  front  of  a  window,  preferably  away  from  a  view  of  the 
more  or  less  cluttered  kitchen.  If  the  family  is  not  too  large, 
the  worker's  hot  food  should  be  served  to  her  from  the 
dining  room.  From  the  standpoint  of  health  and  efficiency 
the  eating-on-the-run  habit  of  many  house  workers  must  be 

There  seems  to  be  no  reason  why  a  high  grade  worker 
should  not  take  at  least  the  noon  meal  of  informal  luncheon 
with  her  employer.  It  is  a  little  thing,  but  its  psychological 
influence  is  great.  Indeed,  in  many  families  there  is  no 
reason  why  the  intelligent  worker  should  not  sit  at  the 
same  table  at  least  part  of  the  time.  In  the  writer's  home, 
the  following  plan  is  followed  with  pleasant  results,  both 
to  the  dearly  beloved  "nursie"-housekeeper  and  the  children. 
Every  Friday  this  worker  has  time  off,  the  whole  after- 
noon, and  does  no  planning  or  work  whatever  toward  the 
evening  meal  on  that  day. 

It  is  the  children's  "cooking  day,"  and  as  soon  as  they 
come  home  from  school,  they  go  with  their  mother  into  the 
kitchen  to  prepare  the  supper.  Generally  each  child  is 
allowed  to  choose  the  dish  that  he  prefers  and  great  inter- 
est is  taken  in  vying  with  each  other.  At  the  supper  hour  the 
Housekeeper  is  called  and  sits  with  the  family  at  table,  being 
pleasantly  surprised  at  the  children's  efforts  and  enjoying 
a  meal  about  which  she  has  not  had  to  concern  herself.  This 
plan  trains  the  children  and  also  gives  a  personal  touch  to  the 
relation  to  the  houseworker. 

Then  there  ought  to  be  some  place  besides  the  kitchen 


where  the  houseworker  can  receive  her  men  callers.  This  is 
often  possible  when  the  right  is  not  granted.  In  large  house- 
holds, where  a  number  of  workers  are  employed,  a  servants' 
dining  and  sitting  room  is  usually  provided  and  sometimes  a 
porch.  To  keep  a  general  houseworker  nowadays,  condi- 
tions must  be  made  attractive,  and  the  "human  element"  re- 

All  the  foregoing  does  not  mean  that  the  houseworker 
shall  be  "coddled" — the  "servant  must  be  worthy  of  his  hire" 
— the  employer  has  a  right  to  faithful  service  and  must  insist 
that  it  be  given  with  dignified  firmness.  It  is  continual  petu- 
lant fault-finding  that  is  so  destructive  to  all  authority. 


"Housework  offers  fewer  chances  of  marriage,"  is  an- 
other objection  raised  by  the  girls  interviewed.  But  even 
this  can  be  overcome  if  provision  is  made  for  after  hours 
recreation  and  the  social  life  mentioned  above.  In  every 
case,  it  should  be  realized  that  a  short  period  of  employment 
as  a  household  worker  (in  a  well  organized  household)  will 
teach  her  habits  of  economy,  experience '  and  management 
which  she  will  later  find  exceedingly  valuable  in  conducting 
a  home  of  her  own.  As  soon  as  the  social  stigma  is  removed 
and  more  freedom  for  social  life  given,  there  is  no  reason 
why  the  worker  at  household  employment  should  not  meet 
and  attract  the  most  steady  young  men  starting  out  to  make 
their  way  just  as  they  do  and  have  done  for  years  in  the 
old  countries  of  Europe. 

Speaking  of  marriage  brings  up  the  point  of  wondering 
why  more  homes  do  not  avail  themselves  of  the  mature 
middle-aged  woman  or  widow  instead  of  the  young  "girl," 
as  has  been  done  in  the  past.  The  young  girl  naturally,  if 
unconsciously,  is  still  seeking  a  mate  and  this  makes  her 


more  eager  for  movies  and  other  city  amusements  where  she 
can  display  her  clothing  and  attract  the  opposite  sex,  while 
the  mature  woman,  possibly  a  widow,  with  certainly  more 
experience,  will  not  demand  such  amusements  so  constantly 
and  will  thus  make  the  problem  easier,  especially  for  the 
suburban  or  country  home. 

On  the  other  hand,  many  mature  women  apply  for  posi- 
tions, who  "kept  house  for  20  years,"  but  to  which  this  is  only 
a  handicap,  and  who  continually  lay  more  stress  on  the  home 
they  used  to  have,  the  social  position  they  once  held,  and 
whose  efficiency  does  not  warrant  their  boasts.  It  is  nearly 
always  the  case  that  such  applicants  have  had  "every  comfort 
in  their  own  home,"  and  the  difficult  point  seems  to  be  to 
make  them  feel  that  the  employer's  home  is  as  superior  as 
what  they  were  accustomed  to.  Indeed,  the  author  has  had 
in  her  employ  several  able  and  refined  married  women,  all  of 
whom  have  had  more  "elegant"  homes  and  more  "handsome 
husbands"  than  the  author  ever  has  had  or  ever  hopes  to  have ! 

Mature  women  of  the  right  type  always  are  more  respon- 
sible and  dependable.  There  are  two  chief  points  to  be  con- 
sidered in  selecting  them ;  first,  they  may  be  those  who  have 
had  their  own  comfortable  homes  and  who  will  feel  very 
sensitive  if  the  contrast  between  their  former  position  as 
superior  and  their  present  one  as  subordinate,  is  too  keenly 
made.  In  other  words,  mature  workers  must  be  "handled" 
differently  from  young  girls;  if  competent,  she  should  be 
the  "housekeeper."  And  second,  the  mature  woman,  with 
experience  which  would  be  intensely  valuable  to  her  em- 
ployer, often  does  not  have  the  strength  to  do  the  rougher 
kinds  of  work.  The  combination  to  make  here  then  is  to 
hire  a  mature  woman  for  efficiency,  responsibility  and  man- 
agement and  to  have  the  rough  and  harder  work  done  by  a 
day  worker. 


In  a  somewhat  wide  experience,  the  author  feels  it  is  safe 
to  say  that  no  woman  over  50  should  be  taken  for  active 
housework.  But  women  between  35  and  50  are  excellent 
as  housekeepers,  children's  nurse  or  any  executive  capacity, 
while  the  active  work  should  be  done  by  those  between  the 
ages  of  20  and  35. 

There  are  also  numbers  of  women  with  children  who  offer 
the  most  permanent  dependable  kind  of  help,  especially  for 
the  suburbanite  or  in  families  with  other  children.  Such  a 
woman,  having  her  own  child  with  her,  will  be  less  lonely  and 
more  satisfied  away  from  city  amusements,  and  also  more 
responsible  with  children.  In  pay  they  receive  from  $10  to 
$15  less  per  month  than  a  worker  doing  the  same  work, 
without  a  child.  Such  workers  may  be  secured  from  the 
Children's  Aid  Bureaus  or  Mother  and  Child  Department  of 
City  Charities  and  other  social  organizations.  Here  the  only 
problem  is  to  allow  the  mother  to  discipline  her  own  child 
and  to  allow  in  the  work  schedule  sufficient  time  for  her  to 
clean  and  bathe  the  child  as  well  as  herself. 


There  are  two  most  common  ways  of  securing  labor  for 
the  home.  One,  the  use  of  a  commercial  employment  agency, 
and  the  other,  inserting  advertisements  in  local  newspapers 
or  nearby  metropolitan  papers.  Mistresses  should  know  the 
advantages  of  each  method.  The  employment  agency  is  at 
present  operated  by  private  individuals,  who  in  return  for  a 
fee  put  those  desiring  help  in  touch  with  applicants.  The 
agency  is  supposed  to  be  responsible  or  to  guarantee  the 
honesty  of  the  workers  and  looks  up  references  of  past 
employers  as  to  efficiency.  In  most  agencies,  however,  no 
faith  at  all  can  be  put  in  this  kind  of  reference.  Also,  since 
the  agency  receives  a  fee  from  the  applicant  when  she  reg- 


isters,  as  well  as  from  the  mistress,  it  can  easily  be  seen  that 
it  is  to  the  advantage  of  the  agency  to  have  workers  change 
positions  as  often  as  possible ! 

The  one  advantage  the  agency  offers  is  the  chance  to  inter- 
view many  applicants  quickly  and  at  once.  But  anyone  who 
has  sat  for  an  hour  in  the  typical  employment  office  only 
becomes  sickened  both  at  the  casualness  with  which  mis- 
tresses engage  workers  and  at  the  class  of  labor  offered. 

Even  when  an  agency  cannot  secure  and  says  there  are  no 
workers  for  a  position,  it  is  possible  to  secure  a  much  higher 
grade  of  worker  by  inserting  a  well  written  ad.  The  fee  of 
the  agency  ranges  from  $2  to  $5  for  each  worker,  allowing 
one  month  of  service,  or  if  the  worker  leaves  before  that 
time  the  agency  will  replace.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  in  the 
improvement  in  social  and  industrial  relationships  the  private 
agency  will  be  changed  into  some  form  of  municipally  oper- 
ated agency,  run  at  cost ;  or  it  has  always  been  the  writer's 
thought  that  the  women's  clubs  all  over  the  country  should 
supervise  locally  run  employment  agencies  and  insist  on 
higher  standards  of  work  and  more  dignity  among  the  mis- 
tresses in  regard  to  housework  as  a  profession.  It  seems 
futile  for  women's  clubs  to  discuss  "Browning"  and  the 
"early  Aztec  pottery,"  while  they  neglect  to  solve  or  make 
any  progress  in  the  great  problem  of  woman  as  an  employer 
of  labor  in  the  home ;  or  hard  to  understand  how  they  can 
reconcile  their  extreme  solicitude  for  securing  an  8-hour  day 
and  the  highest  working  conditions  for  the  labor  of  women 
in  industry  and  outside  occupations,  with  their  refusal  to 
conduct  their  own  personal  homes  so  as  to  conform  to  such 
fair  demands. 

As  was  pointed  out,  generally  a  higher  grade  of  labor  can 
be  secured  through  a  newspaper  advertisement  in  the  classi- 
fied section.  The  following  advertisement,  based  on  an 


8-hour  day  is  said  to  have  brought  120  replies  at  each  time 
of  insertion: 

WANTED — A  young  woman  to  do  light  housework,  8  hours  a 
day,  6  days  a  week,  sleep  home.    Apply  by  letter  only. 

Another  excellent  advertisement  is : 

WANTED — Dependable,  efficient  household  helper,  treated  as 
family,  good  wages,  advancement.  Apply  Mrs.  Smith,  River- 
view,  N.  J. 

Much  more  can  be  learned  by  studying  the  applicant's  face 
and  appearance  than  by  reading  the  dingy  "recommenda- 
tions" she  carries  folded  in  her  pocket-book.  Previous  em- 
ployers should  be  phoned  or  written  to  and  questioned,  espe- 
cially in  regard  to  honesty  and  habits. 

Another  alternative  is  to  secure  through  advertising  or 
otherwise  an  assistant  of  one's  own  education  and  social 
standing  and  make  her  one  of  the  family,  sharing  family 
meals  and  other  activities,  like  the  farmer's  daughter  who 
acts  as  "help"  for  a  neighbor.  It  would  simplify  matters  to 
adopt  her,  for  the  time  being,  as  distant  niece,  cousin  or 
aunt,  and  keep  the  matter  confidential.  In  such  a,  case  it  is 
especially  needful  that  there  be  a  trial  period  and  a  detailed, 
written  agreement  as  to  duties.  The  ad  might  read : 

"Competent  high  school  graduate  of  good  family,  between  18 
and  20,  wanted  as  mother's  helper  in  the  home  of  a  domestic 
science  graduate,  to  share  family  meals  and  have  the  status  of  a 
relative.  Convenient  and  attractive  suburban  house.  Salary 
$25.00  per  month,  with  increase  up  to  $35.00.  Send  small  photo." 

"WANTED — Working  housekeeper  between  35  and  40,  normal 
or  high  school  graduate,  to  be  one  of  a  family  of  6,  two  small 
children.  Large,  comfortable  room,  no  heavy  work.  Salary 
$35.00  per  month.  Give  education,  experience,  and  send  photo." 

The  success  of  such  an  arrangement  depends,  of  course, 
on  the  personalities  and  temperaments  of  the  worker  and  the 
employer,  and  requires  tact  and  forbearance  on  both  sides. 


It  is  one  way  out  of  the  difficulty  if  resident  help  must  be 
kept.  There  are  many  thousands  of  women  everywhere  who 
want  and  need  to  earn  money  and  who  would  prefer  domestic 
work  under  the  right  conditions. 


One  of  the  chief  requisites  to  success  in  all  management 
of  labor,  is  a  clear  understanding  at  the  outset  of  the  duties 
required,  time  off  and  pay.  It  is  a  good  plan  to  have  written 
down  in  black  and  white  in  duplicate  what  is  expected  and 
to  read  it  to  the  worker  and  secure  her  approval  before  en- 
gaging her  permanently.  Too  often  mistresses  engage  a 
worker, -glossing  over  some  of  the  work  they  expect  done, 
and  then  later  resent  the  fact  that  the  worker  is  unwilling  to 
do  it.  As  many  of  the  specified  points  should  be  made  clear 
as  possible,  as  for  instance  : 

(1)  Hours  of  rising. 

(2)  Hours  of  work. 

(3)  Hours  and  time  off. 

(4)  Extras  for  which  extra  pay  is  given. 

(5)  Pay,  whether  monthly  or  weekly. 

(6)  Amount  of  notice  required  before  leaving. 

(7)  Whether  medical  care  is  paid   for  by  mistress   or 


(8)  Understanding  as  to  the  care  of  the  baby  or  young 


(9)  Understanding  in  regard  to  breakage. 

(10)  Complete  list  of  detailed  duties. 

The  more  definite  the  understanding  at  the  beginning,  the 
less  likelihood  there  will  be  of  friction  later.  In  regard  to 
the  wages,  it  should  always  be  specified  as  "two  weeks  notice 
given,  or  wages  forfeited  before  leaving  and  two  weeks'  pay 
or  notice  given  on  discharge,"  or  even  a  month's  notice.  It  is 



usually  advisable  to  take  a  worker  on  a  week  or  two  weeks' 
trial,  during  which  time  it  will  be  seen  if  the  position  is 
mutually  satisfactory. 


One  of  the  best  methods  of  securing  definiteness  in  the 
execution  of  orders  is  to  prepare  a  Worker's  Manual,  for 
the  particular  household.  Any  typist  will  make  a  couple  of 
copies  of  these  rules  for  a  small  sum.  The  idea  is  to  write 
or  paste  in  such  a  book  the  "standard  practice"  of  the  house- 
hold, so  that  a  worker  can  most  easily  know  what  she  is  to 
do  and  when  it  is  to  be  done.  The  headings  of  such  a  book 
might  include : 


How  to  Prepare  for  Cooking. 

How  to  Clear  Up. 

How  to  Make  Bread. 

How  to  Wash  Dishes. 

How  to  Set  and  Clear  the  Table. 

How  to   Serve  Breakfast,  Din- 

ner, Supper. 
How  to  Operate  and   Care   for 

the  Kitchen  Stove. 
How  to  Care  for  and  Where  to 

Store  Supplies. 
When  Tradesmen  Call. 


How  to  Clean  Living  Room, 
Chambers,  Bath,  Kitchen. 

How  to  Clean  Porches,  etc. 

How  to  Clean  Windows  and 

How  to  Polish  Silver. 

How  to  Clean  Refrigerator. 

How  to  Change  and  Make  Beds. 

How  to  Fill  and  Clean  Lamps. 

How  to  Manage  and   Care   for 
Washing  Machine  and  Wringer. 
How  to  Do  the  Washing. 
How  to  Do  the  Ironing. 
How  to  Care  for  and  Where  to 

Store  Tools. 

Practice  in  Spring  Cleaning. 
Inventory  of  Linen,  Silver,  Glass, 


In  other  words,  the  Worker's  Manual  aims  to  set  down  in 
black  and  white  the  directions  which  otherwise  the  mistress 
will  constantly  be  giving  and  reminding  about.  If  the  col- 
lars and  shirts  are  called  for  Friday  and  this  day  is  set  down 
in  the  Manual,  then  the  worker  will  have  less  danger  of 
forgetting  them  and  the  mistress  less  need  of  dictating  about 


them.  Each  household  has  special  -rules  which  can  be  thus 
systematized,  made  simple  and  put  into  the  hands  of  the 
worker  that  she  may  read  and  follow. 


While  the  average  mistress  may  employ  only  one  or  two 
servants,  it  is  well  for  her  to  know  distinctions  of  work 
which  have  come  to  be  generally  accepted  as  follows: 

Cook — Prepare  meals  for  family  or  other  servant,  keep 
kitchen  and  pantries  clean,  sometimes  do  own  laundry. 

Kitchen  Maid — Under  cook,  prepares  vegetables  and  does 
rougher  work  of  kitchen  and  pantry  cleaning. 

Waitress — Serves  meals  to  family,  possibly  preparing 
salads,  etc.  Washes  family  dishes  in  Butler's  Pantry 
and  sometimes  has  the  duties  of  a  parlor  maid. 

Parlor  Maid — Cares  for  cleaning  and  dusting  of  first  floor, 
answering  door,  etc. 

Chambermaid — Making  beds,  cleaning  bath,  also  mending. 
Sometimes  combined  with  child's  nurse. 

Child's  Nurse  or  Mother's  Helper — Care  of  young  chil- 
dren, washing  their  garments,  mending  and  sewing. 

General  Houseworker — (If  not  extinct)  combines  duties 
of  plain  cook,  cleaning  and  chamber  work. 

Managing  Housekeeper — Oversees  other  servants,  in  large 
household,  markets,  has  full  charge  over  food,  linens 
and  house  in  general ;  keeps  account.  Does  no  manual 

Working  Housekeeper — Buys  and  markets  and  has  some 
responsibility,  but  also  does  cooking  and  other  work  in 
small  family. 

No  men  servants  are  included  in  this  list,  because  men 
employees  are  generally  employed  in  only  the  wealthiest 


homes;  they  consist  of  butler,  second  man,  foot  man, 
chauffeur,  etc. 

In  such  home,  with  three  or  more  employees,  the  mistress 
has  the  opportunity  to  show  what  she  can  do  as  a  real  busi- 
ness executive.  Or  the  same  problems  confront  the  house- 
keeper in  a  sanitarium,  club  or  other  large  establishment 
where  she  has  several  working  under  her.  In  order  to  be 
successful  she  must  remember  first  and  always  to  be  fair, 
to  apportion  each  employee's  work  so  that  the  work  is 
evenly  distributed  and  each  "carries  his  own  weight,"  rather 
than  that  one  employee  is  shown  partiality  at  the  expense  of 

Further,  the  manager  of  many  people  must  have:  (i) 
Clear  plans  as  to  what  she  wants  done;  (2)  Be  absolutely 
specific  in  issuing  those  instructions  and  commands;  (3) 
See  that  the  orders  are  executed.  Nothing  makes  for  fric- 
tion so  much  as  a  misunderstanding  of  orders.  For  this 
reason  the  orders  should  be  clear  in  the  manager's  own  mind 
first,  and  after  she  has  given  them  she  must  not  change  them. 
Again,  she  should  try  to  find  out  the  peculiar  failings  or 
excellencies  of  each  worker  and  the  stimulus  which  will 
cause  each  to  do  better,  more  efficient  work.  She  should 
understand  that  there  are  broadly  two  types  of  minds,  the 
"detail"  worker,  who  is  excellent  at  the  small  repeated  tasks, 
but  who  has  little  judgment,  initiative  or  power  to  take  re- 
sponsibility. The  second  class  is  more  of  the  "executive" 
type  of  mind,  those  who  generally  dislike  detail  and  routine, 
but  who  can  be  relied  upon  to  act  in  emergencies  or  take 
charge  and  carry  plans  through.  The  more  the  manager  or 
employer  learns  to  understand  these  two  types  and  give  them 
the  work  that  is  suited  to  each,  the  more  successful  she 
will  be  as  an  executive. 

Frequently,  in  a  large  household  it  is  wisest  to  secure 


workers  all  of  one  nationality,  or  one  religion,  so  that  there 
will  be  more  harmony.  For  instance,  if  all  workers  are 
Irish  and  Catholic,  they  are  likely  to  be  more  congenial  than 
one  of  this  faith  and  country  thrown  with  another  of  Scan- 
dinavian and  Protestant  origin.  While  there  are  exceptions, 
it  seems  to  be  true  that  workers  of  these  nationalities  have 
the  following  characteristics  :  Irish  (good  hearted  but  often 
untidy,  inefficient,  little  responsibility).  Scotch-English 
(great  dependability,  sense  of  duty,  well  trained).  German 
(thrifty,  hard-working,  capable  of  much  manual  work). 
Scandinavian  (self-reliant,  sometimes  tricky,  often  extrava- 
gant, excellent  as  laundresses  and  cleaners).  Polish-Lithua- 
nian, etc.  (emotional,  little  responsibility,  inefficient,  but 
frequently  good  cooks).  Italian  (not  dependable  or  take 
responsibility,  sloppy  at  work,  but  thrifty  and  excellent 
cooks).  French  (very  neat,  thrifty  cooks  and  sewers,  some- 
times unreliable  or  looking  to  their  own  interest,  but  excel- 
lent managers;  not  capable  of  heavy  work). 

There  is  a  constantly  increasing  demand  for  trained  house- 
keepers in  sanitariums,  hotels,  clubs  and  semi-private  estab- 
lishments. There  is  also  a  great  demand  for  housekeepers 
in  Y.  W.  C.  A.  and  similar  social  agencies.  Such  a  person 
should  have  the  experience  of  actual  practical  work,  and  be 
able  to  do  any  branch  of  housekeeping  in  case  there  is  such 
a  necessity.  But  in  addition  she  is  supposed  to  have  the 
executive  responsibility,  and  to  buy  foods,  running  her  ac- 
counts on  a  budget  system,  arranging  meals  and  overseeing 
servants  under  her.  Such  positions  demand  exceptional 
ability,  coupled  with  training,  and  above  all,  the  knowledge 
of  handling  subordinates.  The  task  can  be  compared  to 
the  position  of  sales  manager  or  office  manager  in  the  busi- 
ness world.  Such  positions  pay  fairly  well,  not  usually  any 
more  than  the  position  of  housekeeper  in  a  wealthy  private 


home.  Any  position  of  executive  housekeeper  demands 
good  appearance  and  intelligence.  There  are  many  women 
who  have  had  practical  experience  in  their  own  home,  who 
could  easily  with  a  little  training  qualify  for  such  resident 
institutional  positions.  They  must  know  food  values,  cuts 
of  meat,  marketing  and  arranging  of  meals,  economical  buy- 
ing of  equipment  and  supplies,  and  usually  have  knowledge 
of  laundry,  cleaning,  sewing  and  care  of  linen. 

In  closing  this  chapter  it  may  be  said  that  much  of  the  solu- 
tion of  the  "servant  problem"  rests  with  the  mistress,  and 
that  it  lies  in  her  hands  to  become  the  fair-minded  modern 
employer  instead  of  remaining  the  capricious  medieval  mis- 
tress. Only  by  this  adjustment  and  by  doing  all  in  her  power 
to  make  the  conditions  surrounding  housework  on  a  par  with 
the  conditions  surrounding  other  work,  will  she  be  able  or 
should  she  expect  to  secure  and  retain  high-grade  women  to 
give  her  efficiency  and  loyalty  in  the  management  of  her 


1.  If  you  were  compelled  through  circumstances  to   earn 

your  living  as  a  houseworker,  what  sort  of  treatment 
would  you  expect  from  your  employer?  How  much 

2.  Give  a  general  daily  schedule  of  what  you  would  expect 

from  a  worker  and  show  the  total  time  per  week. 

3.  What   success   have  you  had    (or  know   of)    in  giving 

bonuses  with  the  purpose  of  keeping  houseworkers  ? 
(b)  What  result  for  giving  extra  pay  for  extra  work? 

4.  Under  present  conditions  and  wages  figure  the  cost  per 

hour  for  a  resident  worker,  taking  account  of  the 
extra  cost  of  food,  fuel,  light,  laundry,  breakage,  wear 
and  tear. 

5.  With  what  ideas  in  the  text  do  you  disagree? 





TO  HAVE  a  "home  of  one's  own"  is  the  universal  ideal, 
yet  no  two  ideal  homes  would  be  identical.  Just  as 
was  shown  in  consideration  of  the  subject  of  Budget- 
Making,  how  the  "budget"  must  be  adapted  to  the  individ- 
ual family,  so  the  home  must  conform  as  nearly  as  possible 
to  the  needs  and  aims  of  the  particular  family  dwelling  in  it. 
The  question  "What  is  a  Home?"  may  well  be  asked  and 
answered  before  going  on  with  definite  suggestions  for  home 
planning.  Is  the  home  merely  a  shelter  where  the  material 
needs  of  eating  and  sleeping  can  be  satisfied?  Or  must  not 
the  home  also  provide  for  the  educational,  ethical  and  aes- 
thetic needs  of  mind  and  spirit?  Truly  the  efficient  home 
must  be  built  to  cover  the  educational  and  spiritual  demands 
equally  with  the  practical  demands  of  a  house.  To  illustrate, 
the  efficient  home  must  be  so  built  as  to  help  people,  espe- 
cially children,  develop  the  greatest  health,  and  the  best  char- 
acter and  possibilities  in  them,  i.  e.,  provision  for  music,  a 
play  room,  or  work  benches  for  a  growing  boy,  are  even 
more  important  than  hardwood  floors,  laundry  chutes  or  a 
tile  bath.  A  "den"  for  father  or  a  "business  corner"  for 
mother  may  conduce  to  broader  development  than  the  same 
amount  of  floor  space  added  to  the  size  of  a  parlor,  unused 
except  for  company. 




There  is  then  a  sharp  distinction  between  "home  planning" 
and  "house  planning."  The  most  up-to-date,  most  labor- 
saving  and  most  beautiful  house  might  truly  be  a  failure  as 
a  "home"  unless  it  provided  also  for  the  higher  interest's 
of  the  family,  and  was  especially  adapted  to  the  needs 
of  the  particular  family  using  it. 

The  requirements  of  a  normal  family  of  parents  and  sev- 
eral children  for  a  truly  efficient  home  may  be  summarized 
as  follows: 

1.  Privacy  given  by  adequate  grounds,  shrubbery  and  in- 
terior arrangement. 

2.  Desirable   "exposure"   for  light  and   sunshine  in  the 
most  important  rooms. 

3.  Interior  arrangement — compact,  labor-saving,  easy-to- 
care-for  surfaces  and  furnishings ;  rooms  for  collective  en- 
joyment and  for  individual  privacy  and  work. 

4.  Pleasing  exterior  of  harmonious  color  and  line ;  mate- 
rial and  construction  maximum  fireproof  and  weatherproof. 

5.  High-grade  plumbing ;  restful  lighting ;  adequate,  clean 

6.  Built-in  conveniences ;  adequate  storage  for  food,  fuel, 
clothing,  etc. 

7.  Low  operating  cost;  low  upkeep  and  repairs. 


Privacy  is  one  of  the  most  desirable  ends  expected  in  the 
individual  home,  and  the  one  quality  that  chiefly  distin- 
guishes the  home  from  a  hotel,  boarding  house  or  any  cooper- 
ative living  plan.  Adequate  lot  or  grounds  and  concealing 
shrubbery  will  partly  secure  this ;  but  the  house  construc- 
tion itself  affects  the  amount  of  privacy  or  lack  of  it.  By 
the  use  of  many  windows  of  the  wide  "plate  glass"  type  it 
often  happens  that  the  occupants  of  rooms  are  always  visible 


from  the  street.  Now  even  more  air  and  more  light  would 
be  secured  if  the  windows  were  placed  closer  to  the  ceiling 
with  higher  sills,  which  would  at  the  same  time  insure  more 
privacy.  The  function  of  windows  is  to  let  in  light  and  air, 
but  they  should  be  so  placed  or  grouped  as  to  give  seclusion 
to  the  inmates  at  the  same  time. 

The  common  "double  hung"  plate  glass  window  permits 
only  half  the  window  opening  to  be  used  for  air,  is  often 
ugly  in  line,  and  prevents  privacy.  There  should  be  a  greater 
use  of  casement  windows.  These  permit  the  whole  opening 
to  be  used  for  air,  have  higher  sills,  and  in  many  ways  are 
more  atractive.  The  casement-opening-out  type  is  somewhat 
more  weatherproof  than  the  type  opening  in,  and  it  does 
not  take  up  room  space  when  opened ;  its  disadvantage  is  that 
the  screens  must  be  on  the  inside,  but  there  are  various  fix- 
tures on  the  market  for  opening  the  windows  while  the 
screens  are  in  place;  it  is  also  more  difficult  to  clean,  as 
the  washing  must  be  done  from  the  outside.  Casements 
which  open  in  should  be  used  above  the  first  floor. 

When  the  climate  is  very  warm  or  very  cold,  the  windows 
must  be  small  to  protect  against  excessive  heat  or  cold,  but 
in  the  temperate  climate  of  our  country,  and  with  modern 
efficient  heating  plants,  the  windows  may  be  large  or  many. 
Indeed,  the  tendency  of  present  American  architecture  is  to 
let  in  more  light  and  air  by  the  use  of  numerous  windows. 
The  "sun  porch"  or  "sun  parlor"  is  usually  the  most  popular 
and  attractive  room  in  the  house. 

Many  windows  increase  the  cost  of  heating  somewhat  but 
with  later  types  of  "window  strips"  or  the  less  desirable 
double  windows,  comfort  may  be  had  even  in  cold  weather, 
and  health  and  cheer  of  sunshine  retained. 

Porches  should  be  planned  for  privacy  and  preferably 
should  not  face  directly  on  the  street  nor  be  connected  with 
the  main  entrance.  Any  one  who  has  noticed  a  typical 



"row"  of  American  houses,  with  all  porches  adjacent,  filled 
with  rocking,  gossiping  people,  will  recognize  that  such  an 
arrangement  does  not  make  for  privacy. 


The  most  desirable  "exposure"  or  the  relation  of  the  prin- 
cipal rooms  to  the  points  of  the  compass  and  sunshine  is  the 
most  important  consideration  in  the  arrangement  of  rooms 
in  house  planning.  It  often  happens  that  a  house  plan  is 
selected  having  attractive  and  convenient  arrangement  of 
rooms  which  was  designed  for  an  entirely  different  "ex- 
posure." The  diagram  showing  the  sun's  path  in  summer 
and  winter  will  make  the  following  points  clear :  In  the  win- 
ter time  in  the  northern  hemisphere,  the  sun  rises  south  of 
east  and  sets  south  of  west,  so  that  rooms  having  only  north 
windows  will  get  no  sunshine  whatever  throughout  the  day. 
South  windows  will  receive  sunshine  all  day  long,  east  win- 
dows sunshine  in  the  morning  and  west  windows  in  the  after- 
noon. In  midsummer  the  sun  rises  north  of  east  and  sets 
north  of  west  so  that  all  rooms  will  get  sunshine  part  of  the 
day.  The  hot  afternoon  sun  of  summer  is  not  desirable. 

In  midwinter  the  sun  at  noon  is  only  a  third  the  way  up 
from  the  horizon  to  the  zenith  and  the  slanting  rays  will 
not  be  cut  off  by  overhanging  eaves  or  projections.  In  mid- 
summer the  sun  is  nearly  overhead  at  noon  and  eaves  will 
protect  the  windows  from  the  glare  of  the  midday  sun. 

The  prevailing  cooling  breezes  in  our  eastern  states  on 
hot  summer  days  are  from  the  south  and  west,  so  that  a 
southern  exposure  is  warmest  in  winter  and  coolest  in  sum- 
mer, and  is  altogether  the  most  favorable  exposure. 

The  following,  then,  are  the  best  exposures  for  the  various 
rooms : 

I.  Living  room — south  will  give  sunshine  and  warmth  in 
winter  and  comfort  in  summer. 



Nos.    1,  2,  3  and  4  Essentially  the   Same  House 



2.  Dining  room — east  will  give  cheery  morning  sun  at  break- 

fast, winter  and  summer.  West  undesirable,  because 
the  level  rays  of  the  setting  sun  give  discomfort  at  the 
evening  meal. 

3.  Kitchen — north  and  east  will  be  cool,  cheery  and  not  too 

hot  and  sunny  for  afternoon  work. 

4.  Living  porch — east,  southeast  or  northeast — not  west,  as 

that  brings  the  full  hot  sun  in  the  afternoon,  just  at  the 





time  when  home  maker  and  friends  have  leisure  for 
porch  recreation. 

5.  Bed  rooms — any  exposure  except  entirely  west  or  full 

north,  which  are  too  hot,  or  too  cheerless,  respectively. 

6.  Sleeping  porch — west  or  south,  not  east,  as  early  morning 

sun  makes  sleeping  after  sunrise  difficult;  north,  too 
much  exposed  to  winter  winds. 

The  ideal  sun  plan  of  a  rectangular  house  with  four  rooms 
on  the  first  floor  will  have  the  living  room  in  the  southwest 



corner,  the  dining  room  in  the  southeast  corner,  the  kitchen 
in  the  northeast  corner,  and  the  den,  library  or  parlor  in  the 
northwest  corner.  The  natural  tendency  is  to  place  the 
living  rooms  facing  the  street  and  kitchen  and  dining  room  in 
the  rear,  but  this  is  not  always  desirable  on  a  lot  facing 
north.  The  sketches  of  practically  the  same  house  show  how 
the  rooms  should  be  arranged  on  lots  facing  the  four  points 
of  the  compass.  It  is  not  so  simple  to  design  an  attractive 






-^  ^^i^ij-IE  OF  ^Uti!s  R.AYS 

j^r^AJ         <S          AT  NOON  OF 

I/         LONGEST  DAY 


UTJ  MJH  IN  WINTER.    /  -^ 

r  /  ^'\ 





house  with  the  kitchen  and  dining  room  on  the  street,  but 
it  can  be  done. 

When  the  ideal  sun  plan  does  not  seem  practicable,  modi- 
fications can  be  made  which  will  help ;  for  example,  a  north 
dining  room  may  have  a  projecting  portion  with  a  window 
which  will  catch  the  morning  sun;  west  porches  may  be 
shaded  by  trees  or  awnings.  Again,  if  the  outlook  or  view  is 
particularly  attractive  in  any  one  direction,  it  may  be  better 
to  modify  the  plan  with  this  in  mind.  Houses  on  diagonal 


streets  can  have  a  more  favorable  sun  plan  than  those  placed 
straight  north  and  south  or  east  and  west. 


From  all  practical  points  of  view  the  house  of  masonry 
has  advantages  over  other  materials.  Either  brick,  stone 
and  stucco  or  "hollow  tile"  make  the  most  permanent,  sat- 
isfactory houses  from  the  modern  viewpoint.  All  of  these 
materials  are  more  fireproof,  more  sanitary  and  need  less 
repair  and  upkeep  than  timber.  Although  the  house  built  of 
timber  may  be  attractive,  today  the  cost  of  lumber  makes 
the  wood  house  nearly  as  expensive  as  that  of  more  fireproof 
material,  and  the  wood  (particularly  in  the  case  of  shingles) 
is  not  of  so  sturdy  or  lasting  a  quality  as  the  wood  which 
entered  into  the  building  of  many  houses  still  standing,  built 
a  century  or  more  ago.  The  cement  or  stucco  house  on  wood 
frame  is  not  much  more  fireproof  than  an  all-wood  house, 
but  has  the  advantage  of  permanent  exterior  finish. 

From  the  appearance  point  of  view  the  stucco  house  can 
be  made  more  attractive  by  the  quality  or  roughness  and 
handling  of  the  material  as  it  is  applied.  It  should  also  be 
so  colored  as  to  be  more  interesting  and  harmonious  and  less 
like  stiff,  gray  cardboard. 

The  "style"  or  type  of  house  can  only  be  decided  by  per- 
sonal taste,  climate,  etc.  All  that  can  be  said  here  is  that  it 
would  be  much  better  to  use  a  given  sum  of  money  in  achiev- 
ing a  small  house  well  than  in  attempting  a  larger  or  more 
elaborate  house  unsuccessfully.  Generally  speaking,  these 
ideals  should  be  realized  in  exterior  construction : 

I.  The  house  should  harmonize  with  the  surroundings  and 
seem  to  be  an  integral  part  of  them ;  i.  e.,  low,  flat  ground 
needs  low  roofed  houses,  not  "castle"  effects.  The  house 
must  be  "tied  down"  to  the  ground  on  which  it  rests  first, 
by  means  of  the  right  construction  line  of  roof,  etc.,  and 


second,  by  the  means  of  shrubbery,  lattice  or  other  means 
to  this  end. 

2.  The  type  of  house  must  be  kept  "true"  throughout — 
"English"  type  must  not  be  confused  with  a  "Swiss"  porch, 
or  an  "Italian"  villa  with  construction  features  which  are 
clearly  "Colonial" ;  otherwise  the  house  will  have  a  confused, 
inharmonious  appearance.     The  advice  of  a  good  architect 
is  needed  here. 

3.  Absence  of  unnecessary  juts,  scroll  or  stone  work,  spar- 
ing of  bays  and  angles.     Straight  walls  are  less  expensive 
to  build,  appear  better  and  enable  the  heating  arrangement 
to  be  placed  more  satisfactorily. 

4.  The  color  plans,  whether  paint,  masonry  or  stucco, 
should  be  pleasing,  and  as  much  as  possible  blended  or  in 
harmony  with  the  adjoining  houses  and  the  feeling  of  the 


What  needs  must  be  met  which  affect  the  arrangement  of 
the  rooms  in  any  house?  There  seems  to  be  two  broad  de- 
mands :  First,  rooms  large  enough  and  suited  to  collective 
group-living  and  enjoyment ;  and  second,  rooms  suited  to  pri- 
vate or  individual  comfort  and  development.  With  these 
two  demands  in  view  we  see  that  every  house  should  have  at 
least  one  room  large  enough  for  a  group  of  twelve  people 
to  be  comfortably  entertained.  Such  a  room  is  the  living 
room,  which  should  be  in  size  varying  from  12  by  18  to 
1 6  by  30  feet,  which  will  give  floor  space  sufficient  for  the 
dancing  of  young  people,  for  a  meeting  or  social  gathering 
without  crowding. 

Having  the  second  demand  in  view,  we  find  there  are  many 
times  when  not  all  the  family  cares  to  be  a  part  of  the  one 
large  group,  but  some  members  would  prefer  to  be  quiet  or 
by  themselves.  This  brings  up  the  need  for  a  second  or 



smaller  room,  which  may  be  a  "den,"  sitting  room  or  library. 
Many  are  the  occasions  when  a  group  of  young  folks  wish 
to  use  the  living  room  and  when,  if  there  were  no  extra 
small  den  on  the  first  floor,  the  parents  would  have  no  alter- 
native but  share  the  noise  of  the  young  people  or  else,  go 
upstairs  to  a  bedroom.  Again,  there  are  many  times  when 
the  home  maker  is  entertaining  guests  in  the  living  room 
when  it  would  be  convenient  to  have  other  members  of 
the  family,  particularly  the  children,  in  a  room  by  themselves. 
In  families  with  small  children  this  second  room  could  be 
most  conveniently  a  play  room,  or  combined  sewing  room 
and  play  room.  The  one  large  living  room  and  smaller  sit- 
ting room  are  thus  the  two  essential  rooms  which  must  be 
planned  for  in  the  efficient  house. 


Why  a  separate  dining  room  in  the  small  family  home? 
Only  about  three  hours  of  the  day  are  spent  here — does-  this 
amount  of  time  justify  the  special  room?  If  a  family  has 
plenty  of  building  space  and  money,  no  fault  can  be  found 
with  the  separate  dining  room;  but  a  combination  living- 
dining  room  seems  the  more  efficient  arrangement  in  the 
small,  moderate  cost  home.  The  combined  living-dining 
room  is  not  a  theory,  but  has  been  successfully  and  prac- 
tically applied  in  many  homes.  The  eating  portion  of  the 
room  can  be  separated  by  French  or  folding  doors,  or  by  a 
screen.  A  set  of  four  doors  instead  of  two,  which  fold 
back  on  themselves  will  give  privacy  to  the  dining  portion 
and  yet  permit  the  dining  and  living  room  to  be  used  as  one. 
It  is  most  delightful  to  have  family  meals  in  summer  on 
screened  porch,  which  may  be  glassed  in  for  winter  use. 
Then  there  is  the  popular  dining  alcove  off  the  kitchen, 
which  further  lessens  the  need  of  a  separate  dining  room. 
If  there  must  be  a  choice  between  giving  up  the  individual 

Rear  of  Hous^  with  Glazed  and  Screened  Living  Porch  Below  and  Sleeping 
Porch  Above 


dining  room  and  giving  up  the  small  den  on  the  first  floor,  by 
all  means  let  the  dining  room  be  omitted,  rather  than  forego 
the  small  separate  "withdrawing  room." 


Although  the  plan  of  the  single  large  living  room  or  living- 
dining  room  is  excellent,  it  must  be  carried  out  with  restric- 
tions. For  instance,  many  plans  of  inexpensive  houses  have 
the  main  staircase  ascend  directly  from  the  living  room 
and  have  the  front  door  open  directly  into  the  living  room. 
There  are  serious  disadvantages  to  both  these  popular  plans. 
In  the  no-vestibule  plan,  opening  of  the  front  door  brings 
in  a  large  quantity  of  cold  air,  slush  and  mud  in  bad  weather ; 
also  a  guest  entering  has  no  private  place  to  remove  wraps, 
or  again,  it  often  proves  awkward  or  unpleasant  to  bring  a 
stranger  directly  into  a  group  in  the  living  room. 

The  defense  of  the  open  stair  is  that  it  is  picturesque  and 
gives  a  more  spacious  appearance.  The  practical  disadvan- 
tages, however,  are  that  the  open  stairway  (with  no  back 
stair)  usually  makes  it  necessary  for  every  one  wishing 
to  go  upstairs  to  cross  the  living  room  and  ascend  in  full 
•view  of  all;  this  is  never  pleasant,  especially  with  children 
and  servants.  The  second  chief  disadvantage  is  that  the  open 
stairway  acts  as  a  funnel  to  suck  up  heat  from  the  first  floor 
and  often  carry  it  wastefully  upstairs. 

Both  front  and  rear  hall  should  receive  careful  attention 
and  not  be  altogether  dispensed  with.  In  general,  means 
should  be  provided  so  that  the  front  door  may  be  answered 
without  walking  across  the  living  room.  There  should  be 
a  back  stairway,  or  the  front  stair  be  so  placed  that  children 
and  servants  can  go  upstairs  without  disturbing  persons  in 
the  living  room  or  dining  room.  The  rear  entry  should  be 
so  arranged  that  tradesmen  need  not  enter  into  the  kitchen, 
and  also  so  that  children  have  some  other  means  of  getting 


upstairs  than  continually  tracking  across  the  kitchen  or  other 
rooms.  It  is  sometimes  advisable  to  have  a  rear  hall  and 
here  locate  the  telephone  and  a  small  seat  and  make  of  it  a 
"business  corner."  It  should  connect  with  the  rear  entrance 
so  that  children  can  take  wraps  off  here  ajid  tradesmen  enter  ; 
there  could  be  a  box  for  the  storage  of  rubbers,  toys,  etc. 
Rooms  opening  into  each  other  may  look  more  spacious, 
but  they  have  two  disadvantages — that  of  creating  much 
harder  work  in  cleaning  and  much  greater  possibilities  for 
noise  and  lack  of  privacy.  It  is  a  poor  arrangement  where 
entrance  is  made  directly  into  a  living  room  and  where  the 
living  room,  dining  room,  and  even  den,  are  all  open  into  each 
other  with  possible  ineffective  portieres.  No  privacy,  no  se- 
clusion is  possible  in  such  rooms  and  no  thorough  cleaning 
except  at  a  great  amount  of  effort. 


Privacy  is  essential  upstairs,  and  every  bedroom  should 
have  its  own  door  and  should  be  able  to  be  reached  without 
having  to  pass  through  some  other  room.  The  bathroom, 
particularly,  should  be  located  so  that  it  can  be  reached  from 
the  hall  direct.  The  only  exception  to  this  is  where  there  is 
more  than  one  bathroom  and  where  the  second  bathroom 
belongs  solely  for  the  use  of  some  individual  bedroom  or  to 
two  bedrooms. 

There  should  be  upstairs  space  provided  to  hold  cleaning 
tools  so  that  it  will  not  be  necessary  to  carry  the  tools  from 
downstairs  as  mentioned  in  the  chapter  on  Cleaning.  Again, 
a  linen  and  storage  closet  should  be  located  on  the  hall  so 
that  it  can  be  reached  easily  from  all  rooms. 

Many  of  us  remember,  and  some  of  us  still  possess,  the 
colossal  wardrobes,  bookcases  and  chests  of  past  days.    Some 
of  these  were  both  beautiful  and  useful ;  but  from  the  point 


of  view  of  convenience  and  modern  housekeeping,  they  took 
up  too  much  space,  were  almost  impossible  to  move  and  sel- 
dom fitted  in  with  the  rest  of  the  furniture.  In  the  present 
lower  ceilinged  houses  such  immense  pieces  are  highly  im- 
practical— the  fewer  the  "movables"  in  any  home  the  more 
harmonious  the  room  and  the  easier  to  care  for.  Built-in 
fixtures  need  never  be  moved  out  to  sweep  the  dust  from 
under  them,  they  take  less  floor  space  than  movable  pieces 
answering  the  same  purpose,  and  they  can  be  more  success- 
fully finished  to  match  the  trim  and  wall  decoration.  Also  if 
plans  are  made  for  building-in  when  the  house  is  being  built, 
less  portable  furniture  will  be  needed  and  hence  more  real 
economy  practiced.  For  instance,  a  built-in  closet  for  coat 
racks  and  a  seat  for  overshoes  is  much  more  attractive  and 
is  easier  to  care  for  than  a  movable  coat  rack,  settee  and 
umbrella  stand ;  or  a  built-in  buffet  will  be  more  efficient  and 
commodious  than  the  usual  "portable"  sideboard.  Here  is  a 
partial  list  of  excellent  built-in  fixtures : 

Kitchen  cabinet  recessed  in  wall. 

Buffet  and  china  closets. 

Recessed  iceboxes. 

Medicine  cabinet  recessed. 

Towel  and  linen  closets  in  bathroom  or  hall. 

Bookcases  with  open  shelves. 

"Pullman"  ironing  board  fitting  back  into  shallow  closet. 

Window  seats  which  hold  wood,  magazines,  etc. 

Ingle-nook  fireplace  with  seats. 

Telephone  table  and  seat. 

Cedar  closets  for  storage. 

Broom  or  cleaning  closet. 

Built-in    "victrola"    cabinet,    or    cabinets    for    "records"    or 

player-piano    "rolls." 
Recess  for  piano. 
Built-in  radiator  covers. 
Closet  or  recess  for   table-leaves. 
Provision  and  milk  receiver,  built-in  wall,  locks  when  closed 

from   outside. 


Another  group  of  built-in  fixtures  is  the  chute  which  will 
save  time  and  labor  in  house  work.  It  is  usual  to  connect 
fireplaces  with  ash  chutes  which  run  in  the  masonry  work 
of  the  chimney  to  a  hollow  space  in  the  base.  Sometimes  the 
kitchen  range  is  connected  with  an  ash  chute  of  metal  leading 
to  metal  ash  can  in  the  basement. 

Then  there  is  the  laundry  chute,  which,  if  possible,  should 
have  opening  in  the  upstairs  hall  near  the  bathroom  and  in 
the  rear  hall  or  in  the  kitchen,  leading  to  the  laundry.  The 
laundry  chute  may  be  combined  with  a  dust  chute  by  a  par- 
tition in  the  center  or  a  dust  chute  may  be  made  of  oval 
furnace  piping,  run  between  the  studding.  The  openings  for 
dust  should  preferably  be  in  the  floor,  closed  by  a  small  trap 
door.  Such  chutes  are  best  made  of  or  lined  with  galvanized 
iron  and  always  should  have  self-closing  doors  at  the  lower 
outlet  to  prevent  their  acting  as  flues  in  case  of  fire  and 
becoming  a  dangerous  fire  risk.  Speaking  of  fire  risk,  every 
house  should  have  a  number  of  small  fire  extinguishers,  lo- 
cated near  the  fireplace,  in  the  kitchen,  the  laundry  and  near 
the  heater,  also  in  the  upstairs  hall. 


An  especially  interesting  built-in  fixture  is  the  so-called 
"breakfast  corner"  or  alcove  in  or  adjoining  the  kitchen. 
The  seats  are  permanent  and  the  table  may  be  fixed  or  mov- 
able for  other  uses  in  the  kitchen.  The  corner  should  be 
lighted  by  one  or  more  windows  and  a  special  lighting  fixture. 
Such  an  alcove  adds  to  the  attractiveness  of  the  kitchen  and 
does  away  with  the  necessity  of  a  maid  eating  in  the  kitchen 
or  having  a  separate  room  for  this  purpose.  The  dining 
alcove  may  be  located  in  the  position  of  the  usual  butler's 
pantry,  between  kitchen  and  dining  room,  or  in  a  corner  of 
the  kitchen  where  it  may  be  backed  up  by  the  kitchen  cabinet, 
china  cabinet  or  sink  without  loss  of  wall  space.  Often  such  a 


"breakfast"  alcove  becomes  a  breakfast,  lunch  and  dinner  al- 
cove when  the  family  is  small,  as  it  saves  so  many  steps. 
Not  infrequently  it  can  be  added  to  existing  kitchen. 

Still  other  built-in  arrangements  are  "dumb  waiters,"  best 
located  near  the  rear  hall,  running  from  basement  to  the  top 
floor  and  used  for  conveying  food,  laundry,  waste  baskets, 
etc.,  up  and  down,  thus  saving  endless  steps.  In  large  houses 
a  "lift"  about  four  feet  square  is  used  for  the  same  purposes 
and  for  carrying  luggage  or  even  one  person.  The  kitchen 
elevator  icebox  spoken  of  before  is  a  modified  dumb  waiter 
and  is  a  manufactured  article  which  can  be  duplicated  by  a 
competent  carpenter.  Another  elevator  which  may  be  put  in 
when  building  at  small  expense  runs  from  the  basement  to 
the  wood-box,  near  the  fireplace. 

Among  the  special  fixtures  are  disappearing  beds  which 
fold  in  a  special  section  of  the  wall  made  to  receive  them,  and 
aired  from  outside.  Or  where  great  economy  of  space  must 
be  practiced  there  are  other  forms  of  "in-a-door  beds"  which 
fold  up  and  can  be  swung  into  a  ventilated  closet  or  dressing 
room  when  not  in  use,  and  which  are  more  desirable  than 
the  so-called  "folding  beds."  These  are  particularly  well 
adapted  for  use  on  sleeping  porches  and  can  be  arranged 
to  swing  down  into  the  chamber  or  sleeping  porch  as  desired, 
being  kept  dry  and  warm  in  a  closet  between  in  the  daytime. 
They  are  made  by  the  Door-Bed  Company  of  Chicago. 

The  more  built-in  fixtures  the  more  floor  space,  the  easier 
the  cleaning  and  the  more  homelike  and  permanent  the  house. 


One  of  the  most  important  of  the  group  of  built-in  fixtures 
is  the  built-in  or  cabinet  closet.  Now,  there  are  good  closets 
and  bad  ones.  The  bad  ones  are  those  which  are  built  too 
deep  or  particularly  those  which  are  so  narrow  and  long  that 
the  entire  front  contents  brushed  against  to  reach 



the  articles  furthest  back.  If  the  closet  is  intended  for  clothes 
only,  and  if  garments  are  hung  on  a  vertical  rod,  it  should 
be  built  just  a  little  deeper  than  the  width  of  a  dress  hanger. 
Or,  another  good  construction  is  to  have  such  a  system  of 
garment  hanging  on  an  adjustable  rod  which  will  lift  for- 
ward, bringing  with  it  five  or  six  garments  hung  from  front 
to  back,  after  the  manner  of  wardrobe  trunks.  In  this  case, 
a  deeper  closet  would  be  more  practical.  In  such  closets 





From  the  Book  of  Designs  of  John  Thomas  Batts,  manufacturer  of  Closet 
Furnishings,  Grand  Rapids,  Mich. 

the  light  doors  open  the  entire  width  and  disclose  all  the 
contents.  Sometimes  these  cabinet  closets  are  built  six  to 
ten  inches  off  the  floor  and  with  or  without  drawer  under. 
This  adds  to  the  cost  but  gives  better  protection  against  floor 

The  same  general  rules  apply  to  all  closet  construction.  Do 
not  have  the  shelves  so  broad  that  front  articles  have  to  be 
removed  to  get  at  those  at  the  back.  Do  not  have  the  shelves 
too  high  to  reach,  or  too  far  separated,  one  from  the  other. 
High  shelves  are  suitable  only  for  storage,  but  not  for  every- 
day use. 

A  closet  that  is  slightly  oblong  is  the  ideal,  and  two  bed- 
rooms can  most  conveniently  have  adjoining  closets  in  the 


waste  space  between  walls.  An  inclined  board  fitted  with  a 
cleat  placed  at  the  back  wall  of  the  closet  floor  will  keep  shoes 
in  better  shape  and  away  from  dust.  No  drawer  in  any  built- 
in  fixture  should  be  too  deep,  or  it  will  be  too  heavy  to  puli 
out  when  full ;  also  a  deep  drawer  makes  it  necessary  to  turn 
over  the  top  contents  in  order  to  get  at  the  lower  layer. 
Avoid  placing  a  heavy,  deep  drawer  at  the  bottom  of  any 
closet,  as  this  means  an  uncomfortable  strain  to  bend  over  and 
pull  it  out. 

An  excellent  linen  closet  is  a  great  convenience.  A  very 
desirable  one  was  built  as  follows:  The  lower  part  of  the 
closet  consists  of  different  sized  drawers  to  accommodate 
large  and  small  sheets,  towels,  cases,  etc.  The  upper  part  is 
divided  into  three  sections  or  open  shelves,  each  having  a 
close-fitting,  hinged  door.  These  sections  are  to  hold  blan- 
kets and  may  be  lined  with  tar  paper  or  made  of  cedar  wood. 
If  more  space  is  available,  a  linen  room  can  be  built  with 
open  shelves  on  three  sides  for  the  holding  of  blankets  and 
large  bedding.  Then,  some  of  the  shelves  can  be  partitioned 
off  with  shallow  wooden  uprights  to  fit  exactly  the  size  of 
towels,  cases,  etc.  A  drop-light  fixture  should  be  in  such  a 
room,  also  in  every  large  closet  to  facilitate  finding  articles 
at  night.  It  need  hardly  be  emphasized  that  all  such  shelves 
and  drawers  should  be  labeled  clearly  for  quick  identification. 

It  is  not  advisable  to  place  the  linen  closet  in  the  bathroom, 
as  is  sometimes  advocated,  but  preferably  in  the  general  hall 
where  it  will  be  more  easy  of  access,  though  a  small  closet 
for  clean  towels  is  convenient. 

In  placing  a  small  medicine  or  similar  wall  closet,  it  is 
much  better  to  "recess"  it  so  that  it  is  flush  with  the  wall, 
especially  when  located  over  a  hand  basin. 

Kitchen  and  pantry  shelves  and  closets  have  been  spoken 
of  in  their  respective  places;  the  whole  ideal  in  any  closet 
building  is  to  arrange  its  spaces  so  as  to  most  conveniently 


fit  the  size  and  character  of  the  contents  which  will  be  stored 
there,  thus  facilitating  handling  and  preventing  articles  from 
being  crushed. 


One  of  the  largest  expenses  in  the  American  home  is  the 
plumbing.  To  save  cost  here,  the  plumbing  fixtures  should 
be  kept  near  together  to  avoid  excessive  piping ;  i.  e.,  bath- 
room should  be  over  or  at  the  same  side  of  the  house  as  the 
kitchen,  and  the  laundry  under  the  kitchen.  The  largest  pip- 
ing expense  is  the  4-  to  6-inch  "soil  pipe"  which  runs  prac- 
tically straight  from  the  basement  through  the  roof  and 
to  which  water  closets  must  be  connected  closely ;  if  toilets 
are  not  located  near  or  over  each  other,  separate  soil  pipes 
must  be  provided.  If  it  is  not  desirable  to  put  in  all  eventual 
fixtures  at  once,  by  all  means  plan  the  plumbing  in  advance 
so  that  the  main  piping  can  be  put  in  when  building ;  fixtures 
may  then  be  put  in  later  without  great  expense  and  without 
serious  marring  of  floors  and  walls. 

All  home  builders  should  know  the  ditterence  between 
"porcelain"  and  "enameled  iron,"  which  are  often  used  as 
interchangeable  terms  in  speaking  of  sinks,  lavatories  and 
tubs.  Enameled  iron  ware  is  produced  by  a  covering  of 
enamel  applied  over  cast  iron.  It  must  be  fired  in  a  kiln  at 
a  comparatively  low  temperature  and  its  surface  is  softer 
and  somewhat  more  porous  than  porcelain.  The  truly 
vitreous  fixtures  of  porcelain  are  made  of  clay  which  under- 
goes a  drying  process  of  several  weeks  and  then  is  subjected 
to  a  heat  of  about  2,500  degrees.  This  insures  a  high  and 
impervious  glaze  which  does  not  take  stains  so  easily,  cannot 
rust  and  is  much  easier  to  keep  clean.  Small  sinks  and  lava- 
tories of  porcelain  now  cost  hardly  any  more  than  a  good 
grade  of  enameled  iron  and  are  altogether  preferable. 

Care  should  be  taken  to  preserve  the  glazed  surface  of 


enamel  or  porcelain  and  consequently  plumbing  fixtures 
should  not  be  scoured  with  gritty  washing  powders,  nor 
should  strong  alkilies  or  acids  be  allowed  to  stay  in  them  for 
any  length  of  time. 

Bathtubs  should  be  of  the  built-in  type,  if  possible,  so  as 
to  avoid  the  cleaning  bug-bear  of  "reaching  under  the  tub." 
These  are  less  expensive  than  when  first  introduced.  An 
extra  first  floor  or  basement  toilet  is  needful  where  there 
are  small  children  or  maids,  and  if  one's  pocket  book  per- 
mits, a  small  but  individual  bath  adjoining  the  maid's  room. 
A  small  lavatory  or  hand  basin  on  the  main  floor,  either 
adjoining  the  rear  porch  or  connected  with  the  central  back 
hall,  is  also  a  great  convenience.  Such  small  lavatories  may 
be  located  in  a  closet  between  two  adjoining  chambers  at 
moderate  expense. 

In  selecting  the  outlet  traps  of  all  lavatories,  sinks  and  tubs, 
see  that  the  trap  can  be  detached  easily  or  is  provided  with 
a  screw  cap  which  can  be  opened  for  the  easy  removal  of 
clogged  matter.  There  is  usually  a  grease  trap  in  the  outlet 
of  the  kitchen  sink  to  take  care  of  stoppage. 

Most  of  the  exposed  parts  of  the  plumbing  are  nickeled ; 
this  is  nickel  plate  over  brass  or  bronze.  Often  the  difference 
in  price  of  two  fixtures  which  look  alike  is  owing  to  the  bet- 
ter coating  of  nickel  of  one  over  the  other.  Poor  nickeling 
quickly  wears  off,  making  the  fixture  unsightly.  Porcelain 
and  vitrified  fittings  for  the  bathroom  are  now  replacing 
much  of  the  nickeled  ware  formerly  used. 

The  drain  from  the  refrigerator  should  not  be  connected 
with  the  regular  drainage  of  the  house ;  there  must  be  air 
space  between  so  that  there  can  be  no  possibility  of  sewer 
gas  entering.  Often  the  pipe  from  the  refrigerator  empties 
into  the  laundry  tubs.  This  pipe  is  very  apt  to  get  clogged 
and  it  should  be  arranged  so  that  it  may  be  taken  apart  easily. 

Other  details  of  plumbing  conveniences  are  "compression 


faucets,"  which  save  water,  especially  hot  water;  a  white 
porcelain  seat  on  the  toilet  instead  of  wood ;  noiseless  tank 
attachments  to  the  toilet ;  a  hose  connection  for  lawns  on  two 
sides  of  a  large  yard ;  a  water  connection  on  the  porch  for 
flushing ;  in  large  houses  a  small  "slop  sink"  in  the  rear  hall 
is  an  excellent  addition  to  the  cleaning  closet. 

The  position  of  the  main  stop-cock  for  the  water  in  the 
basement  should  be  known  to  all  members  in  the  family  so 
that  it  can  be  shut  off  instantly  in  case  of  an  overflow  or 
accident.  It  should  be  tested  occasionally  to  see  that  it  is  not 
too  stiff  to  turn  easily.  It  is  also  a  good  plan  to  have  water ' 
shut-off s  in  the  principal  lines  of  water  supply  so  that  the 
entire  house  need  not  be  cut  off  from  water  when  a  new 
washer  needs  to  be  put  in  a  faucet,  or  other  repairs  made. 

When  putting  in  the  rough  piping  is  the  time  to  plan  for  a 
permanent  vacuum  cleaner ;  this  should  be  located  centrally 
in  the  basement  with  openings  in  each  room.  Or,  if  the  house 
is  small  and  compact,  one  opening  in  the  hall  on  each  floor 
will  be  sufficient  with  which  to  connect  a  long  tubing.  There 
is  no  doubt  that  the  cost  of  such  outfits  will  decrease  in  the 
near  future,  and  it  is  now  possible  to  secure  an  outfit  for 
about  $150  for  a  small  house. 


There  is  still  difference  of  opinion  as  to  the  relative  merits 
of  hot  air,  steam  and  hot  water  for  house  heating.  A  hot  air 
furnace  is  least  expensive  in  initial  cost;  gives  quick  heat; 
provides  ventilation  when  the  cold  air  box  is  connected  with 
the  outside  air ;  gives  moist  air  when  a  special  apparatus  for 
furnishing  water  for  evaporation  is  installed.  The  usual 
water  tank  situated  in  a  cold  part  of  the  furnace  is  not  suffi- 
cient to  have  much  effect  on  the  hot  air  supplied.  The  dis- 
advantage of  a  furnace  is  that  distant  rooms  requiring  long 
runs  of  piping  cannot  be  heated  adequately  and  in  a  strong 



wind  the  rooms  on  the  windward  side  are  difficult  to  heat ; 
also  the  pipes  take  up  much  space  in  the  basement.  A  fur- 
nace is  most  suitable  for  a  small,  compact  house.  The  fur- 
nace must  be  set  deep  enough  so  that  there  is  sufficient  angle 
to  the  hot  air  pipes  to  give  a  flow  of  hot  air. 

Steam  heating  is  best  for  large  houses  and  is  used  in  nearly 
all  large  buildings  and  apartments.  The  piping  and  radiators 
can  be  much  smaller  than  for  hot  water,  making  the  cost  of 
the  plant  less.  No  heat  at  all  is  given  to  the  radiator  until 
steam  is  formed  so  that  the  water  must  be  kept  at  boiling 
•  point  or  above  to  give  heat ;  the  circulation  stops  immediately 
if  the  fire  goes  down.  The  temperature  of  the  radiators 
is  over  212  degrees  F.,  which  makes  an  uncomfortably  in- 
tense heat.  There  are  various  systems  of  so-called  "vapor 
heating,"  "modulated  steam"  and  "vacuum"  steam  heating 
which  in  part  overcome  the  disadvantages. 

Hot  water  heating  is  usually  considered  the  best  for  homes 
as  the  water  in  the  radiators  can  be  heated  to  any  degree 
up  to  about  210  and  the  water  will  continue  to  circulate  and 
give  heat  even  after  the  fire  gets  low  or  goes  out.  The  dis- 
advantage of  a  hot  water  plant  is  that  a  considerable  volume 
of  water  must  be  heated  and  it  is  thus  not  possible  to  modify 
the  temperature  of  the  rooms  quickly  for  extreme  changes 
in  weather;  also  large  pipes  and  radiators  must  be  used  to 
give  good  circulation  and  sufficient  radiating  surface.  Hot 
water  systems  have  an  "expansion  tank,"  located  at  the  high- 
est point,  which  is  open  to  the  air.  If  the  water  is  heated 
much  over  the  boiling  point,  the  water  will  boil  out  of  the 
system  and  cause  all  kinds  of  damage,  consequently  the  "ex- 
pansion tank"  should  always  be  provided  with  an  overflow 
pipe  leading  to  the  basement  or  out  of  doors. 

In  the  pressure  hot  water  heating  system  a  column  of  mer- 
cury or  spring  valve  is  introduced  so  that  the  water  can  be 
heated  over  the  boiling  point.  This  gives  more  rapid  cir- 


culation  and  smaller  pipes  and  radiators  can  be  used,  which 
saves  somewhat  in  expense  and  makes  less  volume  of  water 
to  heat. 

Radiators  should  be  placed  under  or  near  windows  or  near 
doors  as  this  aids  in  the  circulation  of  heated  air  and  heats 
the  cold  parts  of  rooms.  More  artistic  and  low  radiators 
are  being  manufactured ;  a  combined  radiator  and  warming 
closet  arrangement  is  useful  in  the  kitchen  and  dining  room. 
Sometimes  radiators  are  enclosed,  with  space  for  the  air  to 
enter  at  the  bottom  and  space  for  the  heated  air  to  come  out 
near  a  window,  but  it  is  not  advisable  to  place  shelves  over 
radiators  as  this  interferes  with  the  circulation  of  air. 
Rooms  are  warmed  by  circulating  warm  air. 

With  moisture  proof  and  cement  lined  basements,  our 
American  houses  are  very  apt  to  be  supplied  with  air  that  is 
much  too  dry  for  comfort  or  best  health.  Air  at  70  degrees 
will  take  up*  five  times  as  much  moisture  as  air  at  o  degrees 
F. ;  consequently,  in  cold  weather,  even  if  the  air  outside  is 
fairly  moist,  it  will  be  very  dry  when  heated  to  comfortable 
living  room  temperature.  If  no  moisture  is  supplied,  it  will 
be  drawn  from  the  wood  work,  furniture  and  from  our 
bodies.  When  coming  from  out  of  doors  into  warm,  dry 
air,  the  perspiration  in  our  clothing  quickly  evaporates,  which 
produces  a  very  considerable  degree  of  cooling  of  the  body. 
This  is  why  a  room  with  moist  air  at  65  degrees  seems 
warmer  than  with  dry  air  at  70  degrees. 

There  are  a  number  of  kinds  of  air  moisteners  on  the 
market,  the  simplest  being  a  flat  corrugated  pan  which  slips 
over  each  radiator  at  the  back  and  is  filled  with  water ;  others 
are  placed  on  top  of  the  radiator.  For  steam  radiators  there 
is  a  valve  which  lets  out  steam  without  noise,  said  to  dis- 
tribute the  equivalent  of  five  gallons  of  water  per  day.  There 
is  an  arrangement  for  furnaces  which  supplies  water  auto- 
matically to  a  pan  placed  over  the  dome  which  will  really 



supply  the  hot  air  with  adequate  moisture.  Sprinkling  the 
basement  floor  with  five  gallons  of  water  night  and  morning 
will  help  somewhat. 

Of  furnaces,  steam  and  hot  water  heaters  there  are  types 
too  numerous  to  mention,  but  by  all  means  secure  a  heating 
plant  with  capacity  sufficient  to  a  little  more  than  heat  the 
house,  for  it  is  more  economical  of  fuel  to  run  a  large  heating 
plant  slowly  than  to  force  a  plant  which  is  a  little  too  small. 
The  various  magazine-feed  heaters,  like  the  Newport  and 
Spencer,  for  hot  water  or  steam,  burn  the  smallest  or  buck- 
wheat size  of  hard  coal,  which  is  cheaper  and  require  fuel  to 
be  added  only  once  in  24  hours  in  mild  weather  and  twice 
in  cold  weather.  A  good  draft  is  required  for  such  heaters 
but  is  needed  for  efficiency  in  any  heater. 

There  are  several  small  devices  which  make  the  care  of 
any  system  easier.  One  is  a  draft  regulator  with  a  dial 
located  in  any  wall  on  the  first  floor,  connected  with  chains 
to  the  damper  and  draft  by  which  the  degree  of  heat  may 
be  maintained  with  fair  regularity.  Another  is  an  alarm 
clock  arrangement  which  turns  on  the  drafts  at  the  desired 
time  in  the  morning  so  that  the  house  may  be  warm  by  break- 
fast time.  The  best  arrangement  is  a  thermostat  which  turns 
on  the  drafts  when  rooms  go  below  the  desired  temperature 
and  turns  them  off  when  the  desired  temperature  is  reached, 
thus  automatically  maintaining  an  even  temperature  in  the 
house.  This  saves  much  coal,  especially  if  from  careless 
management  the  fire  is  allowed  to  burn  until  the  house  is 
uncomfortably  hot  and  the  coal  only  a  bed  of  ashes,  requir- 
ing a  new  fire  to  be  built.  These  thermostatic  heat  regu- 
lators cost  about  $60  installed  by  a  plumber  or  electrician, 
but  can  be  purchased  from  a  mail  order  house  for  about  $25 
and  put  in  by  the  owner  with  very  little  trouble. 

An  efficient  heater  will  not  continue  so  unless  kept  clean. 
An  eighth  of  an  inch  of  soot  or  dust  will  reduce  the  con- 



ductivity  of  the  heat  absorbing  surfaces  to  a  very  consid- 
erable extent.  Steam  boilers  in  factories  are  usually  cleaned 
twice  daily ;  house  heating  plants  should  be  cleaned  with  a 
wire  brush  or  otherwise  daily  or  once  or  twice  a  week, 
depending  on  the  fuel  and  heater.  The  heater  should  be 
thoroughly  cleaned  and  overhauled  in  the  spring  and  treated 
according  to  the  directions  of  the  manufacturers,  not  left  to 
accumulate  moisture  and  rust  throughout  the  summer. 

To  save  fuel,  all  hot  water  and  steam  pipes  should  be 
covered  with  asbestos  pipe  covering  and  the  heater  itself  with 
asbestos  cement ;  even  furnace  pipes  should  be  covered  with 
sheet  asbestos. 


Daylight  comes  chiefly  from  the  sky,  and  is  a  perfectly  dif- 
fused light,  except  direct  sunshine,  which  is  too  intense  for 
eye  comfort.  House  lighting  should  approximate  natural 
conditions  and  the  best  diffusion  of  the  light  for  the  general 
illumination  of  rooms  is  best  obtained  from  the  now  common 
form  of  "indirect"  lighting  fixtures,  in  which  all  or  nearly  all 
of  the  light  is  thrown  onto  the  ceiling,  from  whence  it  is 
diffused  to  all  parts  of  the  room.  The  "semi-indirect"  fix- 
tures, made  with  a  bowl  of  thick  opalescent  glass,  throw  some 
of  the  light  downward  and  are  ideal  for  the  general  illu- 
mination of  living  rooms.  The  ceiling  must  be  white  or 
cream  colored  and  the  fixture  suspended  from  the  correct 
distance  to  obtain  proper  illumination  without  serious  loss 
of  lighting  efficiency.  Indirect  lighting  fixtures  may  now  be 
had  for  gas  as  well  as  for  electric  lamps. 

This  soft,  general  illumination  may  be  made  sufficiently 
strong  for  reading  in  all  parts  of  the  room,  but  the  better 
practice  is  to  have  individual  portable  lights  or  wall  fixtures 
for  close  work  like  reading,  sewing,  music,  etc. 

All  lights  should  be  shaded  so  that  the  full  glare  of  an 


intense  light  cannot  fall  directly  in  the  eyes.  This  is  espe- 
cially needful  with  the  high  intensity  of  tungsten  or  "Mazda" 
lamps  and  Wellsbach  mantles,  which  have  many  times  the 
light  intensity  of  the  old-style  carbon  filament  electric  lamps 
and  open  flame  gas  burners.  A  softer  effect  may  be  secured 
by  using  frosted  or  ground  glass  globes  instead  of  globes  of 
clear  glass.  But  even  frosted  globes  should  be  shaded,  pref- 
erably by  shades  which  give  an  artistic  color  effect. 

A  point  to  remember  in  the  installing  of  fixtures  is  the 
direction  in  which  the  greatest  candle  power  occurs.  In  an 
electric  bulb  and  in  an  upright  gas  mantle  lamp  the  greatest 
intensity  of  light  is  directed  horizontally ;  in  the  inverted  gas 
mantle  the  light  is  directed  chiefly  vertically  downward. 
When  it  is  desired  to  concentrate  light  downward,  an  in- 
verted gas  mantle  or  electric  lamp  with  deflecting  globe 
should  be  used,  but  when  general  illumination  for  room 
space  is  wanted  then  the  upright  gas  mantle  lamp  or  upright 
tungsten  lamps  should  be  used. 

The  worst  possible  light  for  a  kitchen  is  the  central  drop 
electric  light  on  a  swinging  cord,  usually  furnished  without 
a  reflector.  It  would  be  better  to  use  wall  fixtures  over  sink, 
stove  and  table  or  one  indirect  bowl  to  light  the  entire  room. 

In  too  many  houses  the  details  of  artistic  lighting  are  badly 
neglected  and  the  discomfort  of  poor  lighting  not  realized. 
The  local  electric  light  company  will  usually  furnish  infor- 
mation and  booklets  on  the  subject  or  very  interesting  mate- 
rial may  be  obtained  by  sending  stamps  to  the  Illuminating 
Engineering  Society,  20  West  39th  St.,  New  York  City. 


A  truly  efficient  home  must  usually  be  "made  to  order/* 
and  the  prospective  house  builder  must  have  a  fairly  definite 
idea  of  what  is  wanted  to  be  able  to  order  it.  This  means 
furnishing  the  architect  or  builder  with  sketches  or  drawings 


made  to  scale.  For  preliminary  sketches,  a  scale  of  l/%  inch 
in  the  drawing  equals  one  foot  in  the  house  is  commonly  used. 
The  working  drawings  are  usually  made  with  J4  inch  equal 
to  a  foot ;  larger  for  detailed  drawings.  Sketches  are  most 
easily  made  by  the  amateur  housebuilder  on  cross  section 
paper  lightly  ruled  in  eighth-inch  squares.  The  first  step  in 
planning  a  house  is  to  measure  a  few  familiar  rooms  so  as 
to  have  an  idea  of  how  large  a  room,  say  12  by  1 6  feet,  really 
is ;  also  to  measure  width  of  stairways,  doors,  windows,  etc. 
Existing  furniture  should  be  measured  so  that  it  may  fit  wall 
spaces  in  the  proposed  house.  It  is  usually  easier  to 
modify  a  plan  found  in  magazines  or  house  books  which 
meets  nearly  all  the  requirements,  rather  than  to  start  alto- 
gether anew. 

The  most  difficult  part  of  house  planning  is  to  arrange  for 
the  stairways ;  often  not  enough  "head  room"  is  provided  for. 
The  rule  for  stairs  is  that  twice  the  "riser"  plus  the  "tread" 
should  equal  24  inches.  Stairs  with  6^2-inch  riser  and 
1 1 -inch  tread  are  very  easy ;  a  7-inch  riser  and  lo-inch  tread 
makes  a  comfortable  flight;  8-inch  riser  with  8-inch  tread 
makes  a  rather  steep  stairway  but  one  often  used  for  attic 
or  cellar  stairs. 

The  ceiling  height  is  now  from  eight  feet,  in  small-roomed 
houses,  to  ten  feet  in  large  houses  with  more  spacious  rooms. 
A  house  with  a  nine-foot  ceiling  will  measure  ten  feet  be- 
tween floors,  allowing  a  foot  for  floor  joists,  plaster  and  floor- 
ing. A  stairway  with  7-inch  risers  will  require  17  steps 
from  the  first  to  the  second  floor  in  this  house.  If  the  stair- 
way has  a  straight  run  and  lO-inch  treads,  this  would  mean 
16  times  10,  or  160  inches,  or  13  feet  4  inches  from  the  edge 
of  the  first  step  to  the  edge  of  the  landing  floor.  (Note 
that  there  will  be  one  less  treads  than  risers.)  "Head 
room"  under  a  landing  would  require  a  rise  of  at  least  6  feet 
2  inches,  plus  8  inches  for  floor  joists,  etc.,  or  84  inches ;  this 


would  be  given  by  twelve  7-inch  risers,  and  with  lo-inch 
tread  there  would  be  needed  eleven  times  ten,  or  no  inches, 
or  9  feet  2  inches.  If  the  landing  were  3  feet  10  inches  wide, 
the  distance  would  be  13  feet  from  the  beginning  of  the  stair- 
way to  the  wall  side  of  the  landing.  From  the  landing  to  the 
second  floor  would  require  five  steps  more,  but  as  there  is 
one  less  tread  than  riser,  this  would  make  four  times  ten,  or 
40  inches. 

The  second  floor  can  overhang  the  beginning  of  the  stair- 
way a  certain  amount,  depending  on  the  height  of  the  ceiling 
and  the  steepness  of  the  stairway.  With  the  stairs  we  have 
been  considering,  three  steps  up  make  21  inches  rise,  leaving 
"head  room"  of  6  feet  3  inches ;  these  three  steps  would  give 
30  inches  of  "tread,"  so  the  second  floor  could  project  that 
much  and  still  give  sufficient  head  room.  Too  much  projection 
is  not  desirable  as  it  interferes  with  taking  furniture  up  and 
down  stairs  and  with  the  appearance  and  lighting.  Winding 
stairs  or  stairs  with  "twisters"  economize  space  but  are 
somewhat  dangerous,  especially  with  the  "twisters"  at  the 

It  is  usual  to  place  cellar  stairs  under,  and  attic  stairs  over, 
the  main  stairway  to  economize  space,  though  if  the  roof 
lines  would  interfere  with  the  attic  stairs  in  such  position,  it 
may  be  better  to  run  them  parallel  to  the  ridge  pole,  between 
chambers,  and  use  the  space  underneath  for  closets. 

As  a  general  rule  the  partitions  between  rooms  on  the 
second  floor  should  come  directly  over  the  partitions  on  the 
first  floor,  otherwise  floor  joists  must  be  made  extra  strong, 
and  even  then  ceilings  are  apt  to  crack  from  warping  due 
to  unequal  drying  out  of  the  woodwork. 

The  least  expensive  house  for  the  usable  space  is  square  or 
rectangular  in  outline,  with  one  stairway,  one  chimney  and 
one  soil  pipe.  A  bungalow  costs  somewhat  more  than  the 
same  floor  space  in  a  two-story  house  because  the  extra  ex- 


pense  for  excavation,  foundation  and  roof  more  than  over- 
balance the  saving  in  wall  and  stairs. 

The  planning  of  the  kitchen  should  have  special  attention, 
but  the  subject  has  been  well  covered  in  Chapter  I,  pages 
19  to  48.  The  position  of  sink,  range,  refrigerator  and  cab- 
inets should  be  clearly  drawn  in  to  scale.  In  the  living  room 
and  chambers  the  position  of  couches,  piano,  beds,  dressers, 
etc.,  should  be  carefully  determined. 

After  the  sketches  are  made  they  should  be  turned  over  to 
a  good  architect  who  may  be  able  to  suggest  improvements 
and  who  will  make  the  "working  drawings"  and  the  "eleva- 
tions." He  will  be  able  to  give  the  artistic  roof  lines,  en- 
trances and  constructive  details  which  go  so  far  to  make  or 
mar  the  appearance  of  the  house.  He  will  also  make  the 
detailed  drawings  for  built-in  sideboards,  bookcases,  cab- 
inets, as  well  as  for  the  windows,  doors  and  "trim,"  which  is 
usually  made  at  a  mill  and  called  "mill  work."  A  good 
architect  can  easily  add  much  more  than  the  five  or  seven 
per  cent  of  the  cost  charged  for  his  services  to  the  value 
of  the  property.  In  this  country  the  sale  value  of  the  house 
always  must  be  considered,  for  it  is  not  often  that  a  house 
is  occupied  by  the  same  family  for  more  than  ten  to  twenty 


A  farm  house  can  now  have  all  the  modern  conveniences 
of  a  city  home  and  at  a  cost  of  less  or  no  more  than  the  dif- 
ference in  the  price  of  the  land.  Even  a  small  city  "lot"  costs 
$1,000  or  more  and  a  good  sized  one  from  $3,000  to  $5,000 
or  more;  the  farm  house  lot  is  usually  worth  perhaps  $100 
at  most. 

Modern  city  improvements  consist  of  (i)  running  water; 

(2)  sewerage  system  for  kitchen,  laundry  and  bathroom; 

(3)  electric  current  for  light  and  power;  (4)  gas. 


The  best  equipment  for  running  water  is  a  pneumatic  tank, 
located  in  the  basement,  into  which  water  and  air  are  pumped 
under  pressure.  The  compressed  air  in  the  top  of  the  tank 
forces  the  water  all  over  the  house  like  any  city  supply. 
The  pump  is  best  operated  by  an  electric  motor  which  is 
automatically  stared  when  the  pressure  becomes  too  low 
and  stopped  when  the  required  pressure  is  reached.  The 
cost  of  such  an  outfit  is  from  $120  to  $150.  The  pump  may 
be  operated  also  by  a  small  gasoline  engine  which  may  be 
located  at  a  distance  from  the  tank,  or  by  a  windmill.  The 
source  of  supply  may  be  a  well  or  cistern.  If  the  well-water 
is  very  hard  it  may  be  advisable  to  have  two  tanks,  one  for 
cistern  rain  water  and  the  other  for  the  hard  water.  The 
hot  water  supply  can  be  heated  with  a  coal  or  kerosene 
heater  as  described  on  pages  52  and  53. 

A  sewerage  system  usually  involves  the  construction  of  a 
"sceptic  tank,"  which  is  a  modernized  cesspool  with  over- 
flow piping  distributing  the  purified  sewage  underground  in 
a  safe  and  odorless  manner.  They  work  continuously  sum- 
mer and  winter  and  require  little  attention  or  cleaning.  About 
$100  would  cover  the  cost. 

A  small  automatic  electric  light  plant  operated  with  a  gaso- 
line motor  may  now  be  purchased  for  $200  up.  These  pro- 
duce current  of  32- volt  intensity  and  special  small  motors, 
fans,  vacuum  cleaners,  electric  irons  and  toasters  may  be  ob- 
tained at  about  the  price  of  similar  equipment  for  the  usual 
no- volt  current.  Then  there  is  the  acetylene  gas  plant  for 
light  and  for  cooking,  as  well  as  plants  for  making  gasoline 
gas.  But  it  is.  less  expensive  to  use  kerosene  as  fuel  for 
cooking  and  the  latest  types  of  kerosene  ranges  are  but  little 
more  trouble  than  a  gas  stove  and  cost  less  than  a  good 
coal  range. 

Ice  can  be  harvested  and  stored  on  most  farms ;  if  not, 
then  there  are  various  "iceless"  refrigators,  consisting  of  a 


circular  metal  compartment  with  shelves  which  run  through 
an  1 8-inch  galvanized  iron  pipe  from  kitchen,  pantry  or 
porch  through  the  basement  floor,  or  about  eight  feet  into 
the  ground  under  the  porch.  The  food  compartment  is  raised 
or  lowered  by  a  crank  and  pulley  arrangement.  The  cost  is 
about  $30,  or  no  more  than  an  ice  refrigerator.  A  temper- 
ature of  between  55  and  60  degrees  F.  is  said  to  be  main- 

A  furnace  or  hot  water  heater  is  just  as  easily  installed 
in  the  country  as  in  the  city,  and  indeed  the  farm  house 
can  be  made  as  efficient  and  labor  saving  as  any  city  house  for 
the  cost  of  an  automobile,  and  any  farmer  who  can  afford  an 
automobile,  can  afford  to  have  an  efficient  house.  A  good 
way  to  start  to  investigate  costs  is  to  send  for  the  special 
catalogs  on  plumbing,  heating  and  electric  lighting,  of  Sears, 
Roebuck  &  Co.,  Chicago ;  then  send  for  the  catalogs  of  the 
Western  Electric  Co.  and  other  specialty  manufacturers. 


The  kitchen  garbage,  waste  paper,  etc.,  can  be  disposed 
of  in  a  convenient  and  sanitary  way  by  an  "incinerator," 
but  these  cost  from  $75  up,  which  seems  rather  expensive. 
An  arrangement  which  will  do  similar  work  is  a  so-called 
"kitchen  heater,"  made  to  attach  to  a  gas  stove,  which  may 
be  obtained  from  gas  stove  makers.  These  come  with  a  gas 
burner  "lighter"  and  cost  only  $12  to  $15.  Some  of  them 
are  furnished  also  with  a  hot  water  front.  Another  kitchen 
incinerator  consists  of  a  small  brick  chimney  into  which 
all  garbage,  waste  paper  and  tin  cans  are  put,  the  whole  being 
burned  once  a  week  and  the  ashes  taken  out  of  the  door  in 
the  basement. 

A  convenient  garbage  can  is  the  "Sanitas,  which  opens  by 
foot  pressure.  The  out-of-doors,  underground  garbage  re- 
ceptacles are  also  useful  and  keep  the  garbage  away  from 


dogs  and  flies  as  well  as  out  of  sight.  In  communities  where 
there  is  no  garbage  collection  it  can  be  buried  in  a  shallow 
trench 'or  given  fresh  every  day  to  chickens  or  stock. 

Each  community  breeds  its  own  flies  and  mosquitos,  for 
neither  pest  can  fly  far.  The  flies  propagate  in  horse  manure 
and  uncovered  garbage ;  the  mosquitos  in  stagnant  pools  of 
water,  tin  cans,  cess  pools  and  catch  basins.  It  only  means 
enlightened  public  sentiment  and  a  comparatively  small  ex- 
penditure of  money  to  rid  any  town  of  both  these  pests. 
Valuable  bulletins  may  be  obtained  free  on  flies  and  mos- 
quitoes from  the  Dept.  of  Agriculture,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Community  housekeeping  in  keeping  streets  clean  and 
abating  the  smoke  nuisance  affects  materially  the  amount  of 
cleaning  and  laundry  work  in  each  individual  household.  It 
is  to  be  hoped  that  universal  suffrage  may  help  to  do  away 
with  much  of  the  dust  and  smoke  now  so  common.  The  cost 
of  community  cleanliness  would  be,  in  all  probability,  less 
than  the  individual  cost  of  extra  cleaning  and  laundry  work. 
Neighborhood  clubs  often  can  have  streets  "oiled"  at  very 
modest  expense  per  family  and  do  away  with  much  of  the 
street  dust. 


1.  If  you  were  planning  to  build,  what  would  you  include? 

2.  Would  you  favor  a  combined  living-dining  room? 

3.  What  built-in  fixtures  would  you  have? 

4.  Could  these  be  added  to  your  present  house : 

(a)   Sleeping  porch  (b)  Dining  or  living  porch 
(c)  Dining  alcove  ?    Show  how  by  sketch. 

5.  What  are  the  most  serious  faults  in  your  present  house? 

How  might  they  be  helped  or  remedied  ? 





THE  basis  for  all  efficiency  in  work,  whether  in  industry 
or  the  home,  is  health  and  controlled  vitality.  We 
may  put  a  worker  into  the  most  efficient  kitchen,  we 
may  hand  her  the  most  useful  labor-savers,  we  may  show 
her  the  easiest  way  to  wash  clothes,  but  all  our  teaching  will 
be  in  vain  if  the  worker  is  ill,  if  she  "fags"  easily,  or  if  she 
is  subject  to  headaches,  "nerves,"  or  other  physical  ailments. 
The  woman  with  a  headache  cannot  intelligently  plan  a 
family  budget  no  matter  how  much  she  may  know  about 
one,  nor  can  an  "all-tired  out"  woman  take  enough  interest 
in  the  subject  of  nutrition  to  enable  her  to  feed  her  family  a 
balanced  ration.  The  important  factor  in  doing  work  is  the 
human  factor — is  the  woman  herself.  Any  improvement 
that  can  be  made  either  in  methods  of  work,  or  in  the  tools 
with  which  work  is  done,  is  important  only  in  its  effect  on 
the  welfare  and  health  of  the  human  worker — the  woman  in 
the  home.  Let  it  be  repeated — household  efficiency,  and 
above  all,  personal  efficiency,  depend  absolutely  on  the  phys- 
ical and  mental  health  of  the  woman  herself. 

Although  both  men  and  women  suffer  from  sickness  and 
disease,  the  records  of  unbiased  insurance  companies  assure 
us  that  women  are  considered  the  poorer  "risks,"  and  that 



women  as  a  group  are  most  subject  to  attacks  of  illness. 
This  is  probably  due  to  the  fact  that  until  a  few  years  ago 
it  was  considered  "unwomanly"  to  indulge  in  active  outdoor 
sports ;  it  was  thought  "indelicate"  to  talk  about  and  study 
the  body  and  its  functions ;  and  there  was  a  strong  popular 
feeling  against  women  wearing  comfortable  clothing  or 
taking  exercise  which  might  make  them  "masculine." 

We  are  fortunately  entering  a  new  period  when  it  is  de- 
cidedly "good  form"  for  girls  to  be  "athletic,"  and  where, 
in  schools,  girls'  camps,  and  in  the  popular  mind,  the  close 
relationship  between  efficient  work  and  good  health  is  being 
daily  more  clearly  recognized. 

The  homemaker  of  today  must  allow  for  definite  health 
care  in  her  daily  schedule.  Housekeeping  will  be  drudgery 
or  the  reverse  largely  through  her  physical  ability  to  meet 
the  work-demands  of  house  tasks,  and  her  mental  ability  to 
withstand  the  tension  of  childbearing  and  child  care.  But 
the  aim  must  be,  not  to  see  just  how  much  strain  they  can 
endure,  as  much  as  to  see  how  great  they  can  make  their 
strength  to  accomplish  more  work.  Far  too  many  women 
pride  themselves  on  "what  they  can  do,"  rather  than  on 
"what  they  are,"  and  refuse  to  take  time  to  build  up  their 
surplus  vitality  so  that  it  shall  be  equal  to  the  tasks  and 
demands  imposed  by  the  three-fold  service  of  housekeeper, 
wife,  and  mother. 

There  are  several  definite  factors  which  the  homemaker 
must  consider  in  her  efforts  to  secure  and  retain  health  as 
a  basis  for  personal  efficiency : 

I. — Air  and  sleeping  conditions. 

2. — Food  and  eating  habits. 

3. — Posture  and  comfort  needs. 

4. — Fatigue  and  balanced  work  conditions. 

5. — Clothing. 


6. — Exercise  of  the  body  for  recuperation. 

7. — Exercise  of  the  mind,  emotion  and  aesthetic  sens^. 

8. — Mental  attitude  toward  her  work. 


We  can  live  for  days  without  eating  and  drinking,  but  we 
cannot  live  without  air  for  more  than  a  few  minutes.  The 
homemaker,  who  spends  possibly  60  to  80  per  cent  of  her 
time  indoors,  must  be  sure  to  see  that  the  air  supply  she 
breathes  is  adequate  and  changed  sufficiently  often.  Moving 
air  is  of  far  more  value  than  still  air,  for  we  take  in  about 
one-fifth  the  expired  breath  when  there  are  no  air  currents ; 
therefore  windows  should  be  opened  from  the  top,  and  doors 
opened  to  give  cross  ventilation,  or  a  horizontal  window- 
ventilating  board  inserted  beneath  the  lower  sash  in  winter. 
House  temperature  should  be  about  60-68  degrees,  not 
higher,  since  heat  is  debilitating,  and  overheated  rooms  are 
responsible  for  far  more  sickness  than  colder  rooms  which 
are  more  invigorating.  It  is  excellent  to  accustom  oneself 
to  a  low  temperature  and  not  "coddle"  oneself  as  many 
homemakers  do  by  becoming  so  used  to  indoors  that  they 
are  not  hardened,  and  are  therefore  more  subject  to  cold, 
grippe,  etc.  House  air  should  also  be  moist,  since  in  cold 
dry  weather  it  is  estimated  that  the  air  supply  of  a  house 
needs  at  least  ten  gallons  of  water  every  24  hours. 

The  need  for  constantly  changed  air  in  the  kitchen,  where 
the  homemaker  spends  so  much  time,  bears  repeating  (see 
page  42).  If  the  house  is  constantly  permeated  with  cook- 
ing odors,  then  there  is  decidedly  something  wrong  or  lacking 
with  the  ventilation  measures,  which  should  be  remedied. 
A  professor  friend  of  the  author's  constantly  refers  slight- 
ingly to,  "The  Home — the  Museum  of  Smell  and  Taste." 
Certainly  too  many  homes,  and  particularly  kitchens,  are 


so  badly  aired  that  the  worker  becomes  overheated,  faint, 
and  enervated  as  she  stands  at  stove  or  bends  over  sink. 

Again,  dust  is  a  big  enemy  of  the  houseworker ;  house 
conditions  should  be  such  as  to  permit  the  least  dust  to  col- 
lect ;  the  carpet  sweeper,  the  vacuum  cleaner,  oil  dusters  and 
small  removable  rugs  are  important  not  so  much  as  labor- 
savers  as  because  they  minimize  the  number  of  impurities 
and  disease  germs,  especially  those  which  attack  the  nose 
and  throat  and  come  from  expectorations  and  dirt  tracked 
into  the  house. 

Even  if  the  homemaker  finds  it  difficult  to  have  a  constant 
supply  of  fresh  air  in  the  house  during  the  day,  there  is  one 
time  when  she  can  control  the  air  supply,  and  that  is  at  night. 
The  modern  sleeping  porch  has  come  to  stay,  and  outdoor 
sleeping  is  no  longer  a  fad.  Such  outdoor  sleeping  should 
appeal  to  woman,  so  many  of  whose  hours  are  spent  in  con- 
fining rooms,  especially  in  apartment  or  small  city  houses. 
Night  air  is  purer  than  day  air,  being  free  from  smoke,  rising 
dust,  etc.  Some  women  may  say,  "Oh,  but  I  always  sleep 
with  both  windows  open."  But  there  is  no  comparison  be- 
tween outdoor  sleeping,  and  rest  taken  for  7-8  hours  in  an 
indoor  room,  however  well  ventilated,  which  has  been  heated 
and  occupied  during  the  day  and  subject  to  house  odors. 
Any  porch,  up  or  downstairs,  can  be  screened,  or  be  fitted 
with  swinging  windows  at  little  expense ;  or  a  sleeping  porch 
can  be  "built  on,"  thus  greatly  enlarging  the  sleeping-room 
capacity  of  the  house. 

The  secret  of  successful,  comfortable,  outdoor  sleeping 
is  to  have  as  many  blankets  under  as  over  the  sleeper.  The 
author  has  slept  outdoors  for  five  years  with  marked  benefit 
to  health.  Two  of  her  children  have  never  slept  indoors, 
and  even  as  this  chapter  is  being  written,  the  baby  four 
months  old,  has  been  sleeping  outdoors  in  a  temperature  of 


2  below,  with  splendid  results  in  uninterrupted  night  sleep 
from  9  p.  m.  to  6  a.  m.,  with  no  feedings  between.  Outdoor 
sleeping  increases  the  supply  of  fresh  air,  which  in  turn 
stimulates  digestion  and  gives  additional  repose  to  the  nerves. 
Some  families  spend  large  sums  spasmodically,  going  to  ex- 
pensive health  resorts,  when  they  might  every  night  secure 
free,  in  their  own  locality,  air  just  as  pure  and  invigorating. 
Only  one  glance  at  the  annual  statistics  showing  the  fearful 
mortality  from  tuberculosis — a  "house  disease" — through- 
out the  nation,  should  induce  every  homemaker  to  urge  out- 
door sleeping  on  herself  and  her  family,  so  that  they  can  by 
this  little  at  least,  combat  the  increasing  evils  of  confining 
business  and  industrial  life. 

Single  beds  always  permit  more  comfort;  and  it  is  to  be 
hoped  that  the  sensible  habit  of  having  separate  beds  for 
each  parent  and  member  of  the  family  will  become  even 
more  popular.  The  homemaker,  especially,  should  try  by  all 
means  to  secure  private,  uninterrupted  sleep  for  7-8  hours 
to  enable  her  to  "carry  on"  to  the  end  of  the  busy  day  which 
usually  falls  to  her  share. 


Much  has  been  said  about  feeding  the  family  and  using  the 
"balanced  ration" ;  yet  it  appears  that  women,  and  particu- 
larly hpmemakers,  do  not  give  as  much  attention  to  their 
own  eating  habits  as  they  should.  It  has  been  found  that 
more  women  doing  housework  are  either  over,  or  under 
weight  than  women  in  outside  occupations ;  large  numbers 
of  homemakers  from  35-50  years  of  age  are  carrying  excess 
fat.  Tho  this  may  be  due  to  other  contributing  causes,  it 
must  be  admitted  that  many  women  overeat,  compared  to 
their  needs  based  on  their  height  and  the  work  that  they  do. 


Many  women  say,  "Oh,  I  know  I'm  fat,  but  I  feel  all  right 
anyway."  Nevertheless  such  women  should  practice  those 
habits  which  will  keep  weight  down  automatically,  no  matter 
how  well  they  feel,  because  (i)  excess  fat  is  unattractive 
from  the  appearance  standpoint;  (2)  overweight  after  35 
years  (according  to  the  best  insurance  statistics)  is  closely 
associated  with  a  high  death  rate;  (3)  and  excess  weight 
particularly  handicaps  efficiency  in  work  or  recreation. 

Every  homemaker,  then,  should  closely  estimate  her  own 
dietary.  If  she  has  servants  and  merely  makes  the  beds  or 
does  light  dusting,  etc.,  then  she  needs  only  approximately 
1,800-2,400  calories  daily ;  but  if  she  does  most  of  her  house- 
work, including  the  heavier  work  of  room  cleaning,  laundry 
work,  etc.,  then  she  will  need  more  nearly  2,500-2,800 
calories.  (See  page  331.) 








4  ft.    8  in 


5  ft.  2  in. 

...   124 

5  ft.    8  in. 

.  .  .   146 

4  ft.    9  in 

....   114 

5  ft.  3  in. 

...   127 

5  ft.    9  in. 

.  ..   150 

4  ft.  10  in 

....   116 

5  ft.  4  in. 

...   131 

5  ft.  10  in. 

...   154 

4  ft.  ii  in 

....   118 

5  ft.  5  in. 

...   134 

5  ft.  ii  in. 

...   157 



5  ft  6  in. 

...   138 

6  ft. 

...   161 

5  ft.     i  in 

.  .  .  .    122 

5  ft  7  in. 

.  ..   142 

(From  the  tables   compiled  by   forty  insurance  companies,  and 
published  by  the  Association  of  Life  Insurance  Medical  Directors.) 


One  of  the  chief  evils  of  which  women  permit  themselves 
to  become  victims,  is  the  habit  of  constipation,  and  poor  elim- 
ination of  the  colon  and  alimentary  tract.  Thousands  and 
thousands  of  women  habitually  suffer  from  headaches,  diz- 
ziness, fatigue  and  similar  symptoms,  which  are  directly  trac- 
able  to  an  overstuffed  and  inadequately  emptied  colon,  or 


lower  bowel.  Physicians  call  such  conditions  "auto-intoxi- 
cation," meaning  that  the  contents  and  poisons  of  the  intes- 
tines which  are  not  removed  quickly  enough,  "back  up" 
(just  like  an  overful  waste  pipe  or  sewer)  and  thus  poison 
the  blood  supply.  It  is  this  poisoning  of  the  blood  with 
waste  and  decaying  food  residues,  that  makes  the  "head- 
aches," the  "tired  feeling"  of  which  so  many  women  con- 
stantly complain.  Many  women  think  they  are  "tired"  from 
work,  whereas  the  truth  is  that  they  are  suffering  from  a 
slow  poisoning  of  their  systems  due  solely  to  inactive,  slug- 
gish elimination  of  food  waste.  Three  times  a  day  is  the 
natural,  normal  evacuation  of  the  bowels,  or  a  movement 
after  each  meal  to  keep  the  system  in  the  most  healthful 
condition;  once  a  day  is  the  minimum. 

Medicines  and  dangerous  cathartics  which  irritate  and 
often  induce  after  effects  of  marked  constipation  should 
never  be  used.  There  are  foods  and  diets  which  will  nor- 
mally gain  the  same  results,  and  the  homemaker,  as  a  special- 
ist in  food  values,  should  be  the  very  woman  to  make  intelli- 
gent use  of  such  diets  to  improve  her  own  health  and  thus 
retain  and  increase  her  personal  efficiency.  Anti-constipa- 
tion measures  are:  (i)  Much  more  "bulk"  or  "roughage" 
foods  like  the  coarser  vegetables,  carrots,  spinach,  cabbage, 
celery  (especially  eaten  raw),  and  the  green  foods  like  let- 
tuce, chicory,  romaine  need  be  eaten ;  (2)  "roughage"  in  the 
form  of  coarsely  ground  cereals,  particularly  bran,  which 
may  be  eaten  in  some  form  at  every  meal,  whole  oatmeal, 
cracked  wheat,  and  coarse  flours  and  breads;  (3)  raw  fruits 
like  oranges,  pears,  grapes,  berries,  and  such  dried  ones  as 
figs,  prunes,  raisins ;  (4)  avoidance  of  coffee  and  tea,  which 
both  stimulate  and  derange  the  liver  and  digestion ;  (5)  min- 
imum of  meat,  especially  the  red  meats ;  (6)  liberal  drink- 
ing of  water  or  fruit  juices,  from  2-3  quarts  per  day,  between 


Emphasis  is  here  laid  on  this  point  of  right  feeding  and 
adequate  elimination,  because  no  one  other  single  health 
point  is  so  vital  to  women's  efficiency  and  so  generally 
neglected,  with  the  result  of  "nerves,"  irritability,  and  greatly 
impaired  work  power.  As  a  class,  too,  women  overeat  of 
sweets  and  undereat  on  strengthening  foods,  as  compared 
with  men.  They  have  delighted  in  the  unhealthful  fineness 
of  bolted  white  flour,  the  excessive  sweet  of  preserves,  jams, 
and  dessert  fripperies.  Women  in  the  home,  as  well  as  in 
business,  tend  to  prefer  chocolate,  puddings,  and  starchy 
foods,  wrongly  using  a  less  quantity  of  protein,  vegetables, 
and  fresh  fruits  than  they  should.  This  excess  sweet  is  fa- 
vorable to  teeth  decay,  "acid  mouth,"  etc.,  and  unfavorable 
to  the  strong  muscle  and  blood  development  necessary  if 
women  are  to  work  efficiently  at  maximum  output  of  both 
their  muscle  and  their  mental  power. 


Again,  many  women  who  do  their  own  housework  habit- 
ually undereat  or  have  contracted  wrong  eating  habits.  Fre- 
quently such  thin,  nervous  women  and  quick  workers  allow 
themselves  to  "eat  any  old  time."  Now,  there  is  a  bodily 
"rhythm"  in  every  bodily  act,  and  once  the  muscles  have 
adjusted  to  a  definite  eating  interval  (or  any  other  definite 
interval),  that  period  should  be  observed,  even  tho  we  eat 
only  a  small  quantity  at  a  time.  Many  thin,  nervous  women 
are  exceedingly  rapid  workers  and  can  just  "pitch  in  and  do 
wonders"  in  a  short  time.  Ofter  they  get  started  on  a  spe- 
cial stretch  of  work,  key  themselves  up,  and  then  refuse  to 
sit  down  and  eat  until  this  long,  badly  planned  work  stretch 
is  finished.  The  chances  are  that  at  the  end  of  this  pro- 
longed strain,  they  either  don't  eat  at  all,  or  they  eat  hastily 
and  ravenously. 


Another  wrong  habit  practiced  by  women  who  are  at  home 
alone  during  the  day  is  to  "seize  a  snack"  of  cold' stuff  from 
the  pantry  and  eat  it  hurriedly  instead  of  taking  time  to  pre- 
pare a  warm  dish.  One  should  never  eat  when  tired;  never 
eat  heartily  before  active  physical  work;  never  eat  when  the 
body  feels  "tense,"  or  when  suffering  from  excitement  or 
anger.  Definite  regular  meal  periods  must  therefore  be 
included  in  the  daily  work  schedule,  and  work  so  planned  as 
to  avoid  excessive  long  stretches  of  effort  without  adequate 
"rest  periods." 


"Oh,  but  I  get  so  tired  doing  housework,"  is  the  complaint 
of  many  women.  Now,  I  ask  fairly,  is  it  the  work  itself 
which  makes  the  "tired,"  or  is  it  the  way  it  is  done?  Is  it 
dishwashing  as  a  piece  of  manual  work,  or  is  it  the  stooping 
over  a  low  sink?  Is  it  the  paring  of  vegetables,  or  is  it  the 
standing  the  slouchy  way,  weight  on  one  hip?  In  other 
words,  too  often  blame  is  laid  upon  the  task  itself,  which 
should  be  put  upon  conditions  or  the  manner  under  which 
the  work  is  done.  Right  posture  is  an  essential  point  in  work 
efficiency.  Frequently  there  is  a  slouchy  poise,  particularly 
while  standing  before  table  or  stove ;  the  weight  may  be  bal- 
anced unevenly,  or  the  shoulders  allowed  to  stoop,  thus  keep- 
ing the  chest  in  and  not  permitting  proper  breathing.  Now 
a  slouchy  posture  causes  the  blood  to  stagnate  in  the  liver, 
and  causes  a  feeling  of  mental  confusion  and  despondency, 
and  is  often  the  cause  of  chronically  cold  hands  and  feet. 

Again,  if  the  abdomen  is  constantly  held  relaxed,  the  re- 
sults are  very  bad,  as  this  posture  interferes  with  digestion, 
and  is  a  contributing  cause  of  many  women's  diseases.  For 
these  reasons  some  form  of  corset  or  abdominal  belt  or 
supporter  should  always  be  worn  when  doing  the  manual 


tasks  of  housework,  especially  by  women  who  have  had 
children  and  whose  abdomen  is  unduly  relaxed  from  child- 

Flat  feet  and  broken  arches  are  also  more  common  in 
women  than  in  men,  largely  due  to  faulty  standing,  which 
places  unnecessary  strain  on  the  arches  of  the  foot.  More 
sensible  shoes  with  broader  heels  will  help,  as  well  as  always 
trying  to  stand  in  a  poised  symmetrical  way  with  weight  on 
balls  of  feet,  not  against  the  spine.  Often  the  leg  muscles  ar^ 
weak,  which  fault  may  be  remedied  by  more  vigorous  exer- 
cise, running,  tennis,  etc.  Many  times  wrong  posture  is  held 
just  because  the  matter  is  not  given  thought,  as  stooping  over 
to  hold  a  long-handle  floor  mop,  or  picking  up  a  bucket  with 
the  weight  thrown  on  the  spine  instead  of  on  the  shoulders, 
etc.  Keep  the  chest  up,  and,  above  all,  practice  deep-breath- 
ing exercises,  as  it  is  practically  impossible  to  breathe  deeply 
and  hold  a  very  bad  posture. 


If  the  bad  posture  results  from  wrong  heights  of  working 
surfaces,  a  small  change  will  usually  remedy  this  (see  pages 
37-39).  The  sitting  posture  is  always  more  efficient  and  less 
fatiguing  than  the  standing  position.  It  is  quite  easy  to  wash 
dishes,  iron,  make  cake,  pare  vegetables,  etc.,  while  in  a  sit- 
ting  posture,  and  this  principle  should  be  followed  and  not 
let  it  be  regarded  as  "lazy  to  sit  down."  Do  not  make  the 
mistake  of  thinking  that  standing  is  exercise,  or  that  to  sit 
down  at  work  is  a  sign  of  weakness  or  inefficiency,  as  many 
women  do  so  regard  it.  On  the  contrary,  in  factories  and 
industries  without  number,  work  chairs  and  benches  have 
been  installed  for  tasks  at  which  the  worker  formerly  stood 
up,  with  the  result  that  the  workers  have  done  the  same  or 
even  a  greater  amount  of  work  with  far  less  fatigue. 



For  some  women,  the  typical  office  "high  stool"  is  com- 
fortable. For  others,  especially  women  of  heavier  weight 
and  figure,  it  is  most  uncomfortable  to  thus  perch  on  a  small 
sitting  surface  with  the  legs  drawn  up  or  left  hanging  with- 
out foot  rest.  For  such  women  some  form  o,f  modified 
kitchen  chair  on  4-8  inch  blocks  of  wood,  with  casters,  to  give 
additional  height,  will  be  found  preferable.  The  author  uses 
in  her  kitchen  an  adjustable,  so-called  "library"  or  office 
chair,  with  both  adjustable  back  and  seat,  so  that  it  may 
be  raised  or  lowered  to  exactly  fit  the  working  surface  at 
which  it  is  temporarily  used.  Generally  some  kind  of  foot 
rest,  such  as  a  narrow  board,  should  be  nailed  to  the  legs  of 
the  chair,  as  there  is  still  less  fatigue  if  the  feet  are  sup- 
ported ;  indeed,  no  sitting  position  with  the  legs  hanging 
should  ever  be  held  for  a  long  period. 


The  power  to  relax  is  one  habit  which  every  homemaker 
must  acquire  if  she  does  not  know  how  already.  Some  people 
even  sleep  without  relaxing !  Relaxation  consists  in  making 
the  body  "limp"  and  letting  the  tension  of  both  muscles  and 
nerves  entirely  disappear.  While  it  can  be  practiced  in  a 
sitting  position,  it  is  always  best  to  relax  lying  down.  It 
may  be  put  down  as  a  rule  that  every  homemaker  should  at 
least  once  a  day  lie  down  in  a  relaxed  position  from  ten  to 
twenty  minutes.  This  is  best  taken  by  lying  on  a  couch 
or  bed  flat  on  the  stomach,  arms  hanging  limp  at  sides.  Dur- 
ing such  a  horizontal  position  of  the  body,  the  blood  pressure 
becomes  less,  and  thus  the  cell  walls  are  rested;  also,  it 
greatly  strengthens  the  sex  organs,  many  of  whose  ailments 
arise  from  too  constant  standing. 

A  noted  woman,  now  elderly,  and  famous  for  the  extent 
and  variety  of  her  interests,  gives  it  as  a  positive  injunction 


to  women  that  they  lie  down  a  half  hour  each  day  if  they 
would  be  free  of  "nerves"  and  have  better  health.  Even  a 
five-minute  rest  in  a  reclining  posture  gives  much  more  rest 
than  a  much  longer  period  taken  in  even  a  comfortable  chair. 
It  is  a  faulty  American  habit,  and  especially  practiced  by 
women,  to  use  "rocking  chairs."  There  is  no  rest  in  a  "com- 
fortable" rocking  chair !  It  dissipates  energy  and  makes  for 
nerves.  Try  to  use  the  Morris,  wing-back,  and  square  library 
types  of  chairs  instead.  The  horizontal  relaxing  may  often 
best  be  taken  in  the  late  afternoon  before  commencing  the 
busy  supper  preparations  necessitating  standing;  mothers 
with  young  children  whose  sleep  is  disturbed  at  night  should 
by  all  means  "make  up"  with  a  day  nap,  generally  when  the 
baby  sleeps  also. 


One  of  the  chief  aims  of  household  efficiency  has  thus 
been  the  elimination  of  fatigue.  By  standardizing  dishwash- 
ing (see  page  78),  by  using  a  power  washer  instead  of  the 
hands,  by  sitting  down  to  work,  etc.,  much  of  the  fatigue 
accompanying  work  can  be  eliminated,  as  has  been  shown. 
The  reason  we  wish  to  eliminate  all  possible  fatigue  is  not 
only  because  waste  time  and  effort  result  in  actual  money 
loss,  but  because  fatigue  has  a  direct  relation  to  the  personal 
efficiency  of  the  worker.  The  "all-tired-out"  woman  isn't 
either  a  successful  housekeeper,  or  a  happy  mother,  or  a 
helpful  member  of  the  community.  It  has  been  proved  that 
the  recovery  from  normal  fatigue  can  be  quickly  made  with 
a  small  amount  of  rest,  but  "That  it  takes  more  than  twice  the 
amount  of  rest  to  recuperate  from  twice  the  normal  amount 
of  fatigue."  (Gilbreth.) 

To  prevent  a  more  than  normal  amount  of   fatigue  in 


household  tasks,  then,  the  homemaker  should  make  a  "sur- 
vey" or  study  of  all  her  work  conditions  and  remedy  them 
as  much  as  possible  either  by  different  location  of  equipment 
(see  pages  21-37),  by  tne  use  °f  improved  tools  (see  Chapter 
III)  or  by  different  methods  of  work  (see  Chapter  II), 
remembering  that  light,  height  of  working  surface,  air,  pos- 
ture, heat,  clothing  are  also  factors  which  make  for  fatigue 
or  the  reverse.  Next,  after  eliminating  the  unnecessary 
amount  of  fatigue,  she  must  distribute  the  normal  fatigue  in 
a  balanced  way.  Now,  any  period  of  work  may  be  repre- 
sented by  a  "graphic  curve,"  which  will  vary  at  different 
periods.  In  business  we  frequently  hear  of  "three-o'clock" 
fatigue  common  among  office  workers;  in  industries,  the 
fatigue  may  be  most  marked  at  certain  other  hours  of  the 
day.  We  call  this  hour  or  time  when  the  fatigue  is  most 
noticeable,  the  "peak-load." 

Housework,  like  any  other  work,  may  be  represented  by 
a  graphic  curve.  The  author  sent  a  questionnaire  to  100 
women  who  did  their  own  housework,  and  from  their  many 
replies  prepared  a  graphic  chart  of  housework  for  the 
period  of  one  working  day.  This  chart  shows  that  in  the 
period  from  7  a.  m.  to  7  p.  m.  there  were  two  distinct  "peak- 
loads" — one  at  about  2  p.  m.  and  the  other  at  7  p.  m.  The 
location  of  these  peak-loads  in  any  individual  case  will,  of 
course,  depend  on  exactly  what  work  is  done  in  the  period — 
the  "load"  on  a  wash  day  coming  perhaps  at  a  different  time 
from  a  day  on  which  rooms  were  cleaned,  or  sewing  done. 

There  are  two  objects  which  the  housekeeper  must  strive 
to  achieve  in  relation  to  these  "loads"  as  they  occur  in  her 
own  individual  housework: 

i . — Prevent  the  "peak"  from  mounting  so  high  by  better 
planning  of  the  work  schedule. 


2. — Prepare  and  be  ready  to  meet  the  "peak"  when  it 

If,  in  your  particular  case,  the  "peak"  rises  at  2  p.  m.  and 
you  find  yourself  unusually  fatigued  at  this  hour,  you  may 
prevent  the  "peak"  very  greatly  by  better  scheduling  of  your 
work  in  the  morning  so  that  you  are  not  so  fatigued  at  this 
hour.  If  7  o'clock,  the  after-supper  hour,  seems  again  to  be 
the  most  wearisome,  then  this,  too,  may  be  changed  if  a  rest 
is  taken  in  the  late  afternoon,  or  if  much  of  the  supper  prep- 
aration is  made  in  advance.  In  other  words,  better  schedul- 
ing (see  Chapter  II)  so  as  to  more  evenly  balance  the  work- 
periods  will  do  much  to  lessen  definite  fatigue  points  of  the 
working  day. 

Again,  if  a  certain  "peak"  of  the  day  must  be  necessarily 
high,  and  nothing  you  can  do  by  planning  will  change  it  from 
that  hour,  then  you  must  prepare  to  meet  it  by  coming  to  it  in 
a  rested  condition  by  making  extra  advance  preparations,  etc. 
For  instance,  5  130  in  the  author's  house  is  a  very  trying 
"peak-load"  indeed.  It  is  the  children's  supper  hour;  it  is 
the  time  when  the  baby  is  undressed  and  bathed  for  the 
night ;  and  the  time  when  the  other  members  of  the  family 
corne  home  from  business.  No  better  scheduling  will  alter 
these  facts.  Therefore,  they  must  be  met  as  efficiently  as 
possible.  The  table  set  in  advance,  several  supper  foods 
pre-cooked,  the  bath  materials  laid  ready,  the  homemaker 
rested  by  a  reclining  nap,  and  refreshingly  dressed,  all  help 
to  meet  this  "peak-load"  with  the  minimum  of  friction,  hurry, 
and  energy. 

In  all  cases,  heavy  work  like  wall  cleaning,  sweeping, 
laundry,  etc.,  should  be  followed  by  periods  of  sitting  work. 
Again,  excessive  sitting  should  be  interchanged  with  stand- 
ing or  walking  around.  It  may  be  given  as  a  rule,  that  the 


more  strenuous  the  work,  the  longer  should  be  the  duration 
cf  the  "rest"  period  (or  whatever  means  is  taken  to  counter- 
act the  fatigue)  and  the  more  frequent  the  rest  periods 
should  be  made.  It  is  a  conimon  mistake,  especially  of  ener- 
getic women,  to  start  a  "spurt"  of  work,  and  "see  it  right 
through"  without  stopping.  In  general,  it  may  be  said  that  a 
two-hour  interval  of  one  kind  of  work  is  long  enough,  and 
that  every  two  hours  there  should  be  even  a  slight  rest,  relax- 
ation, change  of  posture,  music,  or  mental  interest. 

When  you  think  you  just  can't  possibly  wash  another  dish, 
go  and  put  a  stirring  march  record  on  the  phonograph,  or 
when  your  back  gets  tired  at  the  stooping  cleaning  work,  put 
on  a  polka  or  a  schottisch  and  see  what  music  does  to  sweep 
away  fatigue!  A  face  sponge,  a  clean  waist,  or  a  cup  of 
malted  milk  are  other  first-aids  to  relaxation. 

More  work  can  be  done  if  the  worker  applies  herself  stead- 
ily over  short  periods  than  if  she  works  less  steadily,  or  too 
steadily  over  prolonged  periods. 


Another  source  of  fatigue  is  found  in  disorderly,  upset 
kitchens  and  overcrowded  sinks,  and  rooms  which  have  been 
allowed  to  "look  like  a  sight."  From  the  efficiency  point  of 
view  such  overcrowding  should  never  be  allowed  to  happen, 
not  only  because  it  causes  excessive  bodily  fatigue  to  clean 
up  such  unusual  confusion,  but  chiefly  because  disorder  cre- 
ates mental  fatigue  of  a  severe  kind.  "Clutter"  causes  the 
worker  to  become  discouraged,  and  this  in  turn  lowers  her 
work  efficiency.  Therefore,  those  methods  which  prevent 
confusion,  such  as  definite  place  for  grouped  equipment,  the 
cleaning  up  of  mixing  bowls  in  cooking,  the  "pick-up-as- 
you-go"  habit,  are  to  be  followed  not  only  because  they  save 
time,  but  because  they  save  emotional  fatigue. 



Clothing  should  serve  these  five  purposes :  ( I )  moderate 
warmth;  (2)  ventilation;  (3)  freedom  from  pressure;  (4) 
cleanliness;  (5)  aesthetic  appeal.  Much  fatigue  (and  thus 
lowered  personal  efficiency)  is  caused  by  too  heavy  under- 
wear which  does  not  permit  ventilation  to  the  skin.  Fatigue 
is  also  caused  by  working  in  too  tight  clothing  instead  of 
doing  such  work  as  heavy  cleaning  in  bloomers  and  middy 
blouse,  thus  freeing  the  legs  from  restriction.  (See  pages 
167-168.)  Clean  or  new  clothing  also  acts  as  an  important 
antidote  against  fatigue  by  increasing  the  feelings  of  pleas- 
ure, change,  and  visual  satisfaction  in  color,  form,  and  tex- 
ture which  it  gives  the  wearer. 

A  whole  chapter  could  be  written  on  the  one  point  alone 
of  women's  general  clothing  and  its  relation  to  their  personal 
efficiency.  Most  home  women  spend  entirely  too  much  time 
and  emphasis  on  the  subject  of  clothing;  they  have  numerous 
changes  and  dresses  which  are  too  elaborate  and  whic  h  are 
made  according  to  the  arbitrary  whims  of  fashion.  It  is  a 
lamentable  fact  that  while  home  women  (more  than  business 
women)  spend  literally  days  of  time  thinking,  discussing  and 
making  clothing,  they  spend  almost  no  time  in  originating 
clothes  to  suit  their  personality,  either  in  color  and  line  or  in 
developing  such  dresses  that  will  make  for  more  efficient  work 
or  greater  (esthetic  appeal.  Instead  of  studying  their  own  body 
proportions  and  the  colors  that  would  enhance  their  good 
points,  and  making  clothing  to  emphasize  the  beauty  of  these 
proportions  and  colors,  they  mistakenly  follow  "fashion." 
Thus  the  home  woman  is  constantly  "altering"  this  and  that 
gown  to  adjust  to  fashion's  vagaries,  no  matter  whether  they 
suit  her  or  not,  and  if  she  has  growing  daughters,  the  appal- 
ing  amount  of  time  that  this  takes,  and  the  inharmonious 


clothes  that  result,  certainly  detract  from  her  personal  effi- 
ciency— an  amount  of  time  and  effort  which  could  be  devoted 
to  other  interests  with  far  more  profitable  results. 

Similarly,  many  women  with  children,  especially  girls, 
follow  standards  of  dress  for  their  children  which  are  out 
of  all  proportion  to  their  standards  of  living  in  other  respects. 
They  put  lace-fringed  white  petticoats  and  embroidered 
white  dresses  on  little  girls,  and  make  for  them  clothing  which 
does  not  allow  the  highest  comfort  or  make  the  child  look  its 
best.  They  make  the  mistake  of  thinking  that  "hand  tucks" 
and  embroidery — the  details  of  clothing — give  to  dress  that 
beauty  which  is  based  only  on  the  selection  of  right  colors 
and  proportionate  lines  and  form — if  these  be  wrong  and 
inartistic,  no  amount  of  needlework  will  cover  it  up !  More 
time  should  be  devoted  to  a  study  of  the  design  and  textures 
of  clothing  and  less  to  the  details  of  construction.  Every 
woman  should  try  and  design  for  herself,  or  have  designed 
for  her,  one  work  dress  which  best  fits  her  needs  and  one 
house-gown  for  home  wear  which  is  artistic  and  brings  out 
her  "best  points" — regardless  of  fashion.  These  two  can 
then  be  copied  in  many  materials  to  give  variety,  yet  their 
making  will  always  be  more  standardized  and  less  time- 
taking  than  regular  clothing,  besides  assuring  that  the  design, 
line  and  form  on  which  they  are  made  needs  no  "altering" 
twice  a  year,  but  is  always  such  as  will  best  express  the 
personality  and  emotion  of  the  woman  who  wears  them. 

Further,  the  time  consumed  in  the  dressing  process  is  often 
out  of  all  proportion  to  its  results  or  necessity.  One  of  the 
minor  but  still  important  details  in  developing  the  woman's 
personal  efficiency  is  to  see  how  easily  and  quickly  she  can 
make  her  dressing  schedule,  and  reduce  such  a  mechanical 
process  of  repeated  daily  occurrence  to  the  minimum.  It 
may  be  interesting  to  know  that  in  a  series  of  time  tests  on 


dressing,  it  was  found  that  a  woman  could  easily  dress  for 
the  street  in  ten  minutes,  or  for  a  formal  function  in  twenty 
minutes,  if  she  followed  a  standard  practice  and  kept  her 
mind  on  what  she  was  doing! 


"What,  take  more  exercise  when  I  do  all  my  own  house- 
work ?"  many  women  may  exclaim  in  surprise.  In  general, 
all  women  in  the  home  take  too  little  exercise  to  keep  them  in 
good  condition,  and  to  enable  them  to  store  up  surplus  vital- 
ity. Most  housework  is  done  indoors,  does  not  give  a  chance 
for  increased  air  supply  and  invigoration ;  second,  cooking, 
dusting  and  the  like  are  all  relatively  slow  work  as  compared 
with  tennis,  golf,  basket-ball  or  such  sports  for  women.  It  is 
seldom  that  housework  makes  a  woman  perspire  and  get 
into  that  "glow"  which  is  so  essential  to  perfect  condition. 
And  last,  few  women  get  into  housework  the  "play"  idea 
which  the  best  forms  of  exercise  give. 

Therefore,  the  homemaker,  above  all  other  women,  needs 
to  indulge  in  daily  outdoor  exercise  and  sports,  particularly 
such  as  develop  the  leg  muscles.  A  woman  thinks  she  is  so 
tired  from  housework  that  she  cannot  take  other  exercise, 
and  makes  the  mistake  of  thinking  that  "rest"  always  con- 
sists in  lying  down  or  taking  a  warm  bath,  etc.  On  the  con- 
trary, she  should  take  that  form  of  outdoor  exercise  which 
would  not  only  offer  her  a  change  of  scene,  but  which  would 
so  develop  her  as  to  enable  her  to  stand  the  strain  of  the 
unusual  standing  and  "tracking"  she  may  have  to  do.  A  quick 
walk  of  at  least  two  or  three  miles  daily  is  an  absolute  neces- 
sity. Or  if  she  can  indulge  weekly  in  tennis,  golf,  swimming, 
or  plain  gymnastics,  she  will  receive  great  benefit. 

Any  woman  who  thinks  she  "doesn't  need  exercise"  should 


watch  her  breathing  when  she  runs  for  a  car,  or  compare 
herself  with  women  who  are  noted  swimmers,  golfers,  etc.  It 
is  a  peculiar  delusion  of  many  women  to  fail  to  see  that 
exercise  develops  reserve  nerve  force  as  well  as  muscular 
resistance.  Often  they  look  at  exercises  as  entirely  unneces- 
sary, thinking  that  the  slow,  and  often  puttery  work  of  stand- 
ing, sitting,  tracking  housework  is  genuine  exercise.  Isn't  it 
unusual  for  the  average  married  woman  to  take  time  for  out- 
door sports  ?  Doesn't  the  term  "housekeeper"  usually  carry 
with  it  a  "settled"  stay-in-the-kitchen  sort  of  woman  who  no 
longer  follows  many  of  the  sports  in  which,  perhaps,  as  a 
girl  she  excelled  ?  Yet  need  this  be  so  ?  Real,  vigorous  daily 
outdoor  exercise  is  demanded  of  every  homemaker  who 
wishes  to  keep  her  efficiency  at  the  top  notch. 

Thousands  of  women  think  that  as  homemakers  they  are 
"overworked."  Some,  indeed,  are  working  beyond  their 
strength.  But  the  plain  facts  are  that  most  of  these  thou- 
sands of  women  who  think  they  are  being  overworked  are 
instead  victims  of  bad  air,  wrong  diet,  poor  elimination, 
body  poisons,  lack  of  exercise  and  worry  and  mental  disquiet. 
They  make  the  mistake  of  thinking  that  because  they  are 
"tired"  it  is  work  which  is  fatiguing  them.  They  fail  to 
see  that  most  often  it  is  not  the  work  of  the  house,  but  these 
other  wrong  living  habits  that  cause  the  fatigue  and  weak- 
ness. There  are  some  women,  perhaps,  working  beyond  their 
capacity,  but  on  the  other  hand  their  working  capacity  is 
only  a  fraction  of  what  it  would  be  if  they  took  exercise,  if 
they  were  not  constipated,  if  they  did  not  eat  wrong  foods, 
if  they  did  not  worry !  There  is  no  better  economy  in  life 
than  to  keep  up  one's  working  power,  and  the  homemaker  on 
whom  not  only  the  work  of  the  home  depends,  but  also  its 
guidance  in  educational  and  spiritual  needs,  must  keep  up 
her  working  power  by  strict  attention  to  right  living  habits. 



Finally,  it  is  an  excellent  plan  to  have  a  "survey"  or  diag- 
nosis made  annually  of  all  body  conditions  and  organs,  even 
tho  the  woman  may  feel  in  perfect  health.  Never  was  the 
saying,  "a  stitch  in  time,"  more  applicable.  We  all  know 
the  tooth  which  decays  entirely,  when  a  tiny  filling  the  year 
previous  might  have  saved  it.  So,  too,  such  a  "survey"  of 
heart,  blood  pressure,  sex  organs,  eyes,  teeth,  etc.,  may  reveal 
slight  indications  of  wrong  which,  taken  in  time,  will  never 
become  the  aggravated  symptoms  and  illness  they  might 
develop  into  if  unobserved  at  the  start.  One  week  spent  in 
a  sanitarium  under  the  constant  observation  of  trained  health 
specialists  will  more  than  repay  the  cost,  especially  if  the 
woman  later  follows  the  course  of  diet,  or  exercise,  or 
hygiene  planned  for  her  special  problems. 


There  was  a  recent  widespread  discussion  on  the  point  of 
whether  the  home  woman  did  not  allow  herself  to  stagnate 
mentally  so  that,  say  at  40,  she  would  be  unable  to  success- 
fully undertake  a  course  of  college  work,  and  that  she  is 
always,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  less  mentally  alert  than  other 
women  who  have  not  been  married  or  been  homemakers  for 
a  number  of  years.  It  is  often  pointed  out  that  as  a  class, 
homemakers  are  less  interested  in  public  affairs,  less  keenly 
alive  than  women  who  have  made  careers  for  themselves  in 
other  work  or  professions.  Is  this  true,  or  need  it  be  true? 

It  must  be  admitted,  however  regretfully,  that  far  too 
many  married  women  permit  themselves  to  slip  back  into  a 
slough  of 'mental  inertia;  they  "lose  interest";  they  don't 
keep  up  with  current  events;  and  particularly  they  allow 
their  minds  to  grow  rusty  and  refuse  to  consider  problems 
of  beyond-the-home  or  of  abstract  interest.  Here  is,  per- 
haps, the.  one  crucial  difference  between  men's  work  and 



homemaking  as  commonly  practiced:  men  have  had  and  do 
now  follow  tasks  just  as  fatiguing,  j